History of Gravity. Name: Date: Period:

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "History of Gravity. Name: Date: Period:"

Transcription

1 History of Gravity Name: Date: Period: I. ANCIENT ASTRONOMY Imagine what it was like for the first humans to look up at the night sky. This is well before the invention of modern technology. There were no telescopes, no cameras, and certainly no computers. Try to imagine what it was like for ancient humans to look up at the night sky. (a) As time passes during the night, what do we see happen to the stars in the sky? (b) How do you think ancient humans would have explained this motion? 2. THE WANDERERS As time passed, people started making closer and closer observations of the stars. Instead of just looking at the sky over the course of a single night, astronomers started to look at the stars over a series of nights. They noticed that not all of the stars moved together. In fact, five of them appeared to wander across the sky. They called these the wanderers or in Greek: planets. (a) How did the ancient Greek know that the planets were different from the stars? (b) Why, do you think, did the ancient Greeks call the planets wanderers? 3. ARISTOTLE S MODEL Aristotle applied his formal system of logic to explain the motion of the planets and stars. He proposed that the planets and stars are each attached to giant crystalline spheres which all spin around Earth. (a) Why did the spheres which carried the planets have to be made of crystal? (b) Why do you think Aristotle said the solar system was geocentric? 4. NEW EVIDENCE As time passed, new tools were invented which allowed astronomers to keep detailed records of the positions of the planets in the night sky. They could now track the location of the planets not just over several days, but over years! They found that the planets do not move in circles like Aristotle thought. (a) Along what path do the planets move across the sky? Describe it! Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 (b) What does this new evidence tell us about Aristotle s model of the solar system? Gravitation Page #1 10/23/12

2 5. PTOLEMY S MODEL Ptolemy attempted to fix Aristotle s model by saying that planets were attached to a smaller crystal sphere which was itself attached to the larger crystal spheres. These smaller spheres would move around in what he called an epicycle while the larger sphere moved in a circle around the Earth. (a) Draw a picture of the path Mars follows around the Earth according to Ptolemy. (b) Summarize how Ptolemy explained the retrograde motion of Mars. 6. A MORE SIMPLE EXPLANATION About 1,500 years after Ptolemy, an astronomer named Copernicus revolutionized our understanding of the solar system. Copernicus said that the retrograde motion of Mars could be more easily explained if we simply placed the Sun at the center of the solar system and set the Earth and all the other planets in circular motion around the Sun. (a) Summarize how Copernicus explained the retrograde motion of Mars. (b) Contrast the main differences between Ptolemy s and Copernicus s models. 7. THE LAW OF HARMONY Using the best astronomical data available at the time, Kepler created a precise mathematical model of the solar system based entirely upon detailed observation data of the planets. His model proved the heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus, with one exception: the planets actually orbit on elliptical (oval) paths, not perfect circles. In addition, Kepler also discovered that the cube of the radius of a planet s orbit is equal to the square of its period. This relationship is known as the law of harmony. Our long journey towards understanding the solar system has finally led to a mathematical model which can, for the first time, accurately predict the position of the planets! (a) Summarize the relationship that Kepler discovered between all the planets. (b) Write down the mathematical expression for the law of harmony:

3 Universal Gravitation Name: Date: Period: I. BE NEWTON FOR A DAY When Isaac Newton was 22 years old, he derived the law of universal gravitation. This is how he did it 1. Along what path does a body travel when there is no force acting on it? 2. Along what path does the Moon travel? 3. What is required to travel in a circle? 4. What does this say about the Moon? 5. What relationship did Newton discover between force, mass, and acceleration? 6. What is the equation for the acceleration of a body in circular motion? 7. What is the speed in circular motion? 8. Square all the terms in part 7 to find v². 9. Substitute the speed-squared into part Substitute the acceleration into part 5. In our last lesson we learned about Kepler s law of harmony: the radius of a planet s orbit cubed divided by the square of the planet s period is a constant value Rearrange Kepler s Rule to solve for 𝑇². 12. Substitute 𝑇² into part 10. =𝐾 𝑇2 In an effort to explain the law of harmony, Newton created his hypothesis of universal gravitation: any two masses in the universe will attract each other. The force acting on the moon must come from the mass of the earth pulling on the mass of the moon. Since our expression for this force in part 12 only has the mass of the moon, the mass of the earth must be hidden inside Kepler s constant! 13. Start with the constant pieces from part 12, split off M from K and name what s leftover G. 14. Substitute the result from 13 into part 12. 4𝜋 2 𝐾 = 𝐺𝑀 Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 Gravitation Page #2 10/27/14

