Acids and Bases. A key to chemistry in your daily life. Foods Car batteries Bee stings Cleaning products. Soda pop Biological processes Antacids

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1 Acids and Bases A key to chemistry in your daily life. Foods Car batteries Bee stings Cleaning products Soda pop Biological processes Antacids Etc 1

2 Acid & Base Properties Acids: Strong or weak electrolytes Tart taste React with many metals H 2 (single replacement: Table J) Bases: Strong or weak electrolytes Bitter taste Slippery feel 2

3 Naming Acids Acids produce H + when dissolved in water. General formula: HX (H + and anion X - ) 3 rules for naming, based on the anion name. 3

4 Naming Acids: Summary Anion ends in: ide Acid Name hydro ic acid HCl Cl - hydrochloric acid ite ous acid HNO 2 NO 2 - nitrous acid ate H 2 SO 4 SO ic acid sulfuric acid Name H 2 SO 3 4

5 Naming Bases Bases are easy!! Cation + hydroxide NaOH is sodium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 is barium hydroxide 5

6 Naming Acids & Bases Give it a shot. Name? Formula? H 2 SO 4 calcium hydroxide Al(OH) 3 HClO 2 hydrofluoric acid phosphoric acid 6

7 Self-Ionization of Water Think of H 2 O as H + and OH - Two water molecules can collide with enough energy to transfer a H + ion H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - 7

8 Self-Ionization of Water H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - water hydronium ion Or simply : H 2 O H + + OH - hydroxide ion hydrogen ion or proton 8

9 Self-Ionization of Water What is the extent of this reaction? H 2 O H + + OH - In pure water: [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-7 M [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-7 M What does [ ] mean? 9

10 Ion-Product for Water [H + ] [OH - ] = (1.0x10-7 )(1.0x10-7 ) = 1.0x10-14 M 2 The product [H + ] x [OH - ] is called the ion-product constant for water, K w. K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x

11 Ion-Product for Water K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x In any water solution, even if it is acidic or basic, this relationship is still true! 11

12 Add HCl to Water HCl H 2 O H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Thus [H + ] goes up, forcing [OH - ] to go down & K w doesn t change. [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x up down same 12

13 Basic (Alkaline) Solution NaOH H 2 O Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x down up same 13

14 Acids and Bases Acid: [H + ] > [OH - ] Base: [H + ] < [OH - ] Neutral: [H + ] = [OH - ] 1 x 10-7 M = 1 x 10-7 M Remember [ ] means molar concentration, M 14

15 Determining [H + ] & [OH - ] If an acid is put in water and [H + ] = 1.8 x 10-5 M, what is [OH - ]? Is it acidic or basic? Explain. K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x (1.8 x 10-5 )[OH - ] = 1.0 x [OH - ] = 5.6 x M Since [H + ] > 10-7 acidic 15

16 [H + ] & [OH - ]: Try It! If Ba(OH) 2 is dissolved in water and the [OH - ] is 4.7 x 10-4 M, what is [H + ]? Is it acidic or basic? Explain. K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x

17 Acidic or Basic? Classify each as acidic or basic: (these are tricky!) 1. [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-7 M 2. [H + ] = 6.0 x M 3. [H + ] = 3.2 x 10-3 M 4. [OH - ] = 3.0 x 10-2 M K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x

18 Tired of Big Exponents? ph = -log[h + ] For example: [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-7 M ph = 7.0 How do you do logs? 18

19 ph: Two Ways ph = -log [H + ] 1. Use a scientific calculator. take log of [H + ] change the sign ph = -log(1.0 x 10-7 ) = -(-7.0) =

20 ph: Two Ways ph = -log [H + ] 2. Know simple log rule : log(1.0 x 10 x ) = x (only works if this is 1.0) If [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-7 ph = -log(1.0 x 10-7 ) =

21 R ph: Try It! What is the ph if: [H + ] = 1.0 x M [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-3 M [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-7 M 21

22 ph: Juss do it! What is the ph if: [H + ] = 3.23 x M [H + ] = 6.44 x 10-3 M [H + ] = 9.79 x 10-7 M 22

23 ph: What Does It Mean? Acid: Base: [H + ] > 1 x 10-7 M and ph < 7.0 [H + ] < 1 x 10-7 M and ph > 7.0 Neutral: [H + ] = [OH - ] and ph = 7.0 ph scale is backwards! 23

