# Thermochemistry: study of the relationships between chemistry and energy. Energy: capacity to do work

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1 Chapter 6: Thermochemistry Thermochemistry: study of the relationships between chemistry and energy Energy: capacity to do work Work:result of a force acting over a certain distance, one way to transfer energy Types of energy: Kinetic energy: energy of motion Thermal energy:energy associated with temperature, transferred by heat Potential energy: energy of position or composition Chemical energy: energy associated with the composition of chemical compounds System and surroundings The transfer of energy can be considered in terms of a system and its surroundings System: a specific place or substance Surroundings: everything outside of the system In thermochemistry, the system is usually a chemical reaction, and it can use heat and work to transfer energy to or from its surroundings: Combustion of natural gas in a furnace Combustion of gasoline in a car's engine Chemical cold pack Law of conservation of energy: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred One object to another One type of energy to another Units of energy: joule (J) = 1 kg m 2 s -2 (SI unit) calorie (cal) = J (heat 1 g H 2 O 1 o C) Calorie (Cal) = 1 kcal = 1000 cal (food labels) kilowatt-hour (kwh) = 3.60 x 10 6 J ch6blank Page 1 ch6blank Page 2

2 First law of thermodynamics 1st law: the total energy of the universe is constant law of conservation of energy perpetual motion? Internal energy(e):sum of all forms of kinetic and potential energy in a certain system Internal energy is a state function: it depends onlyon the makeup of the system itself at one point in time, not its history (it doesn't add up over time) Work and heat The change in a system's internal energy, ΔE, depends on how much work (w)was done and how much heat was transferred (q): ΔE= q+ w (ΔE= E final -E initial ) Signs are always considered from the system's perspective. If energy flows outofthe system, ΔEis: If energy flows intothe system, ΔEis: If heat flows outofthe system, qis: If heat flows into the system, qis: Measuring heat: Heat always transfers thermal energy from areas of temperature to areas of temperature Heat capacity (C): heat required to raise the temperature of an object by 1 o C Units: The change in any state function can be considered: ΔE= E final -E initial Specific heat capacity (C s or s):heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substanceby 1 o C Units: ch6blank Page 3 ch6blank Page 4

3 Calculating heat transfers For an object, q= For a certain mass of a substance, q= How much energy is required to heat 50.0 g water from 25.0 o C to o C? Reaction work What if the system is a chemical reactionthat gives off or absorbs heat? ΔE rxn = q+ w The most common work a chemical reaction does is expanding gases against an exterior pressure (pressure-volume work). How long will this take a 1000 W hotplate (assuming all of the heat is transferred to the water)? (1 W = 1 J/s) w= -PΔV But usually we are mostly interested in the heat exchanged with the surroundings If ΔV= 0, w= 0 and ΔE rxn = q V (constant volume) If Pis constant, we can use a different state function called enthalpy to only consider heat transferred. ch6blank Page 5 ch6blank Page 6

4 Constant-volume calorimetry A bomb calorimeteris used to measure ΔE rxn Constant-volume calorimetery q cal = C cal Δt (C cal is given) q rxn = -q cal ΔE rxn = (q rxn ) /n 2.14 g C 5 H 12 is combusted in a bomb calorimeter and the temperature rises from o C to o C. The heat capacity of the calorimeter is 6.23 kj/ o C. What is ΔEfor the combustion of C 5 H 12 in kj/mol? ΔE rxn = q+ w w= -PΔV If ΔV= 0, w= 0 and ΔE rxn = q V (constant volume) qis a measurable energy transfer for a certain experimental process State functions like ΔEare more general -they're given for a balanced chemical equation or per mole of a substance q cal = C cal Δt (C cal is given) q rxn = -q cal ΔE rxn = q rxn /n ch6blank Page 7 ch6blank Page 8

5 ΔH, Change in enthalpy It's more convenient to do a reaction open to the atmosphere, where pressure is constant. The heat exchanged in a specific experiment is q P and its related state function for a general process is ΔH: change in enthalpy. Since ΔHonly involves the heat given off or absorbed, it has the same sign conventions as q: Endothermic reaction: heat is transferred from surroundings to system (inwards) ΔH is: Thermochemical equations ΔH rxn is always given per a balanced chemical equation. Thermochemical equation: balanced chemical equation thermochemical state function (ΔH rxn ) molar interpretation (coefficients = # moles) 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(g); ΔH rxn = kj How much heat (in kj) is given off when 20.0 g H 2 react with excess oxygen? Exothermic reaction: heat is transferred from system to surroundings (outwards) ΔH is: ch6blank Page 9 ch6blank Page 10

6 Constant-pressure calorimetry ΔH rxn can be measured using a constant-pressure calorimeter Constant-pressure calorimetry problem 50.0 ml of MH 2 SO 4 (aq) were added to 20.0 ml of MNaOH in a coffee-cup calorimeter. The temperature rose from o C to o C. Assume C s = J/g o C. What is q rxn in kj? We assume all of the heat lost by the reaction is gained by the solution (or vice-versa), and since there is a varying amount of solution, we use its specific heat capacity (C s or s) q soln = (m soln )(C s,soln )(Δt) q rxn = If the reaction is made only of dilute solutions, you can make these assumptions: C s,soln = C s,water = J/g o C m solutions = m water d solutions = 1 g/ml What is ΔH rxn for the following balanced chemical equation? H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NaOH(aq) Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l); ΔH rxn =? Find the limiting reactant (LR): What is n LR for the reaction that was performed? ΔH rxn = coefficient LR x q rxn n LR ch6blank Page 11 ch6blank Page 12

7 ΔHand Hess's Law Thermochemical state functions like ΔHare given for a certain chemical equation, where coefficients = # mol Doubling coefficients doubles ΔH, etc. 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(g); ΔH= kj 4 H 2 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) 4 H 2 O(g); ΔH= 1 H 2 (g) + 2O 2 (g) H 2 O(g); ΔH= Reversing an equation changes the sign of ΔH 6 H 2 O(g) 6 H 2 (g) + 3 O 2 (g); ΔH= Adding equations adds their ΔH values Hess's law practice Find ΔH rxn for the following reaction: 4 NH 3 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H 2 O(g); ΔH=? Use the following reactions with known ΔH values: 1. N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 NO(g); ΔH= kj 2. N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g); ΔH= kj 3. 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(g); ΔH= kj Find ΔH rxn for the following reaction: CO(g) + NO(g) CO 2 (g) + 2N 2 (g); ΔH=? Use the following reactions with known ΔH values: 1 CO(g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g); ΔH= kj N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2NO(g); ΔH= kj 1 ch6blank Page 13 ch6blank Page 14

8 Standard enthalpies of formation Standard thermodynamic states: gases: 1 atm liquids or solids: most stable form, 1 atm, 25 o C solutions: 1 M concentration Some common standard states: H 2 Fe Hg Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 C(graphite) Standard enthalpy of formation: ΔH o f enthalpy change when 1 mol of a compound is formed from its elements in their standard states Using standard enthalpies of formation Calculate ΔH o for the following reaction using standard enthalpies of formation: 4 NH 3 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H 2 O(g); ΔH o =? Compound ΔH fo (kj/mol) NH 3 (g) O 2 (g) NO(g) 90.3 H 2 O(g) ΔH o rxn= ΣnΔH fo (products) -ΣnΔH fo (reactants) Write the chemical equation for ΔH fo of NaCl(s) Write the chemical equation for ΔH fo of NH 3 (g) ΔH fo for any element in its standard state = 0 ch6blank Page 15 ch6blank Page 16

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