1 A Close Look at Close Reading Scaffolding Students with Complex Texts Beth Burke, NBCT
2 Table of Contents What Is Close Reading?... 2 Selecting a Text... 3 What Makes Text Complex?... 4 Steps in Close Reading... 5 Scaffolding Students in Close Reading... 6 Close Reading Template... 7 Close Reading Sample Lesson... 8 Spelunking (article)... 9 Text Dependent Questions
3 What Is Close Reading? Close reading is thoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text s form, craft, meanings, etc. It is a key requirement of the Common Core State Standards and directs the reader s attention to the text itself. Close reading includes: Using short passages and excerpts Diving right into the text with limited pre-reading activities Focusing on the text itself Rereading deliberately Reading with a pencil Noticing things that are confusing Discussing the text with others o Think-Pair Share or Turn and Talk frequently o Small groups and whole class Responding to text-dependent questions 2
4 Selecting a Text Not every text is appropriate for students to read closely. For example, while students enjoy reading Diary of a Wimpy Kid books, these novels offer simple story lines and vocabulary that are easily understandable. When you are done reading them, they don t leave you pondering deep ideas. Close reading should leave you considering thought-provoking messages that go beyond the text. Close read-worthy texts include enough complex ideas worthy of exploring and discussing to sustain one or more days of instruction. According to Tim Shanahan, close reading is a multiday commitment to a text; you want students to read a text that offers rich enough vocabulary, ideas, and information to read, examine, and discuss over those days without feeling like you re beating a dead horse. When selecting a text, you need to consider the three components of text complexity: Qualitative measures, Quantitative measures, and the Reader and the Task. Each of these is equally important when considering the complexity of a text. Questions to consider: Qualitative motivation, prior knowledge, Does this text offer ideas or information experiences, etc. that further students understanding of the topic? Does the text include a text structure that Does the text follow familiar language conventions sentence structures, word choices, etc.? What background knowledge do my students need to have to be successful with this text? Quantitative Is this text on an appropriate readability level for the students in my group? How can I scaffold my students to ensure their success with this text? *The primary leveling tool used by the Common Core is Lexile. For more information or to find the lexile of a text, visit Lexile.com. Reader and Task Considerations How much prior knowledge do my students have about this topic? How interested are they? What will be difficult for my students in reading this passage? Appendix B of the Common Core State Standards includes sample lists of exemplar texts that give you an idea of what complex texts look like in each of the grade level bands. 3
5 What Makes Text Complex? Close reading should occur with appropriately complex text. There are a number of factors that contribute to text complexity. Teachers should differentiate, or vary, how they approach a text with students depending on the text complexity and students needs. Vocabulary o Academic and domain-specific terms o Tier 2 vocabulary: high utility complex words that can be used in multiple contexts Syntax Coherence Are the events and concepts logically connected and clearly explained? Unity Do the ideas focus on the topic and not include irrelevant or distracting information? Audience appropriateness Does the text match the background knowledge of the target reader? Text structures Description Compare and Contrast Temporal Sequence Cause and Effect Problem and Solution Text features Headings/subheadings Signal words 4
6 Steps in Close Reading There is no specific sequence in a close read; these steps are meant to generally guide you in crafting a lesson that scaffolds students and focuses on increasingly complex text dependent questions. Begin with questions about the big ideas in the text and gradually ask higher level questions. 1. FIRST READ: KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS Set the purpose for reading and have students read text as independently as possible. Depending on the text complexity and the readers, the first read may be done independently, as a read aloud/think aloud, or paired or shared reading. The first read should be without building background; students should be integrating their background knowledge with the text as they read. Focus on the key ideas and details in the text, making sure that readers know the main idea, story elements, or key details that the author includes. Following the first read, have students Think-Pair-Share to assess what they have gleaned from the text. By listening to students as they share, you can determine the focus of the first read, etc. 2. SECOND READ: CRAFT AND STRUCTURE For a second, close read, select a portion or chunk of the text that is close read worthy. That is, have students reread a section that includes complex elements or ideas that they should explore to arrive at a deep understanding of the text. After rereading, students discuss the text with partners or in small groups, focusing on the author s craft and organizational patterns. This may include vocabulary choices, text structure or text features that they author included. Use a Text Dependent Question to focus or set a purpose for a close rereading. After students share with partners or in small groups, have groups share out with entire class to assess understanding. 3. THIRD READ: INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS The third close reading of a text should go even deeper, requiring students to synthesize and analyze information from several texts or media. They may record their ideas on sticky notes, graphic organizer, or a thinking sheet. Have students journal a response to a Text Dependent Question. Focus the discussion on text evidence. 5
