Chapter 4 Alcohols and Alkyl Halides

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 4 Alcohols and Alkyl Halides"

Transcription

1 . 4 hapter 4 Alcohols and Alkyl alides Alcohols and alkyl halides are very important functional groups. A functional group is an atom or group of atoms that undergoes certain reactions that are typical of that functional group. It is important to recognize functional groups since it makes the organization and learning of organic chemistry much easier. There are several million organic compounds that are known and more are discovered or synthesized everyday but there is a limited number of functional groups. Functional groups we have already seen: Alkanes essentially have no functional group. They contain only and single bonds. Alkenes have the carbon-carbon double bond as the functional group. Alkynes have the carbon-carbon triple bond as the functional group. Arenes have the benzene ring as a functional group. New functional groups in this chapter: Alcohols contain the hydroxyl group, -. Alkyl halides contain a halide. We use the symbol X to stand for any halogen (I, Br,, F). is used to refer to any alkyl group regardless of size. It can be primary, secondary or tertiary, so a generalized alcohol is written as and a generalized alkyl halide is written as X. ther functional groups that will be studied throughout the rest of the course include: Amines contain a nitrogen, N. The amine may be primary (N 2 ), secondary ( 2 N), or tertiary ( 3 N) where the groups can be the same or different. 3 2 N ethylamine (primary amine) 3 2 N 3 ethyl methylamine (secondary amine) 3 2 N 2 3 triethylamine tertiary amine) 2 3 Ethers contain a -- linkage, --, where and can be the same or different diethyl ether Epoxides these are special 3-membered ring ethers. 1

2 . 4 Nitriles these contain the N functional group, N. This functional group is also called a cyano-group N Nitroalkanes these contain the nitro group, -N N Thiols these contain an S group S S Sulfide these are thio ethers, -S S arbonyl Derivatives all contain the carbonyl group, = Aldehydes have the carbonyl group at the end of the chain, Ketones have the carbonyl group attached to two other carbons, one on each side, arboxylic Acid contain the functional group arboxylic Acid Esters (or Esters) contain the functional group Amides contain the functional group N N N N arboxylic Acid Anhydrides contain the functional group 2 2

3 Nomenclature Alkyl halides: There are two ways to name alkyl halides. 1. Name the alkyl group first, then as a separate word name the halide. 3 F methyl fluoride Br butyl bromide 2. The systematic IUPA name is to treat the halide as a substituent on the longest alkyl chair that contains the halide. Alphabetize it along with any other substituents. Number the chain so that the substituents get the lowest number at the first point of difference between the two possible directions for numbering F 1-fluoropentane chloro-2-methylpentane Alcohols: For the systematic IUPA name, identify the parent alkane as the longest chain that contains the hydroxyl group. Drop the e from the alkane and add the suffix -ol. The alcohol group takes precedence over alkyl and halide substituents so number the parent chain in the direction that gives the alcohol the lowest number, giving the terminal carbon the number one. List the other substituents alphabetically, specifying their locations by number. In cyclic alcohol, the hydroxyl group always gets number one, though the number is not written. Number the other substituents so as to obtain the lowest number at the first pint of difference between the two possible numbering directions propanol propanol asses of Alcohols and Alkyl alides 3 Br bromo-5-methyl-2-hexanol chloro-3-ethylcyclohexanol A primary alcohol has a hydroxyl group attached to a primary carbon and a primary alkyl halide has a halogen attached to a primary carbon. 3

4 primary alcohol Br primary alkyl haldie A second alcohol has a hydroxyl group attached to a secondary carbon and a secondary alkyl halide has an alkyl group attached to a secondary carbon secondary alcohol secondary alkyl halide A tertiary alcohol has a hydroxyl group attached to a tertiary carbon and a tertiary alkyl halide has a halide attached to a tertiary carbon tertiary alcohol tertiary alkyl halide Both alcohols and alkyl halides have fairly large dipole moments. δ δ + δ δ + For alkyl halides, note the trend in bond lengths. The -F bond is the shortest and the -I bond is the longest as one would expect based on the much larger size of iodine versus fluorine. F < < Br < I arbon-halogen bond length Physical Properties: 1.4 A 1.79 A 1.97 A 2.16 A ompare boiling points: F b.p. -42 b.p b.p. 78 4

5 . 4 Fluoroethane is more polar than propane and has a slightly higher boiling point due to increases in dipole-induced dipole interactions but the alcohol has a much higher boiling point due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. In order for hydrogen bonding to occur a hydrogen must be attached to an electronegative atom like oxygen or nitrogen or fluorine that has a lone pair. Each hydrogen bond is worth about 20 KJ/mol or ~ 5 Kcal/mol in energy. arbon-hydrogen bonds are not polarized enough to engage in hydrogen bonding hydrogen bond N N N N For alkyl halides, the boiling point increases with the increasing size of the halogen. 3 F 3 3 Br 3 I boiling point This is because the larger halogens are more polarizable. In the very large iodine, the electrons are much farther from the nucleus and more easily distorted. Therefore, there are stronger induced dipole-induced dipole interactions. The boiling point also increases with the increasing number of halogens boiling point Again, this is due to increased induced dipole-induced dipole interactions. But fluorine is an exception due to the fact that fluorine is not very polarizable, though F 3 F 3 still has a higher boiling point than ethane, 3 3, since it is more polar. boling point, 3 2 F F 2 3 F 3 F 3 F Water solubility: All alkyl halides are insoluble in water, like alkanes. Low molecular weight alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol) are miscible with water. Miscible means they are soluble in all proportions and form one layer with water. This is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. As the hydrocarbon chain gets longer, the solubility decreases

