History of Gravity. Name: Date: Period:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "History of Gravity. Name: Date: Period:"

Transcription

1 History of Gravity Name: Date: Period: I. ANCIENT ASTRONOMY Imagine what it was like for the first humans to look up at the night sky. This is well before the invention of modern technology. There were no telescopes, no cameras, and certainly no computers. Try to imagine what it was like for ancient humans to look up at the night sky. (a) As time passes during the night, what do we see happen to the stars in the sky? (b) How do you think ancient humans would have explained this motion? 2. THE WANDERERS As time passed, people started making closer and closer observations of the stars. Instead of just looking at the sky over the course of a single night, astronomers started to look at the stars over a series of nights. They noticed that not all of the stars moved together. In fact, five of them appeared to wander across the sky. They called these the wanderers or in Greek: planets. (a) How did the ancient Greek know that the planets were different from the stars? (b) Why, do you think, did the ancient Greeks call the planets wanderers? 3. ARISTOTLE S MODEL Aristotle applied his formal system of logic to explain the motion of the planets and stars. He proposed that the planets and stars are each attached to giant crystalline spheres which all spin around Earth. (a) Why did the spheres which carried the planets have to be made of crystal? (b) Why do you think Aristotle said the solar system was geocentric? 4. NEW EVIDENCE As time passed, new tools were invented which allowed astronomers to keep detailed records of the positions of the planets in the night sky. They could now track the location of the planets not just over several days, but over years! They found that the planets do not move in circles like Aristotle thought. (a) Along what path do the planets move across the sky? Describe it! Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 (b) What does this new evidence tell us about Aristotle s model of the solar system? Gravitation Page #1 10/23/12

2 5. PTOLEMY S MODEL Ptolemy attempted to fix Aristotle s model by saying that planets were attached to a smaller crystal sphere which was itself attached to the larger crystal spheres. These smaller spheres would move around in what he called an epicycle while the larger sphere moved in a circle around the Earth. (a) Draw a picture of the path Mars follows around the Earth according to Ptolemy. (b) Summarize how Ptolemy explained the retrograde motion of Mars. 6. A MORE SIMPLE EXPLANATION About 1,500 years after Ptolemy, an astronomer named Copernicus revolutionized our understanding of the solar system. Copernicus said that the retrograde motion of Mars could be more easily explained if we simply placed the Sun at the center of the solar system and set the Earth and all the other planets in circular motion around the Sun. (a) Summarize how Copernicus explained the retrograde motion of Mars. (b) Contrast the main differences between Ptolemy s and Copernicus s models. 7. THE LAW OF HARMONY Using the best astronomical data available at the time, Kepler created a precise mathematical model of the solar system based entirely upon detailed observation data of the planets. His model proved the heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus, with one exception: the planets actually orbit on elliptical (oval) paths, not perfect circles. In addition, Kepler also discovered that the cube of the radius of a planet s orbit is equal to the square of its period. This relationship is known as the law of harmony. Our long journey towards understanding the solar system has finally led to a mathematical model which can, for the first time, accurately predict the position of the planets! (a) Summarize the relationship that Kepler discovered between all the planets. (b) Write down the mathematical expression for the law of harmony:

3 Universal Gravitation Name: Date: Period: I. BE NEWTON FOR A DAY When Isaac Newton was 22 years old, he derived the law of universal gravitation. This is how he did it 1. Along what path does a body travel when there is no force acting on it? 2. Along what path does the Moon travel? 3. What is required to travel in a circle? 4. What does this say about the Moon? 5. What relationship did Newton discover between force, mass, and acceleration? 6. What is the equation for the acceleration of a body in circular motion? 7. What is the speed in circular motion? 8. Square all the terms in part 7 to find v². 9. Substitute the speed-squared into part Substitute the acceleration into part 5. In our last lesson we learned about Kepler s law of harmony: the radius of a planet s orbit cubed divided by the square of the planet s period is a constant value Rearrange Kepler s Rule to solve for 𝑇². 12. Substitute 𝑇² into part 10. =𝐾 𝑇2 In an effort to explain the law of harmony, Newton created his hypothesis of universal gravitation: any two masses in the universe will attract each other. The force acting on the moon must come from the mass of the earth pulling on the mass of the moon. Since our expression for this force in part 12 only has the mass of the moon, the mass of the earth must be hidden inside Kepler s constant! 13. Start with the constant pieces from part 12, split off M from K and name what s leftover G. 14. Substitute the result from 13 into part 12. 4πœ‹ 2 𝐾 = 𝐺𝑀 Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 Gravitation Page #2 10/27/14