7 Scaffolding Students in Close Reading While the goal for students is to read complex texts independently, not all students will be able to achieve that immediately. Scaffolding instruction is a model in which the teacher supports students and gradually releases responsibility to the student. Pearson and Gallagher (1983) coined this term based on the 1970 s work of Vygotsky. A key model in scaffolding instruction is the Gradual Release of Responsibility. In this model, the teacher begins by modeling, offering students the highest level of support. As instruction continues and the teacher monitors students learning progress, he/she gradually releases responsibility to the students, guiding students progress and eventually observing as they practice the skill independently (Pearson and Gallagher, 1983). Close reading may be scaffolded through these teaching methods: Shared reading Interactive read aloud Comprehension Toolkit lessons QAR Literature circles Questioning the author Reciprocal teaching Connecting to themes/essential questions Post-its Think sheets Jigsaws For students who are struggling, you may support them though a Think-Aloud, reading the text to the students and modeling your thinking as you answer a Text Dependent Question. As students become more proficient in reading, discussing, and analyzing text, you may gradually release the responsibility for reading & thinking to them. The idea is to offer just the right amount of support so that students can be successful. 6
8 Close Reading Template Teacher: Grade: Date: Text (worthy of a close read): Focus chunk/portion for close read (photocopy or mark section) Steps 1. FIRST READ (Key Ideas & Details) Students read text (*Do not activate prior knowledge or use pre-reading activities) Complex ideas that require close reading Vocabulary Syntax Text Structure Text Features Coherence Audience Appropriateness Think-Pair-Share to check understanding (Use to focus close reading.) Text-Dependent Question(s) Select 2-3 high cognitive level questions that will require students to use the author s words. Prompt to use text evidence. (These can correspond to the three steps in the lesson.) 2. SECOND READ (Craft & Structure) Reread selected chunk focusing on text dependent question Independent Reading Read Aloud, Think Aloud, Shared, Paired, 1. CCSS Students use pencils, post-it or highlighters to mark text portions of text that will aid in citing text based evidence Discuss in small and whole group 2. CCSS 3. THIRD READ (Integration of Knowledge and Ideas) Reread selected chunk focusing on text dependent question Modes: independent, shared, paired reading; read aloud/ think aloud 3. CCSS Students use pencils, post-it or highlighters to mark text portions of text that will aid in citing text based evidence Discuss in small and whole group Journaling with text dependent question 7
9 Close Reading Sample Lesson Teacher: BB Grade: 3 Date: Text (worthy of a close read): Spelunking Focus chunk/portion for close read (photocopy or mark section) Steps 1. FIRST READ (Key Ideas & Details) Students read text (*Do not activate prior knowledge or use pre-reading activities) Complex ideas that require close reading Vocabulary Syntax Text Structure Text Features Coherence Audience Appropriateness Set purpose: Read to find out what spelunking is. Think-Pair-Share to check understanding (Use to focus close reading.) Tell your partner what someone does when they spelunk. Text-Dependent Question(s) Select 2-3 high cognitive level questions that will require students to use the author s words. Prompt to use text evidence. (These can correspond to the three steps in the lesson.) 2. SECOND READ (Craft & Structure) Reread selected chunk focusing on text dependent question Independent Reading Read Aloud, Think Aloud, Shared, Paired, Model finding text evidence to answer question # CCSS RI.1 Tell what people do and see when they go spelunking. Students use pencils, post-it or highlighters to mark text portions of text that will aid in citing text based evidence Discuss in small and whole group Students work with partners to find text evidence to answer question # 2; share responses and discuss. 2. CCSS RI.1 How did the author organize this text? How do you know? 3. THIRD READ (Integration of Knowledge and Ideas) Reread selected chunk focusing on text dependent question Modes: independent, shared, paired reading; read aloud/ think aloud Discuss, model and guide students to answer question # CCSS RI.1 Find evidence in the text that the author thinks spelunking is exciting. Students use pencils, post-it or highlighters to mark text portions of text that will aid in citing text based evidence Discuss in small and whole group Journaling with text dependent question Model crafting a journal entry citing text evidence to answer question # 2. 8
10 Spelunking by B. Wilkins Spelunking is the exciting sport of cave exploration that can be enjoyed by all ages. When you explore caves, you can appreciate the wonders of our world beneath the earth. Many caves can maintain a steady non-fluctuating temperature that is comfortable year-round because caves are underground and not subject to air temperatures and the sun. So, spelunkers can experience adventures at any time of the year. Cave Formation Caves are formed over thousands of years through a very slow process. As it rains, rain droplets absorb small amounts of carbon dioxide. The droplets gather more carbon dioxide as they move through soil. Water mixed with carbon dioxide becomes an acid solution, which makes holes and channels in rocks. Over thousands of years, caves are formed. Natural Beauty As caves are formed, they develop breathtaking columns which reach from the ceiling to the floor or from the floor to the ceiling. The icicle-shaped rocks that hang down from the ceiling are called stalactites (stal ACK tites). The icicle-shaped rocks that push up from the café floor are called stalagmites (stal AG mites). Generally, the dark colored stalactites and