6 nly 0.5 ml dissolves in one liter of water. non-polar polar Preparation of Alkyl alides from Alcohols and X General reaction: + X X + The reactivity order for the hydrogen halides parallels their acidity: I > Br > >> F weakest acid strongest acid The reactivity order for the alcohols is: > > tertiary secondary primary > methyl Ex: room temp. + 3 (rt) t-butanol t-butyl chloride 78-88% Sometimes we write the reagents over the arrow in order to save space NaBr, 2S 4 heat Br Na + - S 3 Mechanism of the eaction of t-butanol and When t-butanol reacts with hydrochloric acid to form t-butyl chloride, this is a substitution reaction. We substitute the hydroxyl group with the chlorine. The mechanism is a Nucleophilic Substitution Unimolecular or S N 1 mechanism. The mechanism of a chemical reaction is a detailed, step-by-step description of how the reaction occurs. As chemists, we can never actually observe a reaction occurring and so we have to infer the actual 6

7 . 4 mechanism based on what intermediates are formed and based on our understanding of chemical principles. Generally most chemists will agree on a mechanism and it is critical in the study of organic chemistry to learn the proper mechanism and to keep track of how the electrons are moving in a given reaction by means of the curved arrow formalism. Step ne: The S N 1 mechanism under consideration here involves three separate steps. Step one is proton transfer from the hydrochloric acid to the oxygen lone pair of the alcohol. We protonate the hydroxyl group to make it into a good leaving group in step acid base This is a simple acid-base reaction. It is a very fast reaction and therefore has a low activation energy (E AT ). The rate of the reaction is determined by the height of energy barrier. In general, proton transfer reactions are the fastest reactions in chemistry. The reaction is exothermic, which means heat is given off and it is favorable. The - bond is weak and easily broken. The hydrogen forms a stronger bond with oxygen. If we make a graph of what happens to the potential energy as the reaction proceeds we see that initially the potential energy increases slightly. This is the activation energy or energy barrier to the reaction. The potential energy then reaches a maximum. We define this maximum as the transition state or TS. This literally is the point of transition between starting materials and the product. Potential Energy E AT Transition State (TS) Exothermic eaction, early transition state eaction Progress We cannot actually isolate the transition state to study its structure. It has a very short lifetime and is an unstable structure that is literally making the transition from starting material to product. It is very important to understanding the full mechanism to have some sense of the structure of the transition state because it is the height of the maximum point of the transition state, the activation energy, that determines the rate and the more stable the transition state the lower it is in energy. 7

8 . 4 ammond s Postulate: this is a theory or postulate that predicts the structure of the transition state based on whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic. It states that if two species are similar in energy, they are similar in structure. In general: For an exothermic reaction, the transition state is similar in energy to the starting materials so it resembles the starting materials in structure. Bond breaking and bond formation have not proceeded very far. We call this an early transition state and show it using dotted lines for the bonds that are breaking and forming δ + δ+ δ symbol for transition state The oxygen-hydrogen bond is still much longer than the - bond; bond formation has not proceeded very far. For an endothermic reaction, we have a late transition state. Bond breaking and bond formation is nearly complete and the transition state resembles the product. We will see an example of an endothermic reaction and a late transition state in step two of our S N 1 mechanism. Step Two: Step two is the slow, rate-determining step. It is a unimolecular reaction in which the protonated alcohol from step one leaves as the neutral water to form a carbocation This step is endothermic since a bond is being broken but no bond is being formed. It requires energy to break a bond. The carbocation product of this reaction is a high energy intermediate. The potential energy versus reaction progress diagram shows that the transition state is similar in energy to the carbocation product. So there is lots of positive charge on the carbocation intermediate. 8

9 . 4 TS - has lots of carbcation character because bond cleaving is almost complete. Potential Energy E AT 3 3 δ + 3 Bond breaking is almost complete so there is lots of positive charge on the carbon. δ + eaction Progress arbocations are planar, trigonal structures with an sp 2 carbon that has an empty p-orbital perpendicular to the plane of the carbon atom and its three substituents. The carbocation has only six electrons around it so it is a Lewis Acid. Another term for a Lewis acid is electrophile. An electrophile is a species that loves (from the Greek philos) electrons sp 2 carbon empty p orbital The empty p orbital is perpendicular to the plane of the three atoms attached to the sp 2 carbon. Step 3: The chlorine attacks the empty p orbital on the carbocation to form a new - bond. This step is very fast and thermodynamically very favorable since a bond is being formed and no bond is being broken. The chlorine is a nucleophile. Nucleophiles are Lewis bases that have a lone pair and/or a minus charge. They donate electrons to the electrophile. We always show the arrow for the electrons as moving from the nucleophile lone pair to the electrophile fast This step is fast and has a low activation energy. It is exothermic. 9

