1 Materi Kuliah TEFL Methodology (PEN 401) 4 SKS Ari Purnawan
2 Learning difficulty 1.Learning difficulties are problems that affect the brain's ability to receive, process, analyze, or store information. These problems can make it difficult for a student to learn as quickly as someone who isn't affected by learning disabilities.
3 2. Learning difficulty doesn't have anything to do with a person's intelligence - after all, such successful people as Walt Disney, Alexander Graham Bell, and Winston Churchill all had learning disabilities. 3. Sign: there's a deep gap between how much someone studied for a test and how well he performed.
4 Factors affecting it Genetic influences (However, researchers are still debating whether learning it is, in fact, genetic, or if it shows up in families because kids learn and model what their parents do). Brain development (both before and after birth) Environmental impacts
5 Teacher s claim 1: My students are reluctant to do the homework/assignment. What are the possible causes? How to overcome the problem?
6 Some possible facts: 1. The task is too difficult. 2. Students do not see any advantage. 3. Teachers never return the worksheet. 4. The worksheet is returned with only a tick sign on it. 5. No following actions.
7 What teachers may try: 1. Always return the homework 2. Give appropriate feedback 3. Discuss their work in the class 4. Future-oriented homework, use the homework as the learning materials
8 Teacher s claim 2: My students always have problems with lessons involving reading comprehension. Why?
9 Difficult reading comprehension tasks: Does it involve complicated structure? Does it contain too many difficult words? Does it involve students schemata or previous experience and background knowledge?
10 Teacher s claim 3: I think my students do not like my subject. (Investigate why)
11 Ways worth trying: 1. Am I a book reader instead of a learning facilitator? (boredom, monotonous ways) 2. Create more interesting activities in addition to conventional lectures (Games? Role play? Group work? Pair work?) 3. How about the teaching resources? Aids? Media?
12 Should I correct my students mistakes? When? How? Mistakes versus Errors: Genuine errors are caused by lack of knowledge about L2 or by incorrect hypotheses about it. Unfortunate mistakes are caused temporary lapses of memory, confusion, slips of the tongue.
13 Competence versus Performance Competence: knowing what is correct Performance: what actually occurs in practice
14 Causes of errors Mother-tongue tongue interference Overgeneralization e.g. She drinked water. Errors encouraged by teaching material or method e.g. I m ing structure is quite likely to produce I am go to Malioboro.
15 Teachers attitude to errors Behaviorists: Error is a symptom of ineffective teaching and an evidence of failure. When errors occur, they are to be remedied by a bombardment of correct forms, i.e. intensive drilling. Mentalists: error is inevitable, it is an integral part of the learning process.
16 Eclectic approach: Structural drills can be useful in attempting to eradicate errors, but remember that the learner is doing his best to sort things out for himself. Teachers may allow errors to go uncorrected on many occasions. e.g. If a new structure is being practiced, the teacher may ignore minor pronunciation errors.
17 Notes: Teachers attitude is crucial. Nothing will undermine students confidence as much as a series of comments and interruptions on his performance Corrections during oral work can be damaging or discouraging Harsh written comments may discourage revisions.
18 Dealing with a Weak Class Four types of learners: the very able, the able, the less able, and the unable They are afraid of using the language: Production: not more than a string of L2 items tied together by the grammatical system of their L1. Recognition: pesters for translation
19 Three principles: 1. Limitation of aims and objectives Understanding rather than using the language a. Q and A in L1 b. Q in L2 and A in L1 b. c. Q that does not require production at all 2. Simplification of material 3. Tighter control over learner production
20 Dealing with a Heterogeneous Class Group-work: organize groups that are representative of different ability levels Make the fullest possible use of the very able students Create activities that enable the more able students to assist the weaker ones.