4 II. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION According to Newton s universal gravitation, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two objects depends only on the mass of each object and the distance between the two objects. Newton said it like this: gravity varies directly with mass and inversely with the square of the distance. 15. Write the law of universal gravitation. 16. What does the 𝐺 stand for? 17. Is there another way to write the law of universal gravitation without using 𝐺? 18. Write universal gravitation as a proportionality in order to remove 𝐺. 19. According to universal gravitation, what is the relationship between the force of gravity and (a) mass? (b) distance? III. GRAVITY PROPORTIONS Two spheres gravitationally attract one another. The force between them is measured to be 100 N. Draw an arrow on the diagram to represent the force acting on each mass. 20. Calculate the gravitational force if the mass of the left sphere were doubled. Draw an arrow on the diagram to represent this new force Calculate the gravitational force if the distance between the two masses were doubled. Draw an arrow on the diagram to represent this new force.

5 Gravity Proportions Name: Date: Period: I. INVERSE SQUARE LAW Newton said the strength of gravity varies inversely with the square of distance. This is known as the inverse square law As the distance increases, the influence of gravity is spread out over a greater area, which reduces its overall strength. 1. Use the inverse square law to determine the missing factor. (a) 2 (b) 1 2 (c) 3 (d) 1 5 (e) 1 4 (f) 9 (k) 16 (l) II. WHAT IF BOTH DISTANCE AND MASS CHANGE? Two spheres gravitationally attract one another. The mass and distance of the spheres are unknown, but we measure the force between them to be 20 N. For each situation, draw a new picture and use universal gravitation to calculate the new force. 2. right mass: /4 left mass: 2 distance: / N 3. right mass: 3 left mass: 2 distance: /2 4. right mass: /2 left mass: 3 distance: 2 Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 Gravitation Page #3 10/27/14

6 III. PROPORTION PROBLEMS The force of gravity between two objects of mass separated by distance 𝑟 is measured to be 100 N (pictured to the right). Using this information, answer each of the following questions for the arrangement of masses shown below where each mass is separated by the same distance. 100 N A B C D E F 4 3 / What is the force between masses A and E? 6. What is the force between masses C and E? 7. What is the force between masses A and B? 8. What is the force between masses A and C? 9. What is the force between masses D and F? 10. What is the force between masses B and E? 11. What is the force between masses C and D? 12. What is the force between masses C and F?

7 Acceleration of Gravity Name: Date: Period: I. WHAT EXACTLY IS LITTLE G? While standing on a planet, the mass of the planet pulls the mass of your body downward. This force is called your weight; it is a measure of the gravitational attraction between your body and the Earth. 1. Applying Newton s 2nd Law, what is the formula for weight? 2. Applying universal gravitation, what is the formula for weight? 3. At the surface of Earth, what two masses and one distance determine your weight? 4. Combine Newton s 2nd law and universal gravitation to find an expression for. 5. The radius of Earth is meters and the mass of Earth is acceleration of gravity at the surface of Earth? kilograms. What is the II. NEWTON TESTS HIS HYPOTHESIS Newton s hypothesis of gravity was that any two masses attract each other. In order for his hypothesis to advance to the status of scientific theory, it would have to be tested. Newton s test was to calculate the distance the moon falls in one second. He would make this calculation first using geometry and then using universal gravitation. If the two different methods gave the same result, then he would know that his hypothesis was correct. 6. Using geometry, Newton calculated that the moon falls 1.4 mm in one second. Now we ll use universal gravitation to calculate this distance. (a) What is the acceleration of gravity from Earth at the moon s orbit? (b) How far does the moon fall in one second? 7. What does this result tell us about Newton s hypothesis of gravity? 8. Now that the hypothesis has been tested, what do we call it? Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 Gravitation Page #5 10/28/13

