Minorities in Higher Education Supplement. Young M. Kim

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1 Minorities in Higher Education 2010 Twenty-FOURTH Status Report 2011 Supplement Young M. Kim

2 Minorities in Higher Education 2010 Twenty-FOURTH Status Report 2011 Supplement Young M. Kim

3 PROJECT COORDINATOR: Linda Marey, Senior Program Manager, Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity, American Council on Education EDITORS: Bryan Cook, Director, Center for Policy Analysis, American Council on Education Gailda Davis, Associate Director, Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity, American Council on Education AUTHOR: Young M. Kim, Research Analyst, Center for Policy Analysis, American Council on Education Octoer 2011 American Council on Education ACE and the American Council on Education are registered marks of the American Council on Education and cannot e used or reproduced without the express written consent of the American Council on Education. American Council on Education One Dupont Circle NW Washington, DC GED is a federally registered trademark of the American Council on Education and cannot e used or reproduced without the express written consent of the American Council on Education. All rights reserved. No part of this ook may e reproduced or transmitted in any form or y any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or y any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the pulisher.

4 Tale of Contents Foreword i SUMMARY OF 2011 UPDATE LIST OF TABLES 1. Educational Attainment Rates for Adult Population, y Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age: 1989 to High School Completion and College Enrollment Rates for Traditional College-aged Population (Aged 18 to 24), y Gender and Race/Ethnicity: 1989 to Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Type of Institution and Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Gender and Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Control of Institution and Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) Undergraduate and Graduate Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) Associate Degrees, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) Bachelor s Degrees, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) Master s Degree, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) Doctoral Degree, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years)

5 Foreword The American Council on Education (ACE) is pleased to release this short update to Minorities in Higher Education This is the second edition in the special supplement series since ACE made the decision to pulish a full status report iennially, with a supplement in the intervening years to update the most frequently accessed information. The decision to pulish the full report iennially was made for strategic and practical reasons, and does not reflect any change in ACE s historical commitment to fostering greater access, equity, and diversity in American higher education. The data presented in the Minorities in Higher Education report series vary little in any single-year span, so the annual changes reported are often small. By producing the full status report every other year, staff can pursue a more diverse range of research and programmatic activities that address the important diversity and equity agenda. In this gloal economy, especially during the recent economic challenges, providing greater access to postsecondary education to individuals from all racial and ethnic ackgrounds remains one of the most important challenges facing our nation. Demographic changes have dramatically increased the proportions of people of color in the United States, and our academic institutions must continue to strive to reflect the complex mosaic that is the American population. Although greater access to higher education for students of color is an asolute imperative, it is only part of the equation. Ensuring their academic success and readiness to thrive in an interconnected world remains the ultimate goal. This special supplement tells us how far we have come in our quest for educational excellence for all students, ut also cautions us that equity in education for all Americans remains a goal that we must endeavor to reach. Gailda P. Davis Associate Director, Center for Advancement of Racial and Ethnic Equity Bryan J. Cook Director, Center for Policy Analysis MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION i

6 Summary of 2011 Update This update aims to help campus leaders, policy makers, and the general pulic y providing reliale and timely information that can uild support for improvements in higher education. Especially at a time when demand for a college-educated workforce is increasing, the tracking of educational progress among races/ethnicities and y gender is important ecause sustantial gaps persist among these groups. In addition, the fastgrowing racial/ethnic groups are the ones that historically have attained lower levels of education. Closing these gaps in educational attainment is essential for raising the education level of the overall U.S. population. POSTSECONDARY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT As of 2009, 29.9 percent of young Americans aged 25 to 29 had otained at least a achelor s degree, and an additional 7.9 percent had earned an associate degree. The current achelor s degree attainment rate has shown only modest improvement in 20 years it is up y 6.6 percentage points since These average rates conceal large disparities among sugroups. Asian Americans aged 25 to 29 are at the top, with 58 percent holding a achelor s degree, followed y whites (36 percent), African Americans (18 percent), Hispanics (12 percent), and finally, American Indians (10 percent). These large gaps are unlikely to change without reducing disparities at each transition point in the educational pipeline. One disturing trend that we identified in previous editions continues to surface: The younger generation in the United States no longer achieves a much higher level of education than its predecessors. As of 2009, 37.8 percent of U.S. adults aged 25 to 29 had otained at least an associate degree, only marginally higher than adults aged 30 and older (35.1 percent). Only two groups, Asian Americans and whites, made notale gains over their elders (65.6 percent versus 54.2 percent, and 44.9 percent versus 38.5 percent, respectively). No gains were oserved for African Americans and Hispanics (24.7 percent versus 25.0 percent, and 17.9 percent versus 17.9 percent, respectively). For American Indians, however, attainment rates for young adults were lower than their older counterparts (16.9 percent versus 21.6 percent). These trends vary y gender. Young women in their late 20s surpassed their elders in all racial/ethnic groups, except American Indians. However, young racial/ethnic minority men, except Asian Americans, have fallen ehind their predecessors in postsecondary attainment. Young white men achieved aout the same level of education as older age groups. MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 1

