ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION

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1 ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION

2 ACID-BASE NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS A second type of chemical reaction that occurs in aqueous solution is an acid-base neutralization reaction So, what are acids and bases?

3 ACIDS An acid is a substance that ionize in aqueous solution to form H + ions Because a hydrogen atom consists of a proton and an electron, H + is simply a proton Acids are commonly referred to as proton donors Molecules of different acids ionize to form different numbers of H + ions Monoprotic acids yield one H + ion Diprotic acids yield two H + ions Triprotic acids yield three H + ions The ionization of polyprotic acids is a step-wise process Example: H 2 SO 4 aq HSO 4 aq H + aq + HSO 4 aq H + aq + SO 2 4 aq Although H 2 SO 4 is a strong electrolyte, only the first ionization is complete!

4 PROPERTIES OF ACIDS Have a ph less than 7 Sour taste Turns blue litmus paper red Turns indicator methyl orange red React with carbonates to produce a salt, water, and CO 2 React with active metals to produce hydrogen gas

5 SOURCES OF H + IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS The hydrogen ions (or hydronium ions) in an aqueous solution of an acid have two sources: The dissociation of the acid The autoionization of water Some small amount of water will always dissociate, whether pure water or part of a solution Amphoteric can act as an acid or a base

6 HOW TO CALCULATE PH ph is a way to measure the concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) in an aqueous solution Because the concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) in an aqueous solution is typically quite small, a logarithmic ph scale is used! A few helpful equations to remember: ph = log H + [H + ] = 10 -ph poh = log OH [OH ] = 10 -poh ph + poh = 14 K w = = H + OH

7 BASES A base is a substance that accept protons (proton acceptors) Ionic hydroxide compounds like NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH) 2 will ionize in aqueous solution to form OH - ions Compounds that do not contain OH- ions can also be bases by accepting protons from water or an acid NH 3 aq + H 2 O l NH + 4 aq + OH (aq)

8 PROPERTIES OF BASES Taste bitter Have a ph greater than 7 Turns red litmus paper blue Turns indicator methyl orange to yellow Feel slippery

9 STRONG/WEAK ACIDS AND BASES Acids and bases that are strong electrolytes (completely ionized in solution) are strong acids and strong bases Example: HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Those that are weak electrolytes (partly ionized) are weak acids and weak bases Example: HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) H + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2- (aq)

10 COMMON STRONG ACIDS AND BASES Strong Acids Hydrochloric acid HCl Hydrobromic acid HBr Strong Bases Group 1 metal hydroxides [LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH] Heavy Group 2 metal hydroxides [Ca(OH) 2, Sr(OH) 2, Ba(OH) 2 ] Hydroiodic acid HI Chloric acid HClO 3 Perchloric acid HClO 4 Nitric acid HNO 3 Sulfuric acid (first proton) H 2 SO 4

11 REACTIONS OF ACIDS AND BASES When a base is added to an acid solution, the acid is said to be neutralized Neutralization simply means moles of acid = moles of base Neutralization does NOT mean the ending solution s ph is 7! This is dependent on the type of acid and base being titrated Remember, there are strong acids/bases (dissociate completely in water) and weak acids/bases (do not dissociate completely in water) In a neutralization reaction, an acid and a base react to form water and an aqueous solution of an ionic compound called a salt HA(aq) + MOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + MA(aq) acid base water salt

12 STRONG ACID/STRONG BASE REACTION Molecular equation HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) +H 2 O(l) Complete ionic equation H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) +Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Na + (aq) +Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) By eliminating the spectator ions, we discover the driving force behind the neutralization of strong acid by a strong base Net ionic equation H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O(l)

13 WEAK ACID/STRONG BASE REACTION Molecular equation HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Net ionic equation HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + OH- (aq) C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) + H 2 O (l)

14 ACID/BASE TITRATIONS The stoichiometry of an acid-base neutraliation reaction provides the basis for a procedure called a titration A titration is defined as a volumetric technique for determining the amount of a certain substance Amounts can be: Molar mass Concentration Molarity Mass percent

15 STEPS IN A TITRATION You must have a solution of known concentration Called a standard solution or titrant It is added to an unknown solution while the volume is measured using a buret The process is continued until the equivalence point is reached Defined as the point at which the MOLES of analyte are equal to the MOLES of titrant [H+] = [OH-] This change we can measure both qualitatively (indicator) and quantitatively (ph probe) The point at which the indicator used in a titration changes color is called the end point of the titration Equivalence point End point!

16 Strong Acid/Strong Base Titration Curve using a ph Probe The plot of ph versus volume during titration is called a titration curve

17 INDICATOR EXAMPLES Acid-base indicators are weak acids or bases that undergo a color change at a known ph ph Phenolphthalein

18 INDICATOR EXAMPLES Select the indicator that undergoes a color change closest to the ph at the equivalence point, where all of the acid has been neutralized by the base Bromthymol blue Methyl red

19 HOW TO SOLVE A TITRATION-TYPE PROBLEM 1. Write a balanced chemical equation 2. Calculate the number of moles of the standard solution present in the solution Standard solution is the solution in the buret and has a known concentration Will always be given a volume and concentration of the standard solution 3. Use the molar relationship from the equation (STOICHIOMETRY) to convert from moles of standard solution into moles of unknown solution 4. Calculate the unknown quantity (molarity or volume) of the unknown solution by using the relationship M = n/v using the number of moles found in step 3 5. Sometimes, you will need to convert from moles to other quantities such as grams

20 TIME FOR LAB!

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