10 . 4 E AT3 Potential Energy eaction Progress The overall potential energy diagram for all three steps is as follows: E AT E AT2 Potential Energy 3 E AT eaction Progress 3 The second step, the formation of the carbocation has the highest activation energy and therefore it is the slowest step and determines the overall rate of the reaction. arbocation Stability Alkyl groups stabilize a carbocation by donating electrons and helping to spread out the positive charge. 10

11 > 3 > 3 > 3 3 tertiary carbocation secondary carbocation primary carbocation methyl carbocation most stable least stable There are two ways that the alkyl groups release electrons. (1) The Inductive Effect: This is due to the polarization of sigma bonds. The electrons in a - bond are more polarizable than the electrons in a - bond. So replacing s with alkyl groups has the effect of increasing the polarizability of the bonds to the carbocation and allows for better electron donation through the sigma bonds. This has the result of making the carbocation less electron deficient and therefore more stable and lower in energy (2) yperconjugation: This is a resonance effect due to overlap of the six - bonds with the empty p orbital of the carbocation. For this overlap to be effective the - bonds must be on the carbon directly connected to the carbocation. 3 3 The two electrons from the - bond on the alkyl group attached to the carbocation can donate into the empty p orbital of the carbocation. The two - electrons are partially delocalized onto the p orbital. The more alkyl groups that are attached to the carbocation, the more electron donation there is. Another representation of this effect that is sometimes shown is as follows: Now we can understand why tertiary alcohols react faster than secondary alcohols and why secondary alcohols react faster than primary ones. It is due to the fact that the tertiary alcohols, upon protonation and loss of water, form the more stable tertiary carbocations. Tertiary carbocations are lower in energy than secondary and primary and methyl carbocations and form faster. 11

12 . 4 A graphical comparison of the relative energies of the various carbocations shows that the tertiary is much lower in energy and furthermore has a lower activation energy (E AT3 ) so that it forms much faster. potential energy E AT2 E AT1 E AT methyl 3 E AT3 2 1 methyl Generally speaking, the primary and methyl carbocations are too high in energy to be formed and are never observed. So with primary and methyl alcohols there is a different mechanism. S N 2 Mechanism: Nucleophilic Substitution Bimolecular With methyl alcohol and primary alcohol we have a different mechanism called the SN2 mechanism, where the 2 refers to the fact that the rate determining step has two molecules coming together (i.e. bi-molecular). The first step is the same as in the tertiary alcohol case: the alcohol oxygen is protonated so as to make it into a good leaving group fast In the second step, the chlorine anion produced in the first step directly attacks the carbon bearing the protonated hydroxyl group to replace it. The carbon bearing the oxygen has a partial positive charge since the oxygen is more electronegative than carbon. 12

13 slow δ + The negatively charged chlorine is attracted to the partial (+) charge on the carbon bearing the oxygen. As will be discussed in much more detail in hapter 8, the attack by the nucleophilic chlorine occurs from the backside. The transition state is pictured below. δ δ + In the transition state breaking of the - 2 bond is more or less sequenced with formation of the - bond. Think of the chlorine electrons as pushing out the electrons of the - bond. The 2 group leaves with these two electrons. The potential energy versus reaction progress diagram shows two transition states corresponding to the two steps. The second step has the higher activation energy and is therefore the slow step and overall rate-determining step. Potential Energy EAT E AT2 δ δ eaction Progress ther ways to convert alcohols to alky halides (1) Thionyl hloride: We can treat alcohols with boiling thionyl chloride (S 2 ) to convert the alcohol to an alkyl chloride. This method is considerably milder than using concentrated hydrochloric acid and is useful when the molecule contains sensitive functional groups that would react with the strong acid. This is usually used with primary and secondary alcohols since, as we have seen, tertiary alcohols react easily at low temperatures with hydrochloric acid. ften a weak base such as potassium carbonate (K 2 3) or pyridine ( 5 5 N) is used to neutralize the that is produced. 13

14 . 4 + S heat + S 2 + For example: S heat K (2) Phosphorus Tribromide: A mild way to convert alcohols to alkyl bromides involves the treatment of the alcohol with phosphorus tribromide, PBr 3. ne equivalent of phosphorus tribromide will convert three molecules of the alcohol. 3 + PBr 3 3 Br + 3 P 3 phosphorus acid alogenation of Alkanes A hydrogen atom on a simple alkane can be replaced with a halogen atom. + X 2 X + X X = Br, The order of reactivity for the halogens is: F 2 > 2 > Br 2 >I 2. Fluorine is too reactive. It is a strong oxidizing reagent and the reaction is strongly exothermic and difficult to control. Iodine is unreactive. The reaction is endothermic and not useful. Therefore, the only useful halogenations occur with bromine and chlorine. This is not a nucleophilic substitution reaction like the reactions we just studied with alcohols and halogen acids. The - bond is not polarized and : - is not a leaving group. This is an example of a free radical reaction. hlorination of methane: The reaction can give up to four products due to over reaction. n a large industrial scale the products can be separated by distillation. heat + uv light