7 HIGH SCHOOL COMPLETION During the past two decades, the high school completion rate remained stagnant for young people at aout 82 percent, on average. 1 At the same time, gender gaps have widened, primarily ecause young women made greater strides than men, now outpacing men in every racial/ethnic category in the rate of otaining a high school credential. Hispanics made the largest improvement during this time period, yet they still had the lowest rate of high school completion among all groups, at 71 percent. 2 African Americans showed no appreciale gains in the past 20 years, while the rate for whites improved little during the last 10 years. 3 Asian Americans had the highest rate of high school completion (91 percent), followed y whites (88 percent), African Americans (78 percent), and American Indians (72 percent). COLLEGE ENROLLMENT 4 College enrollment rates. In contrast to high school completion, the past two decades witnessed a steady rise in college enrollment rates among young people in every racial/ethnic ackground. Enrollment rates stalled riefly in the mid-1990s ut egan rising again after 2000, and now 42 percent of the traditional college-aged population are enrolled in college. This represents a modest increase of 10 percentage points in 20 years. Despite universal progress, racial/ethnic disparities slightly worsened ecause of disproportionate rates of improvement. Among whites, African Americans, and Hispanics, for whom historical data are availale, whites had the highest rate as well as the largest gain, rising from 32 percent in 1990 to 46 percent in In contrast, African Americans made smaller gains, from 23 percent to 35 percent. Although Hispanics attained similar percentage point increases as whites, Hispanics still have the lowest college enrollment rates. When Asian Americans and American Indians are included, gaps ecome even larger. Young Asian Americans marked the highest rate of college enrollment (63 percent) in 2009, while American Indians registered the lowest rate (23 percent). As with high school completion, gender gaps widened in college enrollment rates. The proportion of young women enrolled in college increased from 32 percent to 46 percent etween 1990 and 2009, a percentage point increase almost three times as large as for young men (32 percent to 37 percent). Of all racial/ethnic groups, African Americans and Hispanics showed the largest gender gaps in college enrollment rates. Overall college enrollment. Population growth and improved enrollment rates have led to a 32 percent enrollment growth during the past 10 years. The recent economic recession may also have played a part in increasing enrollment, which now reaches 19.1 million. The numer of minority students grew 56 percent to 5.8 million, 1 High school completion rate is measured as the percentage of the traditional college-aged population (aged 18 to 24) holding a regular high school diploma or high school equivalency credential such as the GED test credential. 2 Despite progress made y Hispanics, the high school completion rate for all 18- to 24-year-olds remains unchanged since 1989 ecause of demographic shifts, with a growing share of the age group consisting of African Americans and Hispanics, whose performance on this measure lags ehind whites and Asian Americans. 3 Trend data for high school completion rates are not availale for Asian Americans and American Indians. 4 This report discusses college enrollment in two ways. Enrollment rates are measured as the percentage of the traditional college-aged population (aged 18 to 24) currently enrolled postsecondary education. Enrollment may rise ecause of population growth, ut with no change in enrollment rates. This measure is important in examining the sugroup gaps, particularly when each supopulation grows at a differing rate. In comparison, ased on aggregate statistics, overall college enrollment provides information aout the entire ody of students who could e of any age such as the minority share of student population. MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 2