stalagmites are considered to be dead and the light colored ones are living. Dead simply means that they are no longer receiving a REMEMBER Stalagmites push up with all their mite from the floor, while stalactites hold onto the ceiling really tite. growth source. Scientists believe that it takes nearly a thousand years for a stalactite to grow. Formations made from a dripstone deposit in the cavern are said to grow one inch every 100 years. You can also find calcite crystals in caves. The Cave Habitat If you like creepy crawlies, you will love exploring in caves. You can expect to see bats as well as cave crickets, spiders, and algae. Most bats are only about four inches or smaller from head to tail. Bats can sleep for five days and leave the cave for one day to find food. The bats are harmless and will not attack people as the movies suggest. Spelunking Dangers Spelunkers should always travel with someone who is familiar with the cave in which they are traveling. In the winding maze of cave tunnels, it is easy to lose the way. Also, deadly gases which are colorless and odorless may be present and are undetectable to spelunkers. Special equipment can be purchased that will detect harmful gases. If you are a risk-taker who craves adventure, spelunking is for you! Spelunking Rules Never go alone. Go with someone who is familiar with the cave. Tell someone where you are going, and when you expect to return. Take at least 3 sources of light per person (flashlights, carbide lamps, candles, etc.). Wear proper hiking shoes. Dress in clothing that can protect the skin from cuts, bites, and scrapes. Do not go into caves when it is raining, or when it might rain. Caves can flood in a short time. Carry plenty of water and snacks. Bring something to mark your path, such as rope, chalk, or string. Mark your path clearly and frequently. 9
11 Text Dependent Questions Text Dependent Questions are a critical element in the Common Core State Standards. They require students to dig deeply into the text to answer them. In fact, a text dependent question cannot be answered without using the text; background knowledge and prior experiences should not be included or considered. To craft effective text dependent questions, you must read and understand the text thoroughly. As you plan a lesson, begin with the end in mind: what do you want students to be able to know and do as a result of the lesson? This may be a written or oral response. are sample questions for each CCSS Standard, sorted by category (Key Ideas and Details, Craft and Structure, Integration of Knowledge and Ideas). Standard 10 focuses on the depth and breadth of the texts that students read and is addressed continuously in reading instruction. Revisiting the Text Effective Text Dependent Questions require students to go back to the text in order to answer them. Add a cue to direct students back to the text to the end of your Text Dependent Question. Questions like You just read about dog. Tell about a time you played with a dog. Close Reading Routine Ask text dependent questions as part of a close reading routine. After an initial reading, encourage students to go back to the text to find details in the text to support their answers. Reread the text several times over several days: First Read focus on most important elements of a text (Key Ideas and Details) Second Read focus on how the text works (Craft and Structure) Third Read focus on what the text means to the reader and how it connects to other experiences (Integration of Knowledge and Ideas) Quote Accurately Standard 1 requires students to be able quote accurately and appropriately. That is, they have to select the right information to support their answer. In addition, students should be able to use proper punctuation to quote an original text. Try one of these cues after a Text Dependent Question: Remember to use textual evidence to support your ideas. Remember to use words and phrases from the text to prove your answer. Be sure to include specific evidence from the text to support your ideas. Be sure to include specific words and phrases from the text to support your opinion. Use specific words or details from the text or illustrations to support your ideas. Inferences should be supported by text. What in the text helped you to know? What words and phrases did the author use that led you to your answer? Question Stems The question stems on the following pages are samples of the types of questions that require students to revisit and use information in a text. There 10
12 Text Dependent Questions 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. What are the key ideas in this text/story? What can you infer from the title, headings, and anecdotes in this book? Who was the most important character in the story? What makes Who, what, where, when, how questions What key details help support the main idea of? What key details and/or examples support the main idea of? What have you learned from this [text]? Key Ideas and Details 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. Retell the story. What is the story or article beginning to be about? What is the theme of the story? What message was the author trying to share? What could the main character have learned that I could also learn? What was a moral or lesson in the story? Summarize the text. Retell the (fables, folk tales from diverse cultures). What is the main idea of this text? What are the 2 or more main ideas in this text? What key supporting details did the author cite? 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Identify characters, setting, major events, Explain key details that support the author s message. Compare and contrast (characters, setting, events, etc.). Explain how and interact in this story. Describe how (name of character) respond to (major event and/or challenge). Explain how (name of character) changed in the story. Why does think about? How does feel about? How does show persistence (or other character trait) in? How does this help the reader learn more about s character? What can we infer about the characters and? What do readers learn about the family s relationship from this section? What does s conversation with reveal? What event did the author include to show the reader? Describe connections between. Explain relationships or interactions between 2 or more (individuals, events, ideas, concepts) in this text based on specific information in it. Explain the procedures described in this article. 11