15 . 4 This is an example of a free radical reaction. A radical is a species that has a free unpaired electron. There are several examples of stable radicals, the most common of which is molecular oxygen. Nitrogen dioxide, N 2, is also a stable radical and the important cellcell signaling molecule, nitrogen monoxide, N, is a radical as well. N N molecular oxygen nitrogen dioxide nitrogen monoxide arbon free radicals are usually much less stable. They are missing one electron and are generally very reactive intermediates that exist only for a short time. arbon radical stability parallels that of carbocation stability. Since carbon radicals are missing one electron and so are electron deficient species, they are stabilized by electron donating substituents such as alkyl groups. Therefore, tertiary radicals are the most stable and methyl radicals are the least stable. Note also that the carbon radical has no charge. tertiary radical most stable > > > methyl radical least stable The methyl radical is planar, trigonal with the hybridization very nearly sp 2. The t-butyl radical is slightly pyramidal but still flattened and closer to sp 2 than sp 3 hybridization. Alkyl groups stabilize the radical just like they stabilize carbocations. Evidence for this stabilization can be seen in terms of the Bond Dissociation Enthalpy (BDE). For homolytic cleavage each atom gets one of the two electrons in the bond between the two atoms. The heat change, Δ, in this reaction is the bond dissociation energy. Note that by convention in radical reactions, we use a single-headed arrow and that the product(s) of hemolytic cleavage are uncharged species. X Y X + Y Δ = BDE In homolytic cleavage, each atom gets one electron. Note that no charge develops and that the arrows are single headed arrows, showing that only one electron is moving. ecall that in heterolytic cleavage one atom gets both electrons. 15

16 . 4 heterolytic cleavage X Y X + Y ne atom gets both electrons and charges develop in the product(s). It is generally the case that hemolytic cleavage requires less energy than heterolytic cleavage. For carbon atoms, the bond dissociation enthalpies are known and can be found in tables. ompare the bond dissociation energy of a primary versus a secondary carbon Δ = +410 KJ/mol Δ = +397 KJ/mol We see the cleavage of a secondary carbon is 13 KJ/mol more favorable, implying that the secondary carbon radical is more stable than the primary by 13 KJ/mol. We can use the bond dissociation enthalpies to compare the stabilities of a primary versus a tertiary carbon radical Δ = +410 KJ/mol Δ = +380 KJ/mol 3 We see that the tertiary radical is more stable than the primary radical by 30 KJ/mol and more stable than the secondary radical by 17 KJ/mol. alogenation of alkanes occurs by means of a radical chain reaction. This is shown below for the chlorination of methane. 16

17 . 4 Inititation: heat or UV light Propagation: (1) (2) + + The first step is the initiation step. This is the hemolytic cleavage of the chlorine molecule into two chlorine radicals. This bond cleavage occurs due to heating or to ultra-violet (UV) light. Generally, this step occurs only once. The next two steps occur over and over again. These are the propagation steps. In each propagation step a new radical is formed which then goes on to react to generate a new radical, which continues the chain reaction. We can also get dichloromethane, tricholormethane and even tetrachloromethane. This occurs when the initial chloromethane continues to react and is more likely to occur toward the end of the reaction as the concentration of starting methane begins to decrease and the concentration of chloromethane increases. step 1 + step The chain reaction can be broken by termination steps. Termination steps are those in which two radicals come together to react with each other. This does not generate a new radical and so the chain is broken. Some termination steps for the chlorination of methane are: 17

18 We can use bond dissociation enthalpies to calculate the overall in enthalpy, Δ, for the reaction. In general, the overall change in enthalpy, Δ, is equal to the sum of the bond dissociation enthalpies of the bonds broken plus the sum of the bond dissociation enthalpies of the bonds formed. We will use the convention that a bond broken is a positive number, since energy is required to break a bond, and a bond formed is a negative number, since heat is given off when a bond is formed. Δ = ΣBDE bonds broken + ΣBDE bonds broken Where bonds broken = (+) bonds formed = (-) Typically, we ignore the initiation step since it happens only once, where as the propagation steps can happen thousands of times. step break methyl - bond +435 KJ/mol form - bond -431 KJ/mol Δ = = +4 KJ/mol step 2 + break - bond +242 KJ/mol + form - bond -349 KJ/mol Δ = -107 KJ/mol Δ rxn = = -103 KJ/mol To find the overall enthalpy of reaction, add step 1 and step 2 to get (-107 KJ/mol + 4 KJ/mol) -103 KJ/mol. The reaction is exothermic and therefore favorable. If the same calculation is done for fluorination, we find that Δ is -426 KJ/mol. This is a very large amount of energy that is released for each step. As more molecules react, more energy is released, the reaction mixture heats up and reacts even faster. It quickly becomes uncontrollable. Free radical fluorinations are dangerously explosive. 18

19 . 4 If we do the same calculation for bromination, we find that the Δ = -30 KJ/mol, considerably less than that for chlorination and much less than that for fluorination. As we will see, free radical bromination reactions are much more selective than free radical chlorinations. For iodination, Δ = +54 KJ/mol. In the case of iodination, the reaction is unfavorable and free radical iodination reactions are not feasible. alogenation of igher Alkanes If the molecule is symmetrical, we get only one monochloro- product. 2, UV light But if the molecule is not symmetrical, a mixture of products can form. We see that the major product is the one that results from the formation of the secondary radical , UV light % 72% Since there are six primary hydrogens and only four secondary hydrogens, we would expect a mixture of 60% (6 of 10) 1-chlorobutane and 40% (4 of 10) of the 2-chlorobutane. But we see 72% of 2-chlorobutane. This tells us that the secondary radical is formed faster than the primary radical by a factor of 72/28 x 6/4 = 3.9/1. Bromination is even more selective. Tertiary hydrogens are abstracted selectively. For example, compare the product rations of free radical chlorination and free radical bromination of 2-methylpropane UV % 63% ere we see that there are nine primary hydrogens and only one tertiary hydrogen, so if primary hydrogens and tertiary hydrogens reacted at the same rate we would expect a product ratio of 10% 2-chloro-2-methyl propane and 90% 1-chloro-2-methylpropane. So clearly, the tertiary position reacts faster by a ratio of 37/63 x 9/1 =