8 9. While standing on Planet, with radius of and a mass of, you measure the acceleration of gravity to be 10 m/s². The table below gives the radius and mass of several other planets. Your job is to determine on each of the other planets. Planet Planet Planet Planet Planet,,,,, (a) What is at the surface of planet? (b) What is at the surface of planet? (c) What is at the surface of planet? (d) What is at the surface of planet? 10. On which planet would you weight the most? Planet Planet Planet Planet Justify your answer: Planet 11. Your friend thinks you would weigh the most on Planet. She says that the force of gravity gets stronger with more mass; therefore you would weigh more on the biggest planet. Explain why your friend is wrong.

9 Name: Gravitation Practice Test Date: Period: I. VOCABULARY If the underlined word is used incorrectly, cross it out and replace it with the correct word. 1. The law of universal acceleration says: there is an repulsive force between any two masses. 2. Newton found that the force of gravity varies directly with the distance and inversely with the square of the force. 3. When the distance between two objects is tripled, the force is one-fourth as strong. 4. Gravity is a very strong force, it is barely noticeable unless the masses are small. 5. Your weight on a planet depends on the shape and color of the planet. II. FORCE OF GRAVITY DRAWINGS 6. Draw arrows to indicate the magnitude of the force of gravity acting between each pair of masses. III. MULTIPLE CHOICE 7. Which of the following best explains why an object has less weight on top of a mountain? A B C D Because you are closer to space. The atmosphere is lighter. The mountain adds more mass. The mountain adds more distance. 8. On a planet with twice the radius and twice the mass of the earth, your weight would be equal to your weight on earth times a factor of A 1/4 B 2 C 1/2 D 4 IV. GRAVITY PROPORTION PROBLEMS 20 N 9. What is the gravitational force on mass A from (a) mass B? (show work!) (b) mass C? (show work!) 20 N??𝑁??𝑁 B A C 2 4 Fremont Physics Kepple 2011 Gravitation Page #6 10. What is the net force on mass A? 11. In which direction will mass A accelerate?

10 Gravitation Study Guide MAJOR CONCEPTS: The law of universal gravitation states that any two masses will attract each other. The force of gravity is directly proportional to mass and inversely proportional to the square of distance. The force of gravity extends infinitely in all directions, but it gets weaker with distance. FORCE OF GRAVITY DRAWINGS The force of gravity increases with mass and decreases with distance. The length of the arrow indicates the strength of the force. The longer the arrow, the stronger the force. Gravity is a very weak force, it is barely noticeable unless the mass involved is huge. Your weight on a planet depends only upon the mass and radius of the planet, not the size of the planet. Because the moon has tangential velocity, it orbits Earth instead of crashing into it. FORCE OF GRAVITY PROPORTIONS The relations within the law of gravitation are FORCE and MASS are DIRECT! STRONGER (more mass) FORCE and DISTANCE are INVERSE SQUARE! 2 m F 2 r F WEAKER (more distance) 2 m F 2 r F GRAVITATION PROPORTION PROBLEMS If the force of gravity between two masses is given, you can figure out the other forces. B 20 N?? N A 20 N m m m?? N 2m m 3m C Ex1. What is the force between masses A and B? F Mm r 2 2 F AB 2F Ex2. What is the force between masses B and C? F Mm 2 3 r F BC 3 2 F

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart.

Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. Physics Unit Exam, Kinematics 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by

More information

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction CHAPTER 1 SECTION Matter in Motion 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is gravity? How are weight and mass different?