21 Case 1 Teacher: Hey, listen everybody! This topic is very difficult. If you don t concentrate, I am sure you won t get it. Students:?? (Please give your view)
22 Case 2 C mon, be realistic. You see, there are many university graduates who are jobless. Why study hard?
23 Strategies: Periodic analysis and evaluation Peer teaching Cram schooling with different teachers Focus on test taking skills and strategy
24 Teaching resources: All the sources of information about language and about teaching that we can refer to for help in lesson preparation
25 Three important foreign language teaching determinants: 1. Appropriately-trained trained teachers 2. Favorable public attitudes 3. High quality materials
26 Authentic materials i.e. the use in teaching of texts, photos, videos, and other teaching resources that were not specially prepared for pedagogical purposes. They contain authentic language and reflect real-world uses of language.
27 Authentic vs. Created materials Authentic materials pros and cons: 1. Advantages: motivation, cultural information, real language exposure, creative approach to teaching 2. Weaknesses: may contain difficult language and unneeded items, not systematic
29 Teaching with appropriate media Related to instructional English: reinforcing basic questioning variability explaining introductory procedures closure advanced questioning
30 Why media? to create enjoyable learning motivating to avoid boredom to make the TLP more systematic to help teachers present the materials to help students understand the context (creative learning, concrete thinking)
31 Realia and authentic materials Realia: the use of real objects in the instructional process For teaching new vocabulary, new structures, role play Authentic materials learning will be more meaningful and effective if it is related with real contexts.
32 Evaluating Materials Good materials will: 1. arouse students interest, 2. remind students of earlier learning, 3. help them get feedback, 4. encourage them to practice.
33 Commercial Textbooks Advantages: maintain quality, efficient and effective, visually appealing, built around the syllabus, dependable teaching sequences, offer teachers something to fall back on when they run out of ideas of their own Negative effects: may contain inauthentic language, distort content, deskill teachers (teachers as materials presenters)
34 Two Criteria in Selecting Text Books External (what we have):learner characteristics, physical environment, resources, class size Internal (what the materials offer): choice of topics, skill covered, proficiency level, grading exercises
35 Questions to consider 1. Price: How expensive? Who will pay? Can the students afford it? 2. Availability: Is it available? Are all its components in the shops now? What about the next level/term/semester? Has it been published? 3. Layout and design: : Attractive? Feel comfortable? Do the students like it? How user- friendly is the design?
36 4. Methodology: : what kind of teaching and learning does the book promote? Is there a good balance between study and activation? 5. Skills: : Cover 4 skills adequately? Is the language of the reading and listening texts appropriate? are the speaking and writing tasks likely to engage the students interests? 6.Syllabus and topic: : Is it appropriate? Does it contain a variety of topics? Culturally appropriate?
37 Reasons for Adapting Materials Not enough practice Containing too much difficult points Too easy, not challenging Inappropriate, not culturally acceptable Too formal Too much or too little variety in the activities And, because not everything in the textbook is wonderful, and teachers want to bring their own personality to the teaching tasks
38 How to adapt? Adding (insufficient exercises, too difficult) Deleting (inappropriate, irrelevant) Modifying (rewriting, restructuring) Simplifying (grammar, lexeme, length) Reordering (adjusting the sequence)
39 What to do with these media? 1. Leaflets, e.g. supermarket sale, bus times 2. Signs, e.g. Keep off the grass, No smoking, Do not enter, Wet paint, Sale 3. Procedures (written), e.g. how to prepare instant noodles, owners manuals 4. Announcements (spoken), e.g. in the airport, railway stations, telephone operator, cell reminder 5. Invitations (written): wedding, birthday party Family photos, pictures 6. City map, globe, bus route, restaurant menu 7. Bills, labels, recipes, messages
40 Online Resources ning.html EN/listen1.htm Listen and answer the question in the slide 1. Download audio script 2. Download listening worksheet. 3. Download answers.