8 and the numer of white students increased y 14 percent to 11.1 million during the past decade. Among minorities, Hispanics experienced the largest asolute and percent growth rate gains. Because of increases among students of color, white students made up a declining share of total enrollment, dropping from 67 percent in 1998 to 58 percent in, while the minority share rose from 26 percent to 30 percent. In, students of color represented 37 percent of the student ody at twoyear institutions, compared with 27 percent at four-year institutions. DEGREES CONFERRED Undergraduate degrees. Between 1998 and, the numer of associate and achelor s degrees awarded grew y 40 percent and 41 percent, respectively. These increases were attriutale to gains y every racial/ethnic group. Hispanics led all others in growth rate for oth types of undergraduate degrees; in particular, the numer of associate degrees awarded to Hispanics has nearly douled in 10 years. People of color received 24 percent of total achelor s degrees awarded in, up from 21 percent 10 years earlier. Graduate degrees. Between 1998 and, the total numer of master s and doctoral degrees conferred rose y 51 percent and 30 percent, respectively. 5 At each of these levels, the growth in degrees conferred is attriutale largely to minorities. Their gains are notale especially at the master s degree level, where the numer of degrees conferred to students of color nearly douled. In relation to gender, women primarily were responsile for the growth in numer of graduate degrees conferred. The total numer of master s degrees awarded to African- American and Hispanic women has more than douled during the past decade. Doctoral degrees conferred to women of all races/ethnicities grew y four times the rate of growth for men. Women now receive more doctoral degrees than men. METHODOLOGY AND DATA SOURCES The primary data sources for Minorities in Higher Education are the U.S. Census Bureau and the National Center for Education Statistics of the U.S. Department of Education. This 2011 update uses the most current data availale, from or 2009, depending on the data source. Historical data are provided for 10 years or longer. Since, this report series has included information aout Asian Americans and American Indians, making the race/ethnicity picture more complete. This inclusion was made possile thanks to a new Census Bureau survey: the American Community Survey (ACS), which provides larger sample sizes for these two groups. In this report, Asian Americans include Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, and American Indians include Alaska Natives. It should e noted that attainment and enrollment rates for 2006 through 2009 were drawn from ACS. Prior to 2006, the Current Population Survey (CPS) was the primary data source. In analyzing historical trends, three-year averages for CPS data were used to otain a large enough sample size to make reliale estimates to account for aerrations in any single year of data. 6 Single years of CPS 5 Beginning in 2007, what was formerly known as first-professional degrees (MD, JD, etc.) are now classified into the new doctoral degree categories. 6 For three-year averages, the middle year is the one identified. For example, data for 1990 are averages of data for 1989, 1990, and MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 3

9 data are presented in the tales accompanying this summary. The single years of ACS data are considered adequate. Unlike other pulications (including the U.S. Department of Education s Digest of Education Statistics), this report does not impute data to account for persons whose race/ethnicity is unknown. The tales in the report include a separate category for these individuals. Because a rapidly growing numer of people do not identify their race/ethnicity, it may e misleading to examine the changing demographics of American higher education without taking this population into consideration. Two recent changes in data reporting for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the U.S. Department of Education, affect this report: new racial/ethnic categories and elimination of the first-professional degree category. Beginning with the academic year , the racial/ethnic categories included the new Two or More Races, which has een expected to cause interruptions in racial/ethnic trend studies. But the volume of institutions reporting the new racial/ethnic category continues to e minimal and thus does not disrupt the trend analysis. Therefore, the race/ethnicity categories used in this report were kept essentially the same as efore, and the new category is not displayed separately, though the individuals reported under the new category are accounted for in the totals. For academic years and 09, institutions were given the option to continue to classify first-professional degrees separately from doctoral degrees, or to report them under one of the three types of doctoral degrees: research/scholarship, professional practice, or other doctoral degrees. In order to show uninterrupted trend analysis, without showing trend data for the old with the new degree classification, the first-professional degree category was comined with other doctoral degrees for all years of data shown for the 10-year trends in this report. Beginning with academic year , all institutions will e required to conform to the new degree guidelines. Lastly, the institutions of higher education represented in this report are Title IV-eligile, degree-granting institutions in the 50 states and the District of Columia. Our universe of institutions is similar to that of NCES, with one exception: The Community College of the Air Force is not open to the pulic, and therefore is excluded from the calculation of national higher education data for this report. MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 4

10 Tale 1 Educational Attainment Rates for Adult Population, y Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age: 1989 to 2009 ALL RACES WHITE AFRICAN AMERICAN HISPANIC of Younger Adults Holding a High School Credential a or Higher (25- to 29-year-olds) of All Adults Holding a High School Credential a or Higher (25-year-olds and Older) Continued on next page a This includes high school equivalency credentials such as the GED test credential. Since 2006, data were derived from a different survey and may not e fully compatile with the data for prior years. Note: From 1993 onward, the categories White and African American do not include individuals of Hispanic origin. Hispanics can e of any race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey ; American Community Survey MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 5