More information

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity 1. Earth s gravity attracts a person with a force of 120 lbs. The force with which the Earth is attracted towards the person is A. Zero. B. Small but

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

More information

Name Class Date. true

Name Class Date. true Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

More information

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System

Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in. our Solar System Vocabulary - Understanding Revolution in Universe Galaxy Solar system Planet Moon Comet Asteroid Meteor(ite) Heliocentric Geocentric Satellite Terrestrial planets Jovian (gas) planets Gravity our Solar

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Background Information System: Many pieces that make up a whole Solar System: Anything that orbits the Sun Just like in the formation of of stars.. Gravity plays a major role. Gravitational

More information

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following:

The Solar System. Unit 4 covers the following framework standards: ES 10 and PS 11. Content was adapted the following: Unit 4 The Solar System Chapter 7 ~ The History of the Solar System o Section 1 ~ The Formation of the Solar System o Section 2 ~ Observing the Solar System Chapter 8 ~ The Parts the Solar System o Section

More information

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium

Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium Exercise: Estimating the Mass of Jupiter Difficulty: Medium OBJECTIVE The July / August observing notes for 010 state that Jupiter rises at dusk. The great planet is now starting its grand showing for

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction Section 1 Gravity: A Force of Attraction Key Concept Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses. What You Will Learn Gravity affects all matter, including the parts of

More information

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics. Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre

AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics. Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre AE554 Applied Orbital Mechanics Hafta 1 Egemen Đmre A bit of history the beginning Astronomy: Science of heavens. (Ancient Greeks). Astronomy existed several thousand years BC Perfect universe (like circles

More information

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton

Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13. Gravitation. Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton Halliday, Resnick & Walker Chapter 13 Gravitation Physics 1A PHYS1121 Professor Michael Burton II_A2: Planetary Orbits in the Solar System + Galaxy Interactions (You Tube) 21 seconds 13-1 Newton's Law

More information

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets?

Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy. 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? Grade 6 Standard 3 Unit Test A Astronomy Multiple Choice 1. The four inner planets are rocky and small. Which description best fits the next four outer planets? A. They are also rocky and small. B. They

More information

Educator Guide to S LAR SYSTEM. 1875 El Prado, San Diego CA 92101 (619) 238-1233 www.rhfleet.org

Educator Guide to S LAR SYSTEM. 1875 El Prado, San Diego CA 92101 (619) 238-1233 www.rhfleet.org Educator Guide to S LAR SYSTEM 1875 El Prado, San Diego CA 92101 (619) 238-1233 www.rhfleet.org Pre-Visit Activity: Orbital Paths Materials: Plastic Plate Marble Scissors To Do: 1. Put the plate on a flat

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

The orbit of Halley s Comet

The orbit of Halley s Comet The orbit of Halley s Comet Given this information Orbital period = 76 yrs Aphelion distance = 35.3 AU Observed comet in 1682 and predicted return 1758 Questions: How close does HC approach the Sun? What

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System

Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Unit 8 Lesson 2 Gravity and the Solar System Gravity What is gravity? Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses and the distances between them. Every object in the universe

More information

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12

2. Orbits. FER-Zagreb, Satellite communication systems 2011/12 2. Orbits Topics Orbit types Kepler and Newton laws Coverage area Influence of Earth 1 Orbit types According to inclination angle Equatorial Polar Inclinational orbit According to shape Circular orbit

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks)

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science Grade 6. Unit Organizer: UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM (Approximate Time 3 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it.

Forces. When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces When an object is pushed or pulled, we say that a force is exerted on it. Forces can Cause an object to start moving Change the speed of a moving object Cause a moving object to stop moving Change

More information

Gravity. in the Solar System. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

Gravity. in the Solar System. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book FOCUS Book Design a test to find out whether Earth s gravity always pulls straight down. A pendulum is a weight that hangs from a string or rod that can swing back and forth. Use string and metal washers

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

Why don t planets crash into each other?