20 . 4 For bromination the results are very striking: bromination is much more selective for removal of the tertiary hydrogen than chlorination. Doing the same calculation that we did before, we see that in the bromination reaction, the tertiary hydrogen reacts 99/1 x 9/1 = 891 times faster Br Br Br UV 3 3 >99% <1% The reason for this is that the first step in the chlorination reaction is quite exothermic (early transition state) for both primary and tertiary products while the first step in the bromination reaction is endothermic (late transition state) for both products form break form break Δ = -9 KJ/mol Δ = -31 KJ/mol Br Br 3 3 form Br = -366 break Br Br 3 3 form Br = -366 break Δ = +56 KJ/mol Δ = +34 KJ/mol ammond s postulate tells us that we have a late transition state in an endothermic reaction so that there is a large difference in energy between the transition states leading to the primary radical and the tertiary radical. 20

21 Potential Energy Br + ( 3 ) Endothermic reaction with a late transition state so that there is a lot of radical character in the transitions state and the difference in stability of a primary versus tertiary radical is important. eaction Progress The chlorination reaction is exothermic. Therefore there is an early transition state with little radical character and the difference in energy between the transition states is small. Potential Energy + ( 3 ) In the exothermic reation there is a relatively small difference in energy in the transition states since bond breaking is not very far advanced and there is little radical character. 3 eaction Progress

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde

Unit Vocabulary: o Organic Acid o Alcohol. o Ester o Ether. o Amine o Aldehyde Unit Vocabulary: Addition rxn Esterification Polymer Alcohol Ether Polymerization Aldehyde Fermentation Primary Alkane Functional group Saponification Alkene Halide (halocarbon) Saturated hydrocarbon Alkyne

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring.

Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached to a benzene ring. Chapter : rganic Compounds with xygen Alcohols, Ethers Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a carbon chain. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( H) attached to a benzene ring.

More information

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

More information

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule

More information

Chapter 6. Alkenes: Structure and Stability

Chapter 6. Alkenes: Structure and Stability hapter 6. Alkenes: Structure and Stability Steric Acid (saturated fatty acid) Linoleic Acid (unsaturated fatty acid) Degrees of unsaturation saturated hydrocarbon n 2n2 cycloalkane (1 ring) n 2n alkene

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch14_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Compounds with the -OH group attached to a saturated alkane-like carbon are known as A)

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

Addition Reactions of Carbon-Carbon Pi Bonds - Part 1

Addition Reactions of Carbon-Carbon Pi Bonds - Part 1 Addition eactions of arbon-arbon Pi Bonds - Part 1 3 δ+ 2 δ 3 3 3 + 2 3 2 3 What Is an Addition eaction? Addition reaction: Atoms or groups are added to opposite ends of a pi bond. X Y Why should I study

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur

Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur Chapter 12 Organic Compounds with Oxygen and Sulfur 1 Alcohols An alcohol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) that replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon. A phenol contains a hydroxyl group ( OH) attached

More information

Please read and sign the Honor Code statement below:

Please read and sign the Honor Code statement below: CHEM 3311 Exam #1 Name Dr. Minger June 8, 2015 Please read and sign the Honor Code statement below: I pledge that on my honor, as a University of Colorado at Boulder student, I have neither given nor received

More information

Organometallics Study Seminar Chapter 13: Metal-Ligand Multiple Bonds

Organometallics Study Seminar Chapter 13: Metal-Ligand Multiple Bonds Organometallics Study Seminar Chapter 13: Metal-Ligand Multiple Bonds Contents 1. Carbene Complexes 2. Silylene Complexes 3. Metal-Heteroatom Multiple Bonds 1. Carbene Complexes 1.1 Classes of Carbene

More information

pk a Values for Selected Compounds

pk a Values for Selected Compounds Appendix A pk a Values for Selected ompounds ompound pk a ompound pk a I 10 Br 9 2 S 4 9 + 3 3 7.3 3 S 3 7 Br 4.0 4.2 3 4.3 2 N l 7 [( 3 ) 2 ] + 3.8 [ 3 2 ] + 2.5 3 + 1.7 3 S 3 1.2 + 3 N2 0.0 F 3 0.2 l

More information

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1 Section 1.1: Alkanes Mini Investigation: Arranging Carbon Atoms, page 10 A. Three different molecules of C 5 H 12 are possible. B. Five arrangements are possible for C 6 H 14, as predicted: H 3 C CH 2

More information

Alkyl Halides and Nucleophilic Substitution

Alkyl Halides and Nucleophilic Substitution smi97462_ch07.qxd 11/4/04 2:51 PM APTE Page 220 Alkyl alides and Nucleophilic Substitution Adrenaline (or epinephrine), a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland, increases blood pressure and heart rate,

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3 s for Chapter PRBLEM Assuming that the molecular ion is the base peak (00% abundance) what peaks would appear in the mass spectrum of each of these molecules: (a) C5Br (b) C60 (c) C64Br In cases (a) and

More information

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Exam Points 1. Nomenclature (1) 30

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Exam Points 1. Nomenclature (1) 30 Chem 316 Final Exam Winter, 2008 Beauchamp ame: Topic Total Points Exam Points 1. omenclature (1) 30 Credit 2. Explanation of elative eactivities of Aromatic 20 Compounds or Carbonyl Compounds 3. eactions

More information

Chemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1

Chemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 hemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 ARB SKELETS arbon has a unique role in the cell because of its ability to form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. Thus carbon atoms can join to form chains.