11 Tale 1 - Continued Educational Attainment Rates for Adult Population, y Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age: 1989 to 2009 Year and Age ALL RACES WHITE AFRICAN AMERICAN HISPANIC of Younger Adults Holding a Bachelor s Degree or Higher (25- to 29-year-olds) of All Adults Holding a Bachelor s Degree or Higher (25-year-olds and Older) Since 2006, data were derived from a different survey and may not e fully compatile with the data for prior years. MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 6

12 Tale2 High School Completion and College Enrollment Rates for Traditional College-aged Population (Aged 18 to 24), y Gender and Race/Ethnicity: 1989 to 2009 Year ALL RACES WHITE AFRICAN AMERICAN HISPANIC of 18- to 24-year-olds Holding a High School Credential a or Higher of 18- to 24-year-olds Currently Enrolled in College a This includes high school equivalency credentials such as the GED test credential. Since 2006, data were derived from a different survey and may not e fully compatile with the data for prior years. Note: From 1993 onward, the categories White and African American do not include individuals of Hispanic origin. Hispanics can e of any race. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey ; American Community Survey MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 7

13 Tale 3 Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Type of Institution and Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to ALL INSTITUTIONS 14,503,124 15,312,289 16,900,471 17,487,475 18,248,128 19,102, White 9,739,338 9,884,335 10,538,922 10,687,578 10,825,122 11,098, Total Minority 3,704,052 4,071,796 4,705,236 5,022,187 5,393,254 5,795, African American 1,527,174 1,652,641 1,952,722 2,073,583 2,198,777 2,370, Hispanic 1,196,235 1,370,604 1,602,484 1,744,756 1,912,224 2,086, Asian American a 842, , ,033 1,037,266 1,107,645 1,158, American Indian 137, , , , , , Foreign Student 442, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 616, ,748 1,065,125 1,193,239 1,405,711 1,533, FOUR-YEAR INSTITUTIONS 8,990,956 9,363,858 10,407,553 10,999,420 11,630,198 12,131, White 6,228,052 6,269,195 6,686,695 6,918,495 7,103,470 7,269, Total Minority 1,983,275 2,119,986 2,507,459 2,767,569 3,011,170 3,226, African American 890, ,982 1,109,905 1,215,449 1,307,425 1,412, Hispanic 521, , , , , , Asian American a 502, , , , , , American Indian 69,070 72,405 84,754 89,814 97,647 99, Foreign Student 387, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 391, , , , ,243 1,072, TWO-YEAR INSTITUTIONS 5,512,168 5,948,431 6,492,918 6,488,055 6,617,930 6,971, White 3,511,286 3,615,140 3,852,227 3,769,083 3,721,652 3,828, Total Minority 1,720,777 1,951,810 2,197,777 2,254,618 2,382,084 2,568, African American 636, , , , , , Hispanic 674, , , , ,801 1,093, Asian American a 340, , , , , , American Indian 68,617 71,078 78,243 76,768 76,961 80, Foreign Student 55,068 88,806 96,112 91,690 95, , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 225, , , , , , to a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Beginning in, changes to the racial/ethnic classifications for enrollment took effect, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. The new category impacts the aggregates for each of other racial/ethnic categories. As a result, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1998 to (selected years). MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 8

14 Tale 4 Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Gender and Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to MEN 6,357,589 6,721,769 7,255,551 7,455,925 7,815,914 8,188, White 4,291,976 4,366,000 4,591,166 4,644,231 4,732,667 4,864, Total Minority 1,533,312 1,676,134 1,864,580 1,978,346 2,145,316 2,310, African American 561, , , , , , Hispanic 510, , , , , , Asian American a 404, , , , , , American Indian 56,197 58,071 63,037 64,372 68,676 71, Foreign Student 254, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 278, , , , , , WOMEN 8,145,535 8,590,520 9,644,920 10,031,550 10,432,214 10,913, White 5,447,362 5,518,335 5,947,756 6,043,347 6,092,455 6,233, Total Minority 2,170,740 2,395,662 2,840,656 3,043,841 3,247,938 3,485, African American 965,699 1,048,652 1,266,107 1,351,142 1,424,726 1,533, Hispanic 685, , ,167 1,028,799 1,120,387 1,219, Asian American a 438, , , , , , American Indian 81,490 85,412 99, , , , Foreign Student 188, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 338, , , , , , to a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Beginning in, changes to the racial/ethnic classifications for enrollment took effect, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. The new category impacts the aggregates for each of other racial/ethnic categories. As a result, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1998 to (selected years). MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 9