Why don t planets crash into each other? 1 Just as we know that the sun will rise every morning, we expect the planets and the moon to stay in their orbits. And rightly so. For 400 years, people have understood that the movements of Earth, the

More information

G U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M

G U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M G U I D E T O A P P L I E D O R B I T A L M E C H A N I C S F O R K E R B A L S P A C E P R O G R A M CONTENTS Foreword... 2 Forces... 3 Circular Orbits... 8 Energy... 10 Angular Momentum... 13 FOREWORD

More information

Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010

Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010 Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010 This Packet is a Study Guide, not a replacement for studying from your notes, tests, quizzes, and textbook. Midterm Date: Thursday, January 28 th 8:15-10:15 Room:

More information

Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum

Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely

More information

Related Standards and Background Information

Related Standards and Background Information Related Standards and Background Information Earth Patterns, Cycles and Changes This strand focuses on student understanding of patterns in nature, natural cycles, and changes that occur both quickly and

More information

Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions

Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions Chapter 3.8 & 6 Solutions P3.37. Prepare: We are asked to find period, speed and acceleration. Period and frequency are inverses according to Equation 3.26. To find speed we need to know the distance traveled

More information

Lesson 29: Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

Lesson 29: Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Lesson 29: Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation Let's say we start with the classic apple on the head version of Newton's work. Newton started with the idea that since the Earth is pulling on the apple,

More information

AP PHYSICS C Mechanics - SUMMER ASSIGNMENT FOR 2016-2017

AP PHYSICS C Mechanics - SUMMER ASSIGNMENT FOR 2016-2017 AP PHYSICS C Mechanics - SUMMER ASSIGNMENT FOR 2016-2017 Dear Student: The AP physics course you have signed up for is designed to prepare you for a superior performance on the AP test. To complete material

More information

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

1 Branches of Earth Science

1 Branches of Earth Science CHAPTER 1 1 Branches of Earth Science SECTION The World of Earth Science BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the four major branches of Earth

More information

Newton s derivation of Kepler s laws (outline)

Newton s derivation of Kepler s laws (outline) Newton s derivation of Kepler s laws (outline) 1. Brief history. The first known proposal for a heliocentric solar system is due to Aristarchus of Samos (ancient Greece, c. 270 BC). Following a long period

More information

Problem Set V Solutions

Problem Set V Solutions Problem Set V Solutions. Consider masses m, m 2, m 3 at x, x 2, x 3. Find X, the C coordinate by finding X 2, the C of mass of and 2, and combining it with m 3. Show this is gives the same result as 3

More information

How the Universe Works

How the Universe Works How the Universe Works Grades: 8 th Program Duration: 30 Min Program Type: Interactive Planetarium Program Program Description This presentation presents evidence that has baffled astronomers for years.

More information

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html

The Solar System. Source http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/starchild/solar_system_level1/solar_system.html The Solar System What is the solar system? It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg. Earth s orbit is nearly circular.

More information

The Solar System. I. Introduction. S. Gavin and S. P. Karrer Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201 sean@physics.wayne.

The Solar System. I. Introduction. S. Gavin and S. P. Karrer Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201 sean@physics.wayne. The Solar System S. Gavin and S. P. Karrer Physics Department, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201 sean@physics.wayne.edu I. Introduction As children we all learned that the Earth is one of many

More information

RETURN TO THE MOON. Lesson Plan

RETURN TO THE MOON. Lesson Plan RETURN TO THE MOON Lesson Plan INSTRUCTIONS FOR TEACHERS Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Links: Earth and Space (SNC 1D: D2.1, D2.2, D2.3, D2.4) Group Size: Groups of 2-4 students Preparation time: 1 hour

More information

Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy. Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014

Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy. Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014 Lecture 07: Work and Kinetic Energy Physics 2210 Fall Semester 2014 Announcements Schedule next few weeks: 9/08 Unit 3 9/10 Unit 4 9/15 Unit 5 (guest lecturer) 9/17 Unit 6 (guest lecturer) 9/22 Unit 7,

More information

DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION

DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION 1 DIRECT ORBITAL DYNAMICS: USING INDEPENDENT ORBITAL TERMS TO TREAT BODIES AS ORBITING EACH OTHER DIRECTLY WHILE IN MOTION Daniel S. Orton email: dsorton1@gmail.com Abstract: There are many longstanding

More information

Gravity? Depends on Where You Are!