More information

Hydrogen Bonds The electrostatic nature of hydrogen bonds

Hydrogen Bonds The electrostatic nature of hydrogen bonds Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonds have played an incredibly important role in the history of structural biology. Both the structure of DNA and of protein a-helices and b-sheets were predicted based largely

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

Double Bonds. Hydration Rxns. Hydrogenation Rxns. Halogenation. Formation of epoxides. Syn addition of 2 OH. Ozonolysis

Double Bonds. Hydration Rxns. Hydrogenation Rxns. Halogenation. Formation of epoxides. Syn addition of 2 OH. Ozonolysis Double Bonds What do we do with double bonds? We do addition reactions. In an addition reaction, something is added to both carbons involved in a double bond (or not involved in the double bond, in the

More information

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond)

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Weak bonds are those forces of attraction that, in biological situations, do not take a large amount of energy to break. For example, hydrogen bonds are broken by energies

More information

Carbonyl Chemistry (12 Lectures)

Carbonyl Chemistry (12 Lectures) arbonyl hemistry (12 Lectures) Aim of ourse Professor Donna G. Blackmond d.blackmond@imperial.ac.uk tel. 41193 oom 639 1 To build upon elements of Dr E.. Smith s and Dr. D.. Braddocks s course. To introduce

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula

Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula Calculating the Degrees of Unsaturation From a Compound s Molecular Formula Alkanes have the molecular formula C n. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons because each member of the family has the maximum

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry The Southeastern Dual Enrollment Chemistry Program is a program whereby high school students are given the opportunity to take college

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Activation of Carbon-Hydrogen Bonds at Transition Metal Centers!

Activation of Carbon-Hydrogen Bonds at Transition Metal Centers! Activation of arbon-ydrogen Bonds at Transition Metal enters! Thanks to John Bercaw for many nice figures for this lecture! oxidative addition/reductive elimination [L n M q ] L n M q2 L n M q σ complex

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction The function and chemical properties of proteins are determined by its three-dimensional structure. The final architecture of the protein

More information

Section 3.3: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules

Section 3.3: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules Section 3.3: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules Mini Investigation: Evidence for Polar Molecules, page 103 A. The polar liquids will all exhibit some type of bending toward charged materials. The nonpolar

More information

A Grignard reagent formed would deprotonate H of the ethyl alcohol OH.

A Grignard reagent formed would deprotonate H of the ethyl alcohol OH. 216 S11-E2 Page 2 Name Key I. (9 points) Answer in the boxes below the following questions for the Grignard reagent C 3 -Mg. (1) (2 points) Is the carbon atom associated with magnesium electrophilic or

More information

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

More information

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

More information

CHAPTER 6: ACID-BASE AND DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 6: ACID-BASE AND DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHEMISTRY 82 Chapter 6 Acid-ase and Donor-Acceptor Chemistry CATER 6: ACID-ASE AD DR-ACCETR CEMISTRY 6.1 Acid ase Definition a. Alr 3 r Lewis b. Cl 4 C 3 C Lewis, rønsted-lowry c. i 2+ 3 Lewis d. Cl 3 Lewis e. S

More information

This class deals with the fundamental structural features of proteins, which one can understand from the structure of amino acids, and how they are

This class deals with the fundamental structural features of proteins, which one can understand from the structure of amino acids, and how they are This class deals with the fundamental structural features of proteins, which one can understand from the structure of amino acids, and how they are put together. 1 A more detailed view of a single protein

More information

2. Couple the two protected amino acids.

2. Couple the two protected amino acids. General Considerations The Strategy of Peptide Synthesis Making peptide bonds between amino acids is not difficult. The challenge is connecting amino acids in the correct sequence. andom peptide bond formation

More information

Combinatorial Biochemistry and Phage Display

Combinatorial Biochemistry and Phage Display Combinatorial Biochemistry and Phage Display Prof. Valery A. Petrenko Director - Valery Petrenko Instructors Galina Kouzmitcheva and I-Hsuan Chen Auburn 2006, Spring semester COMBINATORIAL BIOCHEMISTRY

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units

a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units Chemical Bonds 1. Which of the following is NOT a true compound? a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler

More information

Where Is My Lone Pair?