15 Tale 5 Total Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Control of Institution and Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to PUBLIC 11,146,632 11,752,786 12,857,059 13,021,834 13,490,780 13,972, White 7,469,863 7,604,494 8,089,314 8,062,519 8,124,984 8,267, Total Minority 2,987,284 3,275,725 3,733,971 3,909,579 4,180,410 4,429, African American 1,186,463 1,274,355 1,475,123 1,517,479 1,585,544 1,665, Hispanic 1,012,001 1,160,925 1,337,281 1,438,161 1,580,846 1,714, Asian American a 670, , , , , , American Indian 118, , , , , , Foreign Student 274, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 414, , , , , , PRIVATE NOT-FOR-PROFIT 2,992,219 3,109,419 3,340,718 3,454,692 3,571,150 3,661, White 2,058,458 2,051,623 2,136,818 2,188,672 2,216,717 2,236, Total Minority 592, , , , , , African American 281, , , , , , Hispanic 141, , , , , , Asian American a 153, , , , , , American Indian 16,021 18,061 20,036 21,476 21,998 22, Foreign Student 158, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 182, , , , , , PRIVATE FOR-PROFIT 364, , ,694 1,010,949 1,186,198 1,469, White 211, , , , , , Total Minority 124, , , , , , African American 59,485 74, , , , , Hispanic 43,054 53,528 82, , , , Asian American a 18,533 24,985 28,510 35,310 38,459 47, American Indian 3,298 4,012 5,422 8,731 9,923 12, Foreign Student 9,558 10,066 25,678 39,507 28,879 26, Race/Ethnicity Unknown 19,328 54, , , , , to a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Beginning in, changes to the racial/ethnic classifications for enrollment took effect, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. The new category impacts the aggregates for each of other racial/ethnic categories. As a result, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1998 to (selected years). MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 10

16 Tale 6 Undergraduate and Graduate Fall Enrollment in Higher Education, y Race/Ethnicity: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to UNDERGRADUATE TOTAL 12,442,492 13,155,393 14,473,884 14,963,964 15,603,771 16,365, White 8,367,445 8,534,962 9,086,030 9,203,387 9,318,318 9,560, Total Minority 3,338,014 3,672,027 4,224,766 4,501,445 4,830,035 5,195, African American 1,375,113 1,484,276 1,743,859 1,841,458 1,943,510 2,095, Hispanic 1,105,911 1,270,254 1,480,534 1,613,871 1,772,731 1,938, Asian American a 730, , , , , , American Indian 126, , , , , , Foreign Student 241, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 495, , , ,715 1,120,430 1,235, GRADUATE TOTAL 2,060,632 2,156,896 2,426,587 2,523,511 2,644,357 2,737, White 1,371,893 1,349,373 1,452,892 1,484,191 1,506,804 1,537, Total Minority 366, , , , , , African American 152, , , , , , Hispanic 90, , , , , , Asian American a 112, , , , , , American Indian 11,175 11,736 13,592 14,459 15,862 15, Foreign Student 201, , , , , , Race/Ethnicity Unknown 120, , , , , , to a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Graduate total accounts for enrollment in first-professional programs. Beginning in, what was formerly known as first-professional programs (MD, JD, etc.) are now classified into enrollment in graduate programs. For data comparaility, we aggregated the data prior to. s also occurred to the racial/ethnic classifications for enrollment, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. Therefore, the total includes a very small numer of persons identified as multi-races (not shown here). As a result of these reporting changes, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall Enrollment Survey, 1998 to (selected years). MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 11

17 Tale 7 Associate Degrees, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to Total Total Total Total Total Total TOTAL 564, , , , , , Men 220, , , , , , Women 344, , , , , , WHITE 401, , , , , , Men 157, , , , , , Women 243, , , , , , TOTAL MINORITY 136, , , , , , Men 51, , , , , , Women 85, , , , , , African American 56, , , , , , Men 19, , , , , , Women 37, , , , , , Hispanic 47, , , , , , Men 18, , , , , , Women 28, , , , , , Asian American a 26, , , , , , Men 11, , , , , , Women 15, , , , , , American Indian 6, , , , , , Men 2, , , , , , Women 3, , , , , , FOREIGN STUDENT 10, , , , , , Men 4, , , , , , Women 5, , , , , , RACE/ETHNICITY 15, , , , , , UNKNOWN Men 6, , , , , , Women 9, , , , , , a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Each data year represents the eginning of the academic year. For example, degrees awarded in 1998 indicate those awarded during the academic year Beginning in 2007, changes to the racial/ethnic classifications for degree recipients took effect, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. The new category impacts the aggregates for each of other racial/ethnic categories. As a result, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween 2007 and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1999 to 2009 (selected years) to MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 12