41 References Feez, S Text-based syllabus design.. Sydney: Ames. Graves, K Designing language courses: A guide for teachers. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Harmer, J How to teach English.. Harlow: Longman Jones, H. and Wheeler, T A training course for TEFL. Oxford: OUP Lightbown, P.M. and Spada, N How languages are learned. 3 rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Richards, J. And Renandya, W Methodology in language teaching.. Cambridge: CUP
3 How Can Teachers Teach Listening? The research findings discussed in the previous chapter have several important implications for teachers. Although many aspects of the traditional listening classroom
PLANNING A LESSON From The Essentials of Language Teaching www.nclrc.org/essentials A project of the National Capital Language Resource Center 2003-2007 A key aspect of effective teaching is having a plan
TKT Online Self-study Guide TKT Online overview The Cambridge ESOL Teaching Knowledge Test (TKT) is a test of knowledge of concepts related to language, language use and the background to practical language
Using Visual Materials in Teaching Vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms with Young Learners Dorela Kaçauni Konomi Fan S. Noli University (Albania) email@example.com Abstract The
Hirosaki University Repository The Use of Pictures and Illustrat Title Teaching English Author(s) Uematsu, Hajime Citation 21 世 紀 教 育 フォーラム, 7, 2012, p.45-50 Issue Date 2012-03-31 URL http://hdl.handle.net/10129/4790
Module 6; Managing Large Classes Approaches to Language Teaching: Extension; Video Length: Approximately 11 Minutes; Notes to the Trainer; For best results, have participants go through the readings for
Instructional & Motivational Strategy Plan Anthony Saba Dr. Lisa Dawley Edtech 512: Online Course Design 10/18/2009 2 Table of Contents Instructional Strategy Plan... 3 Orientation to Learning... 3 Instructional
Лю Пэн COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING READING Effective Elementary Reading Program Effective approach must contain the following five components: 1. Phonemic awareness instruction to help children learn
International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL) Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2015, PP 23-27 ISSN 2347-3126 (Print) & ISSN 2347-3134 (Online) www.arcjournals.org Paragraph Writing
2012-2013 Handbook Trinity College London Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (CertTESOL) at INTO University of Exeter This handbook should be read in conjunction with INTO University
Reading in a Foreign Language April 2009, Volume 21, No. 1 ISSN 1539-0578 pp. 88 92 Reviewed work: Teaching Reading to English Language Learners: A Reflective Guide. (2009). Thomas S. C. Farrell. Thousand
and Don ts of Teaching Online Don t...wait until the last minute to set up your shell. Why? Dates incorrect Material out-of-date Material out-of-order No time for creativity No time to upload videos POLL:
Teaching English: A Brain-based Approach Instructor s Guide Version 1.0 Copyright 2009, DynEd International, Inc. August 2009 All rights reserved http://www.dyned.com 1 Teaching English A Brain-based Approach
Unit Seven: Communicative Activities TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE Language Practice Reaching a Consensus Discussion Relaying instructions Communication games Problem solving Talking about oneself
Is there any room for listening? The necessity of teaching listening skills in ESL/EFL classrooms Jones Is there any room for listening? The necessity of teaching listening skills in ESL/EFL classrooms
THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM English Language & Applied Linguistics SECOND TERM ESSAY Student Number: 1277536 MA - TEFL/TESL 2012/2013 Title of option(s) for which work is being submitted: Business English
Session One: Increasing Comprehensibility One goal for every teacher working with ELL students is to increase comprehensibility. In other words, to increase understanding or make course content more intelligible.