Gravity? Depends on Where You Are! Gravity? Depends on Where You Are! Overview Gravity is one of the fundamental concepts of Physics. It is an abstract concept that benefits from activities that help illustrate it. This lesson plan involves

More information

USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION

USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION USING MS EXCEL FOR DATA ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION Ian Cooper School of Physics The University of Sydney i.cooper@physics.usyd.edu.au Introduction The numerical calculations performed by scientists and engineers

More information

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion Chapter 4: Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion 1. All except one of the following require the application of a net force. Which one is the exception? A. to change an object from a state of rest to a state

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

Satellites and Space Stations

Satellites and Space Stations Satellites and Space Stations A satellite is an object or a body that revolves around another object, which is usually much larger in mass. Natural satellites include the planets, which revolve around

More information

Computer Animations of Ancient Greek and Arabic Planetary Models

Computer Animations of Ancient Greek and Arabic Planetary Models Computer Animations of Ancient Greek and Arabic Planetary Models Dennis Duke, Florida State University A new set of computer animations is available for those who teach the ancient models of planetary

More information

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

More information

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits

Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits Section 4: The Basics of Satellite Orbits MOTION IN SPACE VS. MOTION IN THE ATMOSPHERE The motion of objects in the atmosphere differs in three important ways from the motion of objects in space. First,

More information

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1

THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SOLAR SYSTEM - EXERCISES 1 THE SUN AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM Name the planets in their order from the sun. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The asteroid belt is between and Which planet has the most moons? About how many?

More information

Chapter 1 Student Reading

Chapter 1 Student Reading Chapter 1 Student Reading Chemistry is the study of matter You could say that chemistry is the science that studies all the stuff in the entire world. A more scientific term for stuff is matter. So chemistry

More information

Gravity and Falling How does gravity work?

Gravity and Falling How does gravity work? Gravity and Falling How does gravity work? About the Activity Using a bucket with stretchy fabric stretched over it, allow visitors to experiment with marbles and weights to discover some basics about

More information

Contents. Stage 7. Stage 8. Stage 9. Contents. Key: Enquiry / Extension / Review BOLD PAGE NO. = in this booklet

Contents. Stage 7. Stage 8. Stage 9. Contents. Key: Enquiry / Extension / Review BOLD PAGE NO. = in this booklet Contents Contents Stage 7 1 1.1 Introduction to forces 8 1.2 Balanced forces 10 1.3 Friction 12 1.4 Gravity 14 1.5 Enquiry: Questions, evidence and explanations 16 1.6 Air resistance 18 1.7 Enquiry: Planning

More information

Unit 11: Gravity & the Solar System

Unit 11: Gravity & the Solar System Unit 11: Gravity & the Solar System Inquiry Physics www.inquiryphysics.org Historical development Kepler s Laws Newton s Universal Gravitation Next 11: Gravity & the Solar System Historical development

More information

Out of This World Classroom Activity

Out of This World Classroom Activity Out of This World Classroom Activity The Classroom Activity introduces students to the context of a performance task, so they are not disadvantaged in demonstrating the skills the task intends to assess.

More information

Some Basic Principles from Astronomy

Some Basic Principles from Astronomy Some Basic Principles from Astronomy The Big Question One of the most difficult things in every physics class you will ever take is putting what you are learning in context what is this good for? how do

More information

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE velocity Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second ( m s ). Velocity indicates the rate of change of the object s position ( r ); i.e., velocity tells you how

More information

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy

Douglas Adams The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy There is a theory which states that if ever anybody discovers exactly what the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable.