24 ph Scale ph larger acidic basic [H + ] smaller 24

25 Acidic, Basic, or Neutral ph = 4.2 [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-5 M ph =

26 ph of Some Common Fluids ph increase by 1, [H + ] decrease by 10 Stomach fluid 1.5 Vinegar 3.0 Orange juice 3.5 Water + air 5.5 Blood 7.4 Milk of magnesia 11.5 ph up by 2, [H + ] down by 10x10 =

27 Summary K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x holds for any aqueous solutions allows calculation of H + or OH - ph = -log[h + ] eliminates big exponents use simple log rule (select exponent of [H + ] and change the sign ph is backwards with ph 7 neutral 27

28 ph [H + ] Hon ph = -log [H + ] What is [H + ] if ph is 4.0? Use a scientific calculator: [H + ] = 10 - ph ph = 4.0 [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-4 M 28

29 R ph [H + ] What is [H + ] if ph is 4.0? Know simple log rule : [H + ] = 1.0 x 10 -ph [H + ] = 1.0 x

30 R ph [H + ] Try It!! What is [H + ] and is it acidic or basic? ph = 2.0 ph = 6.0 ph =

31 R Put It Together What is ph if [OH - ] is 1.0 x 10-5 M K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x [H + ] (1.0 x 10-5 ) = 1.0 x [H + ] = 1.0 x 10-9 M Now calculate ph: ph =

32 R R Try It!!! 1. What is ph of a solution with [OH - ] equal to 1.0 x M? 2. What is [H + ] if ph is 8.0? 3. What is [OH - ] if ph is 3.0? 32

33 ph [H + ] Try It! ph = -log [H + ] What is [H + ] and is it acidic or basic? ph = 8.0 ph = 2.7 ph = 6.8 ph =

34 Put It Together What is ph if [OH - ] is 4.7 x 10-5 M K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1.0 x [H + ](4.7 x 10-5 ) = 1.0 x [H + ] = 2.1 x M 34

35 Put It Together [H + ] = 2.1 x M Now calculate ph: ph = -log(2.1 x ) ph =

36 Give it a Shot! 1. What is ph of a solution with [OH - ] equal to 3.9 x 10-9 M? 2. What is [H + ] if ph is 7.9? 3. What is [OH - ] if ph is 4.7? 36

37 Measuring ph Maintaining proper ph is important in many applications. Swimming pool Medical diagnoses Agriculture Manufacturing processes 37

38 Measuring ph Two methods: Indicator dyes or paper ph meter 38

39 Indicator Dyes change color at a given ph Methyl red Phenolphthalein Bromthymol blue 39

40 Indicator Dyes

41 Indicator Dyes An aqueous solution is tested with two indicating dyes: Bromthymol blue appears Bromcresol green appears What is the ph? 41

42 ph Meter An instrument with a meter and an electrode that measures ph values

43 Acid-Base Theories Two acid bases theories, each more comprehensive: Arrhenius Bronsted 43

44 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory Acid: compound that ionizes in water to yield H + in solution. HCl H 2 O H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Caution: not everything with a hydrogen in its formula is an acid. CH 4 NaOH 44

45 weak strong Arrhenius Acids Common acids: HCl hydrochloric acid HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 nitric acid sulfuric acid strong acids ionize 100% All others H 2 O very few H + HNO 2 H + + NO 2-45

46 Arrhenius Bases Base: compound that ionizes to yield OH - in solution. NaOH H 2 O Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) KOH NaOH Ba(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 Group 1 & 2 hydroxides 46

47 weak strong Common Bases NaOH(aq) KOH(aq) Ca(OH) 2 (aq) NH 3 (aq) (not an Arrhenius base!) 47

48 Bronsted Acid & Bases A more comprehensive acid-base theory. Regents exam: Alternate Theory In a chemical reaction: Acid: hydrogen ion (H + ) donor Base: hydrogen ion (H + ) acceptor 48

49 Bronsted-Lowry Acid & Bases NH 3 is not an Arrehenius base (no OH - ), but the ph of NH 3 is >7. Why? NH 3 + HOH NH OH - H + acceptor (base) H + donor (acid) 49

50 Bronsted Acid & Bases NH 3 + HOH NH OH - H + donor (acid) H + acceptor (base) But look at the reverse reaction. 50

51 Bronsted-Lowry Acid & Bases NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - base acid conjugate conjugate acid base B-L acids & bases always appear in conjugate pairs. 51