13 Text Dependent Questions 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. What does (word or phrase from the story, figurative language, sensory word,) mean? What does Herculean (or other Mythology vocabulary) mean in this story? Describe how words and phrases (regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem or song What kind of text is this? (poem, drama, prose, etc.) How do you know? Explain the meaning of (general academic vocabulary word). Explain what (domain/content specific word) means. Which words really call our attention here? What do we notice as we reread them? How does the author s choice of words, the tone of the language, illuminate the author s point of view on the topic? Craft and Structure 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. What was the (problem, solution)? How do (series of chapters, scenes, stanzas) fit together to provide overall structure in this text? What text structure did the author use in this text? What kind of text is this? (story, article, etc.) Look back at the text and see if you can divide it into parts. What parts does the author include? Describe the story structure, including beginning, middle, and ending Describe the (action, setting) in the story. Explain the (structure elements: verse, rhythm, meter of this poem). Explain the (structure elements: cast of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) of this drama/play. What might have happened if hadn t happened first? How did the author organize the ideas in the (article, book, etc.)? Explain how you know that the author used a text structure. What text structure did the author use? 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. From what point of view is this story told? Who is narrating the story? How do we know? Through whose eyes did you see this story? Read (two or more accounts of the same event/topic). Analyze the information the authors present. What similarities and/or differences are there in (titles of two texts on similar topics)? How does the author feel about (topic)? How did the graphics help you understand the section about? Distinguish between information provided by pictures and words in the text. How does your own point of view compare to the author of? 12
14 Text Dependent Questions 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.* Describe (character, setting, event). Use specific examples from the illustrations and/or words. Use illustrations and words in print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of characters/setting/ plot. How did the author use illustrations to engage the reader in the events of the story? How do the (visual/multimedia elements) help the reader understand the author s message? Use illustrations and details in a text to describe key ideas. What text features (headings, table of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) did the author include to help the reader? How did search tools (key words, side bars, hyperlinks) help the reader? How do the [pictures, etc.] help convey the mood of the story? Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. Not applicable in Literature Information Texts only Identify the reasons an author gives to support his key point(s). Explain how author uses reasons and evidence to support the main idea of. Identify which reasons/evidence support which point(s). What is the author s point of view on the topic? What in the text makes you say that? Describe logical connections between specific sentences and paragraphs. Explain cause and effect relationships in the story/text. What was the tone of the story/text? 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Compare (characters, titles from the same genre, theme, topic, versions of the same story, etc.). Identify similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic. Read several texts on the same topic. Write a speech using information from each of source. Compare the text to: a movie, webpage, video game, piece of art or music, or other media. How does this selection connect to the theme of? How does this selection connect to (other text we have read, content area, etc.) How is in paragraphs 1 and 2 like that same idea in paragraphs 3 through 6? How is shown in paragraphs 7-11? What mood does the author create? 13
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The Common Core State Standards Develop THINKING This toolkit includes resources developed through the ASPIRE initiative of the Chicago Public Schools. Center for Urban Education http://teacher.depaul.edu
Core Analysis Frame: Poetry D36 The questions on this analysis frame will help you achieve a basic understanding of any poem you read. For more advanced, in-depth analysis of each element, use the following
Language Arts Literacy : Grade 5 Mission: Learning to read, write, speak, listen, and view critically, strategically and creatively enables students to discover personal and shared meaning throughout their
Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource
/Writing Students will listen, speak, read, write, view and represent to explore thoughts, ideas, feelings and experiences. 1.1 Discover and Explore Express ideas and develop understanding share personal
Units of Study 9th Grade First Semester Theme: The Journey Second Semester Theme: Choices The Big Ideas in English Language Arts that drive instruction: Independent thinkers construct meaning through language.
For STANDARD 3.1 (READING) ALL STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND AND APPLY THE KNOWLEDGE OF SOUNDS, LETTERS, AND WORDS IN WRITTEN ENGLISH TO BECOME INDEPENDENT AND FLUENT READERS AND WILL READ A VARIETY OF MATERIALS