More information

Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods

Teaching Time: One-to-two 50-minute periods Lesson Summary Students create a planet using a computer game and change features of the planet to increase or decrease the planet s temperature. Students will explore some of the same principles scientists

More information

Mechanics 1: Conservation of Energy and Momentum

Mechanics 1: Conservation of Energy and Momentum Mechanics : Conservation of Energy and Momentum If a certain quantity associated with a system does not change in time. We say that it is conserved, and the system possesses a conservation law. Conservation

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry

Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry Orbital Mechanics and Space Geometry AERO4701 Space Engineering 3 Week 2 Overview First Hour Co-ordinate Systems and Frames of Reference (Review) Kepler s equations, Orbital Elements Second Hour Orbit

More information

Produced by Billy Hix and Terry Sue Fanning. As part of the TeachSpace Program. For more ideas and an image of the current phase of the moon, visit:

Produced by Billy Hix and Terry Sue Fanning. As part of the TeachSpace Program. For more ideas and an image of the current phase of the moon, visit: The Moon Phase Book Produced by Billy Hix and Terry Sue Fanning As part of the TeachSpace Program For more ideas and an image of the current phase of the moon, visit: www.teachspace.us Printing Date: 10/29/2010

More information

Lab 7: Gravity and Jupiter's Moons

Lab 7: Gravity and Jupiter's Moons Lab 7: Gravity and Jupiter's Moons Image of Galileo Spacecraft Gravity is the force that binds all astronomical structures. Clusters of galaxies are gravitationally bound into the largest structures in

More information

5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity.

5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. 5. Forces and Motion-I 1 Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. Newton's First Law: Consider a body on which no net force acts. If the body is at rest, it will

More information

NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook. Solar System Math. Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density

NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook. Solar System Math. Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Explorer Schools Pre-Algebra Unit Lesson 2 Student Workbook Solar System Math Comparing Mass, Gravity, Composition, & Density What interval of values

More information

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets 8.5 Motions of, the, and Planets axis axis North Pole South Pole rotation Figure 1 s axis is an imaginary line that goes through the planet from pole-to-pole. orbital radius the average distance between

More information

Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics

Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics Name Hr. The Buoyant Force (F b ) is the apparent loss of weight for an object submerged in a fluid. For example if you have an object immersed

More information

Balanced & Unbalanced Forces

Balanced & Unbalanced Forces 3 rd Grade Force in Motion An object's motion changes because of force. Pushing and Pulling are Kinds of Forces Motion is movement that changes an object's position. Pushing or pulling forces can be used

More information

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe

Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Earth Is Not the Center of the Universe Source: Utah State Office of Education Introduction Have you ever looked up at the night sky and wondered about all the pinpoint lights? People through the ages

More information

10.1. Solving Quadratic Equations. Investigation: Rocket Science CONDENSED

10.1. Solving Quadratic Equations. Investigation: Rocket Science CONDENSED CONDENSED L E S S O N 10.1 Solving Quadratic Equations In this lesson you will look at quadratic functions that model projectile motion use tables and graphs to approimate solutions to quadratic equations

More information

Lecture 17 Newton on Gravity

Lecture 17 Newton on Gravity Lecture 17 Newton on Gravity Patrick Maher Philosophy 270 Spring 2010 Introduction Outline of Newton s Principia Definitions Axioms, or the Laws of Motion Book 1: The Motion of Bodies Book 2: The Motion

More information

A Universe of Galaxies

A Universe of Galaxies A Universe of Galaxies Today s Lecture: Other Galaxies (Chapter 16, pages 366-397) Types of Galaxies Habitats of Galaxies Dark Matter Other Galaxies Originally called spiral nebulae because of their shape.

More information

Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide)

Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide) Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide) 2012 WARD S Science v.11/12 OVERVIEW Students will measure

More information

1. Which of the 12 parent functions we know from chapter 1 are power functions? List their equations and names.

1. Which of the 12 parent functions we know from chapter 1 are power functions? List their equations and names. Pre Calculus Worksheet. 1. Which of the 1 parent functions we know from chapter 1 are power functions? List their equations and names.. Analyze each power function using the terminology from lesson 1-.