4 II. UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION According to Newton s universal gravitation, the strength of the gravitational attraction between two objects depends only on the mass of each object and the distance between the two objects. Newton said it like this: gravity varies directly with mass and inversely with the square of the distance. 15. Write the law of universal gravitation. 16. What does the 𝐺 stand for? 17. Is there another way to write the law of universal gravitation without using 𝐺? 18. Write universal gravitation as a proportionality in order to remove 𝐺. 19. According to universal gravitation, what is the relationship between the force of gravity and (a) mass? (b) distance? III. GRAVITY PROPORTIONS Two spheres gravitationally attract one another. The force between them is measured to be 100 N. Draw an arrow on the diagram to represent the force acting on each mass. 20. Calculate the gravitational force if the mass of the left sphere were doubled. Draw an arrow on the diagram to represent this new force Calculate the gravitational force if the distance between the two masses were doubled. Draw an arrow on the diagram to represent this new force.

5 Gravity Proportions Name: Date: Period: I. INVERSE SQUARE LAW Newton said the strength of gravity varies inversely with the square of distance. This is known as the inverse square law As the distance increases, the influence of gravity is spread out over a greater area, which reduces its overall strength. 1. Use the inverse square law to determine the missing factor. (a) 2 (b) 1 2 (c) 3 (d) 1 5 (e) 1 4 (f) 9 (k) 16 (l) II. WHAT IF BOTH DISTANCE AND MASS CHANGE? Two spheres gravitationally attract one another. The mass and distance of the spheres are unknown, but we measure the force between them to be 20 N. For each situation, draw a new picture and use universal gravitation to calculate the new force. 2. right mass: /4 left mass: 2 distance: / N 3. right mass: 3 left mass: 2 distance: /2 4. right mass: /2 left mass: 3 distance: 2 Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 Gravitation Page #3 10/27/14

6 III. PROPORTION PROBLEMS The force of gravity between two objects of mass separated by distance π‘Ÿ is measured to be 100 N (pictured to the right). Using this information, answer each of the following questions for the arrangement of masses shown below where each mass is separated by the same distance. 100 N A B C D E F 4 3 / What is the force between masses A and E? 6. What is the force between masses C and E? 7. What is the force between masses A and B? 8. What is the force between masses A and C? 9. What is the force between masses D and F? 10. What is the force between masses B and E? 11. What is the force between masses C and D? 12. What is the force between masses C and F?

7 Acceleration of Gravity Name: Date: Period: I. WHAT EXACTLY IS LITTLE G? While standing on a planet, the mass of the planet pulls the mass of your body downward. This force is called your weight; it is a measure of the gravitational attraction between your body and the Earth. 1. Applying Newton s 2nd Law, what is the formula for weight? 2. Applying universal gravitation, what is the formula for weight? 3. At the surface of Earth, what two masses and one distance determine your weight? 4. Combine Newton s 2nd law and universal gravitation to find an expression for. 5. The radius of Earth is meters and the mass of Earth is acceleration of gravity at the surface of Earth? kilograms. What is the II. NEWTON TESTS HIS HYPOTHESIS Newton s hypothesis of gravity was that any two masses attract each other. In order for his hypothesis to advance to the status of scientific theory, it would have to be tested. Newton s test was to calculate the distance the moon falls in one second. He would make this calculation first using geometry and then using universal gravitation. If the two different methods gave the same result, then he would know that his hypothesis was correct. 6. Using geometry, Newton calculated that the moon falls 1.4 mm in one second. Now we ll use universal gravitation to calculate this distance. (a) What is the acceleration of gravity from Earth at the moon s orbit? (b) How far does the moon fall in one second? 7. What does this result tell us about Newton s hypothesis of gravity? 8. Now that the hypothesis has been tested, what do we call it? Fremont Physics Kepple 2012 Gravitation Page #5 10/28/13

8 9. While standing on Planet, with radius of and a mass of, you measure the acceleration of gravity to be 10 m/s². The table below gives the radius and mass of several other planets. Your job is to determine on each of the other planets. Planet Planet Planet Planet Planet,,,,, (a) What is at the surface of planet? (b) What is at the surface of planet? (c) What is at the surface of planet? (d) What is at the surface of planet? 10. On which planet would you weight the most? Planet Planet Planet Planet Justify your answer: Planet 11. Your friend thinks you would weigh the most on Planet. She says that the force of gravity gets stronger with more mass; therefore you would weigh more on the biggest planet. Explain why your friend is wrong.