Comparison of Computer Assisted Language Learning Software before Investment Dinçer Biçer , Ramazan Şükrü Parmaksız  Bülent Ecevit University Email: firstname.lastname@example.org  Bülent Ecevit University
Practice Test for Special Education EC-12 1. The Individualized Educational Program (IEP) includes: A. Written evaluation B. Assessment tests C. Interviews 2. Learning disabilities include: A. Cerebral
Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 7: Teaching Grammar in Context When we teach grammar, we not only help our learners to express themselves, but we also fulfil their expectations
SEMINOLE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS ESOL Strategies For Mainstream Teachers 2011-2012 ESOL/World Languages Department For additional resources and strategies, visit the ESOL/ World Languages Department website
SECOND LANGUAGE THEORIES BEHAVIORIST THEORIES (INCLUDING THE CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS HYPOTHESIS) Behaviorists: Pavlov, Skinner, and Bruner Definition: It is the theory saying human and animal learning are
STUDENT CURRICULUM TEMPLATE Adapted from STARTALK program template Teacher Name: Hong Jiang Grade or Level: Grades 6-8 Language(s): Target Proficiency Level: Novice-Low Novice -Mid Number of Contact Hours:
The Indian Review of World Literature in English, Vol. 3, No. II July, 2007 1 Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call) As a Method to Develop Study Skills in Students of Engineering and Technology at
School Lesson plan Topic School, school objects, rules, subjects, rooms and uniforms Aims To practise (depending on stages chosen): vocabulary: words connected to school, school objects, rules, subjects,
267 TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE ON ESL CURRRICULUM A STUDY ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AT THE DEGREE LEVEL IN THE ARTS AND SCIENCE COLLEGES AFFILIATED TO MANONMANIUM SUNDARANAR
THE POSITIVE IMPACTS OF USING GAMES IN TEACHING TOEIC READING SKILL FOR NON-MAJOR ENGLISH STUDENTS AT DONG THAP UNIVERSITY Nguyen Thanh Huy Dong Thap University VIETNAM ABSTRACT The aims of the study are
"#$%&$'()&"*+,%-(-'.+&/(,$0,%-(-'.,$%1/)$2 "(34&'(,&5-'6%"&%-&/ +)&/&)6'4$3(/0&%&4&/-.'&4($6##$726'8()& "#$%'&()%&*+&,$-(-'.&+%/(0&5-'6%9 "#$%&'()*&+,-&',. The following guidelines come from the College
Cambridge English: Preliminary, also known as the Preliminary English Test (PET), is part of a comprehensive range of exams developed by Cambridge English Language Assessment. Cambridge English exams have
Do you sometimes shy away from using computers with your learners? Are you not sure what to do with them? This lesson gives an introductory overview of materials and activities that are central to using
COMMUNICATION COMMUNITIES CULTURES COMPARISONS CONNECTIONS STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Preparing for the 21st Century Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The
Learning styles Topic: Idioms Aims: - To apply listening skills to an audio extract of non-native speakers - To raise awareness of personal learning styles - To provide concrete learning aids to enable
DICTATION IN THE ESP CLASSROOM: A TOOL TO IMPROVE LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Galina Kavaliauskienė and Irena Darginavičienė Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania Introduction Dictation has been used
Teacher Development Workshop Intermediate Phase Life Skills CONTENTS PAGE CONTENTS PAGE... 2 ACTIVITY A:... 3 LIFE SKILLS INTRODUCTION TO CAPS... 5 ACTIVITY B: LIFE SKILLS TEXTBOOKS... 5 ACTIVITY C: LIFE
INTERNET RESOURCES FOR SERVICE PROJECTS IN YOUR CLASSROOM http://servicelearning.org This University of Colorado Web site has extensive links to helpful information about service learning, a list of topics
Unit 1 Level: Beginners with no previous knowledge of Roman script Age: Adults Time: 90-120 minutes Language objectives: hello, what s your name?, alphabet (upper case), repeat please, numbers 1-5, book,
Promoting Learner Autonomy and Language Awareness Through Blogging Paul Dickinson Abstract The benefits of learner Weblogs, or blogs as they are more commonly known, have been reported in various educational
Working towards TKT Module 1 EMC/7032c/0Y09 *4682841505* TKT quiz 1) How many Modules are there? 2) What is the minimum language level for TKT? 3) How many questions are there in each Module? 4) How long
Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 6: Lesson Planning When teaching, whether we are working from a course book or designing a lesson from scratch, we need a thorough plan of where
How To Run A Board: The Audio Mixing Console First course, Fourth grading period, Week one The mixing console at a radio station or production/recording studio can be an intimidating sight. Some have even
How to teach listening skills "Great speakers are not born, they re trained." - Dale Carnegie (1921) Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) To enhance deeper understanding of the process of listening as a communicative
Article 16 in LCPJ Correcting or not Errors and Mistakes Abstract If in 1960s errors had to be avoided at all costs (Grammar Translation Method), today errors are viewed as an integral part of the language
Subject specific advice Art Accessing text Accessing the written work research, annotating thoughts and opinions and recording these. Accessing the self marking grids Some complex language and vocabulary
Helping English Language Learners Understand Content Area Texts English language learners (ELLs) experience intense problems in content area learning because they have not yet acquired the language proficiency
Assessment and Evaluation The LINC Curriculum Guidelines promote a communicative task-based approach to language instruction. This means they focus on various tasks (outcomes) in speaking, listening, reading,
Literature is great Topic Education in the UK Level: Intermediate + Time: 90 minutes Objectives To give a short presentation about a book/novel that the student has read. To practise using idioms which
Differentiated Instruction & Understanding By Design Lesson Plan Format Title: Data Analysis Subject Matter Emphasis and Level: Math, 5 th grade Author: Jolene (Oftedahl) Thompson School District: Mitchell
Reading in a Foreign Language Volume 14, No. 2, October 2002 ISSN 1539-0578 Abstract Top Ten Principles for Teaching Extensive Reading 1 Richard Day University of Hawai i at Manoa Julian Bamford Bunkyo
Achieve your ambitions in international business Information for candidates Business English Certificates (BEC) www.cambridgeenglish.org/bec-vantage How to use this guide You can print this document if
Scientists Teaching Science Barbara Houtz January 13, 2014 Instructional Design The systematic design of materials, activities, and interactive environments for learning. Broadly informed by educational
Creating a Children s Book A Project for the National Library of Canada s Page by Page: Creating a Children s Book Website Children are exposed to picture books from an early age. In school, they begin
The Introduction To The Writing Process Animate And Publish Your Stories With The Zimmer Twins. Grades: 4-6 Subjects: English, English As A Second Language Overview of Lesson Plan: Help students develop
An Investigation into Visualization and Verbalization Learning Preferences in the Online Environment Dr. David Seiler, Assistant Professor, Department of Adult and Career Education, Valdosta State University,
Using an Audio Recorder in Lessons for New English Learners Who are Blind or Have Low Vision by Sylvie Kashdan An audio recorder is one of the important tools that should be used in every lesson for new
Task Based Learning This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any
Modern foreign languages Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment targets (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2007
Desktop/ Files Returned by Experts August 2008 / English cover, content & introduction Grades 1-4 cv2 Table of Contents Rationale... Topic flow charts for Grades 1-4... Minimum Learning Competencies for
60 The Reading Matrix Vol. 6, No. 2, September 2006 THE USE OF AUTHENTIC MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF READING Sacha Anthony Berardo email@example.com Abstract Reading means different things to different
«Le Jeu de Baseball à Phillies» (Karen LaFragola - Veterans Memorial Middle School - Brick, NJ - French Teacher) Content Standard(s): 7.1.NM.A.1 7.1.NM.A.2 7.1.NM.B.2 7.1.NM.B.5 7.1.NM.C.3 Stage 1 Desired
THEORIES OF ESL LITERACY INSTRUCTION There are a number of theories about ESL acquisition and ESL literacy acquisition. These theories focus on different ideas of how people best learn literacy in an additional