52 Conjugate Pairs HF + H 2 O H 3 O + + F - acid base conjugate conjugate acid base 52

53 Conjugate Pairs: Try It!!! Write a reaction for and identify conjugate pairs in the following: HC 2 H 3 O 2 added to water CO -2 3 added to water 53

54 Di- and Tri-Protic Acids Diprotic acid: an acid that can lose two H +. H CO 2 3 H + + HCO - 3 HCO - 3 H + + CO -2 3 Is there a triprotic acid in Table K? 54

55 strong vs. weak conc. vs. dilute Strength vs. Concentration Concentration is how much acid (or base) is dissolved in water. For example 2.0 M HC 2 H 3 O 2 (~1M is the dividing line) Strength is how much the acid is ionized when dissolved in water. e.g. 0.2M HCl is strong & dilute 55

56 Acid-Base Theories 56

57 Neutralization The reactions of acids with bases A B 57

58 Mix Strong Acid and Strong Base HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOH (aq) omitted What class of reaction is this? (double replacement) 58

59 HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O acid base salt water This is a neutralization reaction ph ~ 7.0 if stoichiometric amounts of acid and base. A salt is formed. 59

60 Salt Any ionic compound not containing H + or OH - Comprised of a cation + anion Charges must balance Write the formula for ammonium phosphate. 60

61 Give It a Shot!!! 1.Write the reaction for the neutralization of nitric acid and barium hydroxide. 2.What acid and base combine to make sodium sulfate? Write the reaction. 61

62 Titration Acids and bases react in their stoichiometric ratio. H SO +2NaOH Na SO +2H O mol 2 mol 1 mol 2 mol 62

63 H 2 SO 4 +2NaOH Na 2 SO 4 +2H 2 O How many moles of sulfuric acid are needed to neutralize 0.50 mol of sodium hydroxide? 0.50 mol NaOH x 1 mol H 2 SO 4 2 mol NaOH = 0.25 mol H 2 SO 4 63

64 Try It!!! How many moles of NaOH are needed to neutralize 1.56 mol of phosphoric acid? How many grams of NaOH is this? 64

65 Equivalence Point (End Point) How do you know when?: moles of H + = moles OH - Two ways: Use a ph meter or Add an indicator dye. 65

66 ph Meter ph ph meter ml base added 66

67 Titration process for determining the concentration of an acid/base by adding a base/acid of known concentration. Lab 67

68 Titration Problem A 25 ml solution of H 3 PO 4 is titrated to the end point using 18 ml of 1.0 M KOH. What is the concentration of H 3 PO 4? 68

69 Titration Write the equation, balance, and note the data given. H PO + 3 KOH K PO + 3HOH ? M 25 ml or.025l 1.0 M 18 ml or.018l M = moles L (conversion factor) 69

70 Titration H 3 PO 4 + 3KOH K 3 PO 4 + 3H 2 O? M 1.0 M Stoichiometry: start.025 L.018 L with vol. of known.018l KOH 1.0 mol KOH x x L 1 mol H 3 PO 4 3 mol KOH = mol H 3 PO mol Then: = 0.24 M.025 L H 3 PO 4 70

71 Titration: Your Turn!!! What is the molarity of hydrochloric acid if 15.0 ml of the solution is neutralized by 38.5 ml of M Ba(OH) 2? 71

72 Titration Shortcut (Table T) M A V A = M B V B H + conc. OH - conc. n H+ M A V A = n OH- M B V B subscript of H + and OH - Example H 2 SO 4 has n H+ = 2 Try the previous problem! 72

73 Salt Hydrolysis Aqueous solutions of salts can be neutral, acidic or basic. Why? ph NH 4 Cl NaCl NaC 2 H 3 O 2 73

74 Salt Hydrolysis The reaction of the cation and/or anion of a salt with water to change the ph. NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Neither Na + nor Cl - react with water, so the ph is

75 Salt Hydrolysis NH 4 Cl(s) NH 4 + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Cl - doesn t react with water, but NH H 2 O NH 3 + H 3 O + ph 5.3 makes the solution acidic 75

76 Salt Hydrolysis NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (s) Na + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - Na + doesn t react with water, but C 2 H 3 O H 2 O HC 2 H 3 O 2 + OH - ph 8.7 makes the solution basic 76