18 Tale 8 Bachelor s Degrees, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to Total Total Total Total Total Total TOTAL 1,196, ,242, ,469, ,562, ,637, ,683, Men 515, , , , , , Women 680, , , , , , WHITE 877, , ,017, ,066, ,105, ,127, Men 382, , , , , , Women 495, , , , , , TOTAL MINORITY 245, , , , , , Men 96, , , , , , Women 148, , , , , , African American 98, , , , , , Men 33, , , , , , Women 64, , , , , , Hispanic 67, , , , , , Men 27, , , , , , Women 39, , , , , , Asian American a 71, , , , , , Men 32, , , , , , Women 38, , , , , , American Indian 8, , , , , , Men 3, , , , , , Women 5, , , , , , FOREIGN STUDENT 37, , , , , , Men 20, , , , , , Women 17, , , , , , RACE/ETHNICITY 35, , , , , , UNKNOWN Men 16, , , , , , Women 19, , , , , , a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Each data year represents the eginning of the academic year. For example, degrees awarded in 1998 indicate those awarded during the academic year Beginning in 2007, changes to the racial/ethnic classifications for degree recipients took effect, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. The new category impacts the aggregates for each of other racial/ethnic categories. As a result, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween 2007 and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1999 to 2009 (selected years) to MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 13

19 Tale 9 Master s Degrees, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to Total Total Total Total Total Total TOTAL 438, , , , , , Men 184, , , , , , Women 253, , , , , , WHITE 295, , , , , , Men 117, , , , , , Women 177, , , , , , TOTAL MINORITY 69, , , , , , Men 26, , , , , , Women 43, , , , , , African American 30, , , , , , Men 9, , , , , , Women 21, , , , , , Hispanic 16, , , , , , Men 6, , , , , , Women 10, , , , , , Asian American a 20, , , , , , Men 9, , , , , , Women 10, , , , , , American Indian 1, , , , , , Men , , , , Women 1, , , , , , FOREIGN STUDENT 51, , , , , , Men 30, , , , , , Women 20, , , , , , RACE/ETHNICITY 22, , , , , , UNKNOWN Men 9, , , , , , Women 12, , , , , , a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Each data year represents the eginning of the academic year. For example, degrees awarded in 1998 indicate those awarded during the academic year Beginning in 2007, changes to the racial/ethnic classifications for degree recipients took effect, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. The new category impacts the aggregates for each of other racial/ethnic categories. As a result, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween 2007 and prior years. Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1999 to 2009 (selected years) to MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 14

20 Tale 10 Doctoral Degrees, y Race/Ethnicity and Gender: 1998 to (Selected Years) to 2003 to Total Total Total Total Total Total TOTAL 120, , , , , , Men 68, , , , , , Women 52, , , , , , WHITE 82, , , , , , Men 46, , , , , , Women 35, , , , , , TOTAL MINORITY 22, , , , , , Men 11, , , , , , Women 11, , , , , , African American 7, , , , , , Men 2, , , , , , Women 4, , , , , , Hispanic 4, , , , , , Men 2, , , , , , Women 2, , , , , , Asian American a 9, , , , , , Men 5, , , , , , Women 4, , , , , , American Indian Men Women FOREIGN STUDENT 12, , , , , , Men 8, , , , , , Women 3, , , , , , RACE/ETHNICITY 3, , , , , , UNKNOWN Men 2, , , , , , Women 1, , , , , , a Asian American includes Pacific Islanders. American Indian includes Alaska Natives. Note: Figures account for all advanced degrees eyond master s degrees, including those previously classified as first-professional degrees. Beginning in 2007, what was formerly known as first-professional degrees (MD, JD, etc.) are now classified into the new doctoral degree categories. For data comparaility, we aggregated the data prior to 2007 etween doctoral and firstprofessional degrees. s also occurred to the racial/ethnic classifications for degree recipients, under which a new category of Two or More Races was added. Therefore, the 2007 total includes a very small numer of persons identified as multi-races (not shown here). As a result of these reporting changes, caution should e excercised when comparing data etween 2007 and prior years. Each data year represents the eginning of the academic year. For example, degrees awarded in 1998 indicate those awarded during the academic year Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Completions Survey, 1999 to 2009 (selected years) to MINORITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION: 2011 SUPPLEMENT AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 15

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