Where Is My Lone Pair? Where Is My Lone Pair? Goal: In this tutorial we'll learn how to determine which orbital contains a lone pair. This is important for resonance, conjugation, and aromaticity. To master this subject you'll

More information

Examination of Proton NMR Spectra

Examination of Proton NMR Spectra Examination of Proton NMR Spectra What to Look For 1) Number of Signals --- indicates how many "different kinds" of protons are present. 2) Positions of the Signals --- indicates something about magnetic

More information

Aquagent. Pyridine-free volumetric Karl Fischer reagents

Aquagent. Pyridine-free volumetric Karl Fischer reagents Aquagent. Pyridine-free volumetric Karl Fischer reagents One-component reagents Two-component reagents Reagents for aldehyde and ketone analysis Working Media Dry solvents Standards Pyridine-free Fast

More information

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures Isomers ave same molecular formula, but different structures Constitutional Isomers Differ in the order of attachment of atoms (different bond connectivity) Stereoisomers Atoms are connected in the same

More information

5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity 5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

More information

Peptide Bond Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds to form polypepetide chain.

Peptide Bond Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds to form polypepetide chain. Peptide Bond Peptide Bond Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds to form polypepetide chain. + H 2 O 2 Peptide bonds are strong and not broken by conditions that denature proteins, such as heating.

More information

e. What are the compositions and uses of fractions of crude oil? f. How are further fractions lubricationg oils and waxes obtained?

e. What are the compositions and uses of fractions of crude oil? f. How are further fractions lubricationg oils and waxes obtained? CRUDE OIL AND ITS COMPOSITION 1. Use a textbook to answer the following questions: a. How was crude oil formed? b. What is crude oil chemically? c. How can the components of crude oil be separated? d.

More information

Substitution and Elimination Reactions. 7.1. Definitions. In an acid base reaction such as CH 3 CO 2 H + NH 3 CH 3 CO 2 + NH 4

Substitution and Elimination Reactions. 7.1. Definitions. In an acid base reaction such as CH 3 CO 2 H + NH 3 CH 3 CO 2 + NH 4 Substitution and Elimination Reactions. 7.1. Definitions. In an acid base reaction such as CH 3 CO 2 H + NH 3 CH 3 CO 2 + NH 4 +, the N acts as a nucleophile (Greek for loving the nucleus), the H acts

More information

The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below.

The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. Q. Methanol can be made when methane reacts with oxygen. (a) The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. (i) What is the energy change represented by A? () (ii) Use the energy level diagram

More information

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I PREPARED BY: NICOLE HELDT SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Unit 5 Practice Test. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 5 Practice Test. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 5 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The internal energy of a system is always increased by. A) adding

More information

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Questions- Proteins & Enzymes A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Reaction of the intact peptide

More information

Name: Class: Date: 3) The bond angles marked a, b, and c in the molecule below are about,, and, respectively.

Name: Class: Date: 3) The bond angles marked a, b, and c in the molecule below are about,, and, respectively. Name: Class: Date: Unit 9 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The basis of the VSEPR model of molecular bonding is. A) regions of

More information

Bioremediation. Biodegradation

Bioremediation. Biodegradation Bioremediation A technology that encourages growth and reproduction of indigenous microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) to enhance biodegradation of organic constituents in the saturated zone Can effectively

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

AS/A Level GCE. GCE Chemistry A. version 4 September 2013. OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434

AS/A Level GCE. GCE Chemistry A. version 4 September 2013. OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434 AS/A Level GCE GCE Chemistry A OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Chemistry A H034 OCR Advanced GCE in Chemistry A H434 version 4 September 2013 QAN 500/2425/5 QAN 500/2347/0 Contents 1 About these Qualifications

More information

18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview

18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview 18.2 Protein Structure and Function: An Overview Protein: A large biological molecule made of many amino acids linked together through peptide bonds. Alpha-amino acid: Compound with an amino group bonded

More information

Believe it or not, the answer to this question is still the subject

Believe it or not, the answer to this question is still the subject A Review of General hemistry ELETRS, BDS, AD MLEULAR PRPERTIES DID YU EVER WDER... what causes lightning? Believe it or not, the answer to this question is still the subject of debate (that s right scientists

More information

[1] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616]

[1] [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616] Supplementary Information for Multi-generation gas-phase oxidation, equilibrium partitioning, and the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol Christopher D. Cappa 1, Kevin R. Wilson [1] [Department

More information

AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions

AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. AP Central is the official online

More information

SOLID SUPPORTS AND CATALYSTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

SOLID SUPPORTS AND CATALYSTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS SOLID SUPPORTS AND CATALYSTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS Editor Professor K. SMITH, M.SC,PhD. Head of Department of Chemistry University College of Swansea Wales ELLIS HORWOOD PTR PRENTICE HALL NEW YORK LONDON

More information

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics

More information

Biochemistry - I. Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-11 Enzyme Mechanisms II

Biochemistry - I. Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-11 Enzyme Mechanisms II Biochemistry - I Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-11 Enzyme Mechanisms II In the last class we studied the enzyme mechanisms of ribonuclease A

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

PROTEINS THE PEPTIDE BOND. The peptide bond, shown above enclosed in the blue curves, generates the basic structural unit for proteins.