77 Salt Hydrolysis Prediction 1. If a salt was formed from: strong strong neutral + acid base salt (Remember the strong acids & bases) NaOH strong base NaCl HCl strong acid Base: To cation, add OH - or remove H + Acid: To anion, add H + 77

78 Salt Hydrolysis Prediction 2. If a salt was formed from: weak strong basic + acid base salt NaC 2 H 3 O 2 NaOH strong base HC 2 H 3 O 2 weak acid 78

79 Salt Hydrolysis Prediction 3. If a salt was formed from: strong weak acidic + acid base salt NH 4 Cl NH 3 weak base HCl strong acid 79

80 Salt Hydrolysis Prediction Try It!!! Neutral, acidic or basic? Na 2 CO 3 KNO 3 NH 4 Br CsF 80

81 81

82 Warm-up Name or give formula: HNO 3 H 2 SO 3 chloric acid magnesium hydroxide 82

83 Warm-up & Review What is the self-ionization of water? What is the K w relationship? If a solution has [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-8 M Is it acidic or basic? What is [H + ]? 83

84 Warm-up An aqueous solution has a hydrogen ion concentration of 1.0E-4 M. Is it acidic or basic? What is the ph? If [OH - ] = 5.4 x 10-5, is the solution acidic or basic? 84

85 Warm-up What is the K w relationship? What is the formula for ph? What ph is a neutral solution? If a solution has [H + ] = 1.0x10-4 M, what is the ph? Is it basic? If a solution has [OH - ] = 1.0x10-8 M Is it acidic or basic? What is [H + ]? What is ph? 85

86 Warm-up (Honors) What is the K w relationship? What is the formula for ph? What ph is a neutral solution? If a solution has [H + ] = 2.4x10-4 M, what is the ph? Is it acidic or basic? 86

87 Warm-up A solution has [OH - ] = 1.0E-4 M. Is it acidic or basic? What is [H + ] & ph? Honors: A solution has [OH - ] = 2.3E-4 M. Is it acidic or basic? What is [H + ] & ph? If bromthymol blue is blue and phenolphthalein in colorless in an aqueous solution, what is the ph? 87

88 Warm-up An antacid solution has a ph of 10.0 (Honors: An antacid solution has a ph of 10.64) What is the hydroxide ion concentration? What would be the color of thymol blue in this solution? 88

89 Warm-up A solution has a ph of 4.0. Is it acidic or basic? What is the [H + ] and [OH - ]? How does the acidity ([H + ]) of this solution compare with one of ph 2.0? 89

90 Warm-up What is the ph of a solution if [OH - ] is 1.0 x 10-9 M? Write an equation for the addition of nitrous acid to water. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs. 90

91 Warm-up Write an equation for the addition of hydrofluoric acid to water. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs. 91

92 Warm-up Is a 0.3M H 2 CO 3 solution: Strong or weak? Concentrated or dilute? How many moles of acetic acid will react with 0.28 moles of calcium hydroxide? 92

93 Warm-up How many grams of barium hydroxide are needed to neutralize 27 g HCl? For the titration lab, write a balanced equation. How did you know when the end point was reached? What was the ph at the end point? 93

94 Warm-up What is the ph if a solution has: [OH - ] = 1.0E-5? Is it acidic or basic? (Honors) What is the ph if a solution has [OH - ] = 3.6E-5? Is it acidic or basic? 94

95 Warm-up 25 ml of calcium hydroxide solution is titrated to end point with 52 ml of 0.27 M acetic acid. What is the conc. of calcium hydroxide? What is [H + ] if [OH - ] = 1.0 x 10-9 M? Is is acidic or basic? What is ph? 95

96 Warm-up (Honors) If [OH - ] = 6.7 x 10-3 M, what is ph? Is this solution acidic or basic? Write a reaction for nitrous acid added to water. Name the conjugate pairs. 25 ml of nitrous acid is titrated with 17 ml of 1.3 M barium hydroxide. What is the concentration of nitrous acid? Write the reaction of ammonia and HI. 96

97 Warm-up If ph = 3.0, what is [OH - ]? Is this solution acidic or basic? Write a reaction for nitrous acid added to water. Name the conjugate pairs. 25 ml of nitrous acid is titrated with 17 ml of 1.3 M barium hydroxide. What is the concentration of nitrous acid? Both methyl orange and thymol blue are yellow in a solution. What is the ph? 97

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