REVISION: CHEMICAL CHANGE 17 SEPTEMBER 2013

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1 REVISION: CHEMICAL CHANGE 17 SEPTEMBER 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson, we: Revise energy change in chemical reactions Revise acids and bases Key Concepts Energy Change Whenever a chemical reactions takes place there is always a change in energy of the system. An exothermic reaction is a reaction that results in the system becoming hotter. Heat is given to the surroundings. CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(l) + energy An endothermic reaction is a reaction that results in the system becoming colder. Heat is taken in from the surroundings. 6CO 2 (g) + 6H 2 O(l) + energy C 6 H 12 O O 2 (g) (photosynthesis) Enthalpy (H) is the total amount of chemical potential energy in a chemical system During a chemical reaction the enthalpy of the system changes. Change in enthalpy is given by the symbol ΔH. For an exothermic reaction ΔH is negative and for endothermic reactions ΔH is greater than zero. Bond Energy During a chemical reaction bonds are broken by energy being taken in and new bond s are formed resulting in energy being given off. The energy which is absorbed when bonds are broken or released when new bonds are formed is known as bond energy. Energy Change = Σenergy absorbed (bond breaking) - Σenergy released (bond formation)

2 Table of Bond Energies Bond Bond energy (kj mol -1 ) Bond Bond energy (kj mol -1 ) H H 432 F F 159 H O 459 Cl Cl 243 H C 414 I I 151 H N 390 Br Br 192 H F 569 O O 494 H S 339 C O 803 H Cl 431 C C 348 H I 299 C O 258 H Br 368 C C 837 F F 159 N N 946 Activation Energy and Activated Complex C C 611 For a reaction to happen between two substances, a minimum amount of energy must be absorbed to break the existing bonds of the reactants. This minimum energy is known as the activation energy. When this minimum energy has been absorbed the reactants form a substance known as the activated complex. The activated complex is a temporary, high energy, unstable state between reactants and products. Potential Energy Diagrams Exothermic reaction Endothermic reaction H = H products H reactants Exothermic reaction: H < 0 Reactant product + energy Reactant product + 20 kj. mol -1 ΔH < 0 ΔH = - 20 kj.mol -1 H = H products H reactants Endothermic reaction: H > 0 Reactant + energy product Reactant + 20 kj.mol -1 product ΔH > 0 ΔH = -20 kj.mol -1

3 Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Bases taste sour are electrolytes change the colour of indicators react with bases to form a salt and water taste bitter feel soapy are electrolytes change the colour of indicators react with acids to form a salt and water Common Acids and Bases Common Acids Common Bases Arrhenius Definitions Formula Name Use HCl Hydrochloric acid Stomach acid H 2 SO 4 Sulphuric acid Car batteries HNO 3 Nitric acid Fertilizers, explosives CH 3 COOH Ethanoic acid (acetic acid) Vinegar H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid Fertilizers Formula Name Use NaOH Sodium hydroxide Oven and drain cleaner NH 3 Ammonia Fertilizers Mg(OH) 2 Magnesium hydroxide Antacids NaHCO 3 Sodium hydrogen carbonate Baking powder Na 2 CO 3 Sodium carbonate Detergents An acid is any compound that dissociates when it is dissolved in water to produce hydrogen ions (H + ). HCl(aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) A base is any compound that dissociates when it is dissolved in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH - ). NaOH(aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq)

4 Brønsted-Lowry Definitions Acids are defined as proton donors Bases are defined as proton acceptors Together these reactions show the complete reaction between sulphuric acid and ammonia: Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs During the reaction between an acid and base, the acid donates protons to the base. The acid has now become a base as it is able to accept protons. During the same reaction, the base accepts protons from the acid and thus becomes an acid. conjugate base is conjugate acid is Ampholytes An ampholyte is a substance that can act as an acid or a base, depending on the nature of the other reactant. 1. NH 3 + H 2 O NH OH - : The water acts as an acid and donates a H + ion to NH 3 2. HCN + H 2 O H 3 O + + CN - : The water acts as a base and accepts a H + ion from HCN Strong and Weak Acids A strong acid is an acid which ionises almost completely in water, whereas a weak acid only ionises slightly in water. Example Strong acid In the final solution there is a large concentration of H 3 O + and Cl - ions. Weak acid In the final solution there is a small concentration of H 3 O + and CH 3 COO - ions.

5 Table of Strong and Weak Acids Acid Formulae Strong / weak Hydrochloric acid HCl Strong Nitric acid HNO 3 Strong Sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Strong Phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 Strong Carbonic acid H 2 CO 3 Weak Ethanoic acid CH 3 COOH Weak Oxalic acid (COOH) 2 Weak Strong and Weak Bases A strong base is a base which dissociates almost completely in water, whereas a weak base only dissociates slightly in water. Example Strong bases In the final solution there is a large concentration of Na + and OH - ions. Weak base In the final solution there is a small concentration of Ca + and ions. Table of Strong and Weak Bases Bases Formulae Strong / weak Sodium hydroxide NaOH Strong Potassium hydroxide KOH Strong Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 Strong Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 Strong Ammonia NH 3 Weak Calcium carbonate CaCO 3 Weak Sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3 Weak Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 Weak

6 Reactions of Acids Acid + metal salt + hydrogen e.g. 2HCl(aq) + Mg(s) MgCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Acid + maetal oxide salt + water e.g. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + MgO(s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Acid + metal hydroxide salt + water e.g. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) Acid + metal carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide e.g. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + CaCO 3 (s) CaSO 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g) Neutralisation Reaction The reaction between an acid and a base is called a neutralisation reaction. When a neutralisation reaction is performed it is called a titration. Questions Question 1 Calculate ΔH for the following reaction: 2HF(g) + Cl 2 (g) Is the reaction is exothermic or endothermic? 2HCl(g) + F 2 (g) Question 2 Give the conjugate base for the following: a.) HNO 3 b.) H 2 SO 4 c.) H 3 PO 4 Question 3 Give the conjugate acid for the following a.) NaOH b.) KOH c.) Mg(OH) 2 Question 4 Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the following reactions a.) HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O b.) H 2 SO 4 + 2KOH K 2 SO 4 + H 2 O c.) NaOH + HNO 3 NaNO 3 + H 2 O Question 5 Use relevant reactions to show that the following are ampholytes a.) b.)

7 Question 6 HCl and NaOH react together according the following balanced equation: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O During a titration 6,5 cm 3 of dilute HCl neutralises exactly 25 cm 3 of NaOH solution. If the concentration of the HCl solution is 0,2 mol.dm -3, calculate the concentration of the NaOH. Question 7 What mass of NaOH is needed to prepare 200 cm 3 of a solution with a concentration of 0,4 mol.dm -3?

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