PROTEINS THE PEPTIDE BOND. The peptide bond, shown above enclosed in the blue curves, generates the basic structural unit for proteins. Ca 2+ The contents of this module were developed under grant award # P116B-001338 from the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), United States Department of Education. However, those

More information

Ionization of amino acids

Ionization of amino acids Amino Acids 20 common amino acids there are others found naturally but much less frequently Common structure for amino acid COOH, -NH 2, H and R functional groups all attached to the a carbon Ionization

More information

The chemical interactions of the template molecule are primarily dependent on the choice of polymer

The chemical interactions of the template molecule are primarily dependent on the choice of polymer Study of the Surface Morphology of Methyl 4-nitrobenzoate Template Thin-film Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Gary Kaganas Dartmouth College and Center for Nanomaterials Research at Dartmouth, Hanover NH

More information

The peptide bond Peptides and proteins are linear polymers of amino acids. The amino acids are

The peptide bond Peptides and proteins are linear polymers of amino acids. The amino acids are Introduction to Protein Structure Proteins are large heteropolymers usually comprised of 50 2500 monomer units, although larger proteins are observed 7. The monomer units of proteins are amino acids. The

More information

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A115_E. Metric thread M 1.5 pitch CEI EN 60423 CEI EN 50262

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A115_E. Metric thread M 1.5 pitch CEI EN 60423 CEI EN 50262 reduced cable entry Metric thread M 1.5 pitch CEI EN 60423 CEI EN 50262 Ref. P Fixing A B C L Light Hole min-max Spanner min-max Quantity Grey (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 1900S.M16N M16x1,5 16,5 6-9,5 19

More information

Dough rises fairly quickly in the presence of a leavening agent,

Dough rises fairly quickly in the presence of a leavening agent, 3 3.1 Introduction to Brønsted Lowry Acids and Bases 3.2 Flow of Electron Density: urvedarrow otation 3.3 BrønstedLowry Acidity: Quantitative Perspective 3.4 BrønstedLowry Acidity: Qualitative Perspective

More information

How do we determine which molecule is more basic?

How do we determine which molecule is more basic? How do we determine which molecule is more basic? One way to determine is by considering molecules structure, because structure can affect basicity of a molecule. Let s start with this concept. Higher

More information

1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water

1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water The Physics and Chemistry of Water 1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water Stoichiometric composition H 2 O the average lifetime of a molecule is 1 ms due to proton exchange (catalysed by acids

More information

Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water

Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Lecture 1 Introduction, Noncovalent Bonds, and Properties of Water Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 1 problems in textbook: chapter 1, pp. 23-24, #1,2,3,6,7,8,9, 10,11; practice problems at end

More information

Amino Acids as Acids, Bases and Buffers:

Amino Acids as Acids, Bases and Buffers: Amino Acids as Acids, Bases and Buffers: - Amino acids are weak acids - All have at least 2 titratable protons (shown below as fully protonated species) and therefore have 2 pka s o α-carboxyl (-COOH)

More information

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire.

ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1. NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES 10 10.1 DISTILLATION NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire. The most common methods of distillation are simple distillation

More information

CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 13. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only.

CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 13. Generated by Foxit PDF Creator Foxit Software http://www.foxitsoftware.com For evaluation only. Generated by Foxit PDF reator Foxit Software Pd- AND f-blk RGANETALLIS PAn organometallic compound must contain P a carbon-metal bond. PBook, p. 459, gives list of common ligands P An over-view of organometallics

More information

KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA

KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA Név:... osztály:... ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2009. május 14. KÉMIA ANGOL NYELVEN KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA 2009. május 14. 8:00 Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 120 perc Pótlapok száma Tisztázati Piszkozati OKTATÁSI

More information

Water. Definition: A mole (or mol ) Water can IONIZE transiently. NONpolar covalent molecules do not dissolve in water + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Water. Definition: A mole (or mol ) Water can IONIZE transiently. NONpolar covalent molecules do not dissolve in water + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Today s Topics Polar Covalent Bonds ydrogen bonding Properties of water p Water C bonds are Nonpolar Will these molecules dissolve in water? Start Macromolecules Carbohydrates & Lipids Sept 4, 05 Why are

More information

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Crystalline solids. A) have their particles arranged randomly B) have

More information

Molecular-Orbital Theory

Molecular-Orbital Theory Molecular-Orbital Theory 1 Introduction Orbitals in molecules are not necessarily localized on atoms or between atoms as suggested in the valence bond theory. Molecular orbitals can also be formed the

More information

Chapter 4, Lesson 4: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding

Chapter 4, Lesson 4: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding Chapter 4, Lesson 4: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding Key Concepts The electrons on the outermost energy level of the atom are called valence electrons. The valence electrons are involved

More information

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A17_E

PRODUCT DATA SHEET PDS A17_E Multi-entry seal plugs Ref. A L Suitable Quantity for Box/Bag Seal (mm) (mm) TGM38 36A3M1623 3 8 5.000/100 TGM48 36A3M1624 + 36A3M2034 + 36A3M2554 4 8 5.000/100 TGM58 36A3M2025 5 8 5.000/100 TGM513 36A3M2545

More information

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids 1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)

More information

NaCl Lattice Science Activities

NaCl Lattice Science Activities NaCl Lattice Science Activities STEM: The Science of Salt Using a Salt Lattice Model Teacher Notes Science Activities A Guided-Inquiry Approach Using the 3D Molecular Designs NaCl Lattice Model Classroom

More information

Organic Qualitative Analysis

Organic Qualitative Analysis PART 4 rganic Qualitative Analysis rganic chemists must regularly identify the compounds that are formed in chemical reactions or isolated from natural sources. Discovering the identity of an unknown organic

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

More information