More information

Key Concepts in Science GRAVITY TEACHER GUIDE. 2015 Sally Ride Science

Key Concepts in Science GRAVITY TEACHER GUIDE. 2015 Sally Ride Science Key Concepts in Science GRAVITY TEACHER GUIDE 2015 Sally Ride Science GRAVITY: CONTENTS Student handouts are at the back of the Teacher Guide. Correlation to Standards... 3-4 Sally Ride Science Teacher

More information

Pushes and Pulls. TCAPS Created June 2010 by J. McCain

Pushes and Pulls. TCAPS Created June 2010 by J. McCain Pushes and Pulls K i n d e r g a r t e n S c i e n c e TCAPS Created June 2010 by J. McCain Table of Contents Science GLCEs incorporated in this Unit............... 2-3 Materials List.......................................

More information

Size and Scale of the Universe

Size and Scale of the Universe Size and Scale of the Universe (Teacher Guide) Overview: The Universe is very, very big. But just how big it is and how we fit into the grand scheme can be quite difficult for a person to grasp. The distances

More information

FIZIKA ANGOL NYELVEN

FIZIKA ANGOL NYELVEN ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2011. május 17. FIZIKA ANGOL NYELVEN KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA 2011. május 17. 8:00 Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 120 perc Pótlapok száma Tisztázati Piszkozati NEMZETI ERŐFORRÁS MINISZTÉRIUM

More information

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

More information

TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003

TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003. Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 Phys - Vectors 11-13-2003 TEACHER ANSWER KEY November 12, 2003 5 1. A 1.5-kilogram lab cart is accelerated uniformly from rest to a speed of 2.0 meters per second in 0.50 second. What is the magnitude

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

More information

Misconceptions in Astronomy in WA High School students (in preparation)

Misconceptions in Astronomy in WA High School students (in preparation) Misconceptions in Astronomy in WA High School students (in preparation) Michael Todd Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology The purpose of this study was to examine

More information

Unit One Organizer: The Stars and Our Solar System (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks)

Unit One Organizer: The Stars and Our Solar System (Approximate Time: 7 Weeks) The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan

UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan UC Irvine FOCUS! 5 E Lesson Plan Title: Astronomical Units and The Solar System Grade Level and Course: 8th grade Physical Science Materials: Visual introduction for solar system (slides, video, posters,

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d. Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1

Penn State University Physics 211 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 ORBITAL MECHANICS 1 PURPOSE The purpose of this laboratory project is to calculate, verify and then simulate various satellite orbit scenarios for an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. First, there

More information

galaxy solar system supernova (noun) (noun) (noun)

galaxy solar system supernova (noun) (noun) (noun) WORDS IN CONTEXT DAY 1 (Page 1 of 4) galaxy A galaxy is a collection of stars, gas, and dust. We live in the Milky Way galaxy. One galaxy may contain billions of stars. solar system A solar system revolves

More information

Radius, Diameter, Circumference, π, Geometer s Sketchpad, and You! T. Scott Edge

Radius, Diameter, Circumference, π, Geometer s Sketchpad, and You! T. Scott Edge TMME,Vol.1, no.1,p.9 Radius, Diameter, Circumference, π, Geometer s Sketchpad, and You! T. Scott Edge Introduction I truly believe learning mathematics can be a fun experience for children of all ages.

More information

Proof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy

Proof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy Experiment 04 Proof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy By Christian Redeker 27.10.2007 Contents 1.) Hypothesis...3 2.) Diagram...7 3.) Method...7 3.1) Apparatus...7 3.2) Procedure...7 4.)

More information

Lesson 21. Circles. Objectives

Lesson 21. Circles. Objectives Student Name: Date: Contact Person Name: Phone Number: Lesson 1 Circles Objectives Understand the concepts of radius and diameter Determine the circumference of a circle, given the diameter or radius Determine

More information

A long time ago, people looked

A long time ago, people looked Supercool Space Tools! By Linda Hermans-Killam A long time ago, people looked into the dark night sky and wondered about the stars, meteors, comets and planets they saw. The only tools they had to study

More information