K=Knowledge; S=Skills Endorsement Competencies for Designated World Language 2002 Standards Course Alignment Evidence of Mastery Put course numbers in each cell that correspond with the knowledge and/or
Dyslexia Portfolio Report for Jack Jones Assessed by Sue Thompson on 05/08/2009 Report for parents When a child is identified as dyslexic, additional support will be needed from both school and home to
GRAMMAR, SYNTAX, AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS When it comes to grammar, many writing tutors and instructors are unsure of the most effective way to teach ESL students. And while numerous studies, articles
Practical, comprehensible ESL workshops centered on the adult ELL learner. The ESL Teachers Workshop Modules Buy The Complete Version of This Book at Booklocker.com: http://www.booklocker.com/p/books/4783.html?s=pdf
Partners in Pedagogy: Collaboration Between University and Secondary School Foreign Language Teachers October 1999 Lina Lee, University of New Hampshire One of the challenges facing many foreign language
Welcome to the first edition of Ponto de Encontro: Portuguese as a World Language! This program provides an ample, flexible, communication-oriented framework for use in the beginning and intermediate Portuguese
CELTA Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines Fourth Edition CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) is regulated
Spoken English for Work (SEW) exams Guide for Teachers (B1) Trinity College London 89 Albert Embankment London SE1 7TP UK T +44 (0)20 7820 6100 F +44 (0)20 7820 6161 E firstname.lastname@example.org www.trinitycollege.co.uk
The Minnesota Literacy Council created this curriculum with funding from the MN Department of Education. We invite you to adapt it for your own classrooms. Beginning Level (CASAS reading scores of 181-200)
Web 2.0 Tools for Language Learning Sadykova G.V Kazan Federal University Web 1.0 vs Web 2.0 Web 1.0: HTML based, slow & expensive Internet connection, expensive software, limited interactivity, one-to-one/many
Understanding Learners Cognitive Abilities: A Model of Mobilizing Non-English Majors Cognitive Abilities in the Process of Their Writing in English Liu Fengming Southwest Normal University Introduction
BOOK REVIEW A Review of English for Primary Teachers Yen T. Vo Authors: Mary Slattery and Jane Willis Oxford University Press (2001) Pp. +148 pages Multimedia: CD ISBN 13: 978 0 19 4375627 Teaching English
Teaching Listening and Speaking Simultaneously JALT 2004 NARA Language Learning for Life Stephen Petrucione Osaka Institute of Technology Stephen M. Ryan Eichi (Sapientia) University Reference Data: Petrucione,
Blogging in the Language Classroom Thea Pallut Teacher of French Grantown Grammar School Background Computers are now a one stop shop for students, which they use for shopping, talking to friends, creating
A Retrospective Evaluation of a ELT Coursebook for a Korean University Conversation Course Sarah Jones MA TESOL / TEFL Module 3 March, 2009 4,369 words SM/08/03 Make a detailed evaluation of a coursebook
Around our college Topic: Our College Level: SfL pre-entry / SQA Access 2 ESOL Literacies / CEFR A1 Time: 70-90 minutes (more with extension writing activities) Aims To develop students ability to read
INDEX OF LEARNING STYLES * DIRECTIONS Enter your answers to every question on the ILS scoring sheet. Please choose only one answer for each question. If both a and b seem to apply to you, choose the one
Simmons College Programs in Special Education (Moderate, Severe, Reading Specialist) Lesson Plan: Determining Importance in Lecture Note-Taking Lesson Plan #9: Margin Notes: Capturing Important Information
Technology for English Language Learners PreK Adult A Multisensory Approach to Learning early literacy and mathematics reading to learn becoming Lifelong learners Grades PreK 5 Support for beginning readers
Lesson Plan English First Additional Language Grade 5 Content in context: Text from other Learning Area - Whether Los and ASs Learning Activities Details of Assessment Barriers to Learning LO 1 Listening
Advanced Placement Psychology Course Syllabus and Survival Guide Mr. Korek O1-HO3-072006 Purpose of the Course The purpose of the Advanced Placement course in Psychology is to introduce students to the