9 Name: Gravitation Practice Test Date: Period: I. VOCABULARY If the underlined word is used incorrectly, cross it out and replace it with the correct word. 1. The law of universal acceleration says: there is an repulsive force between any two masses. 2. Newton found that the force of gravity varies directly with the distance and inversely with the square of the force. 3. When the distance between two objects is tripled, the force is one-fourth as strong. 4. Gravity is a very strong force, it is barely noticeable unless the masses are small. 5. Your weight on a planet depends on the shape and color of the planet. II. FORCE OF GRAVITY DRAWINGS 6. Draw arrows to indicate the magnitude of the force of gravity acting between each pair of masses. III. MULTIPLE CHOICE 7. Which of the following best explains why an object has less weight on top of a mountain? A B C D Because you are closer to space. The atmosphere is lighter. The mountain adds more mass. The mountain adds more distance. 8. On a planet with twice the radius and twice the mass of the earth, your weight would be equal to your weight on earth times a factor of A 1/4 B 2 C 1/2 D 4 IV. GRAVITY PROPORTION PROBLEMS 20 N 9. What is the gravitational force on mass A from (a) mass B? (show work!) (b) mass C? (show work!) 20 N??𝑁??𝑁 B A C 2 4 Fremont Physics Kepple 2011 Gravitation Page #6 10. What is the net force on mass A? 11. In which direction will mass A accelerate?

10 Gravitation Study Guide MAJOR CONCEPTS: The law of universal gravitation states that any two masses will attract each other. The force of gravity is directly proportional to mass and inversely proportional to the square of distance. The force of gravity extends infinitely in all directions, but it gets weaker with distance. FORCE OF GRAVITY DRAWINGS The force of gravity increases with mass and decreases with distance. The length of the arrow indicates the strength of the force. The longer the arrow, the stronger the force. Gravity is a very weak force, it is barely noticeable unless the mass involved is huge. Your weight on a planet depends only upon the mass and radius of the planet, not the size of the planet. Because the moon has tangential velocity, it orbits Earth instead of crashing into it. FORCE OF GRAVITY PROPORTIONS The relations within the law of gravitation are FORCE and MASS are DIRECT! STRONGER (more mass) FORCE and DISTANCE are INVERSE SQUARE! 2 m F 2 r F WEAKER (more distance) 2 m F 2 r F GRAVITATION PROPORTION PROBLEMS If the force of gravity between two masses is given, you can figure out the other forces. B 20 N?? N A 20 N m m m?? N 2m m 3m C Ex1. What is the force between masses A and B? F Mm r 2 2 F AB 2F Ex2. What is the force between masses B and C? F Mm 2 3 r F BC 3 2 F

Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields

Gravity. Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Gravity Newton s Law of Gravitation Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Gravitational Fields Newton s Law of Gravitation r m 2 m 1 There is a force of gravity between any pair of objects anywhere. The force

More information

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 4 TUTORIAL QUIZ

TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 4 TUTORIAL QUIZ TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 4 TUTORIAL QUIZ 1. The Greek astronomer Hipparchus is noted for a. naming all of the stars. b. developing the concept of the light-year. c. recognizing and recording

More information

Chapter 5 Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5 Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Chapter 5 Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Does the circular motion of the moon around the Earth...... have anything in common with circular motion on Earth? A ball is whirled on the end of a

More information

From Aristotle to Newton

From Aristotle to Newton From Aristotle to Newton The history of the Solar System (and the universe to some extent) from ancient Greek times through to the beginnings of modern physics. The Geocentric Model Ancient Greek astronomers

More information

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

More information

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units:

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS PHYSICS 20 GRAVITATIONAL FORCES. Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS Gravitational Fields (or Acceleration Due to Gravity) Symbol: Definition: Units: Formula Description This is the formula for force due to gravity or as we call it, weight. Relevant

More information

The Planets. Saturn. Venus. Jupiter Mercury.

The Planets. Saturn. Venus. Jupiter Mercury. Kepler s Laws Learning Objectives Do the planets move east or west over the course of one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ? What are geocentric

More information

Announcements. Eclipses 2/1/12. HW1 is due Thursday. You have to be registered at MasteringAstronomy to do the homework!

Announcements. Eclipses 2/1/12. HW1 is due Thursday. You have to be registered at MasteringAstronomy to do the homework! Announcements HW1 is due Thursday. You have to be registered at MasteringAstronomy to do the homework! TA Qufei Gu will be in RH111 4:00-5:00PM Wednesday to help with homework. Email: zyx88@unm.edu Feb

More information

Gravity and the Motion of the Planets

Gravity and the Motion of the Planets Gravity and the Motion of the Planets Foundations of Modern Science More than 2500 years ago Pythagoras put forth the idea that nature can be described with mathematics. Aristotle asserted that the Universe

More information

Website: Reading: Homework: Discussion:

Website: Reading: Homework: Discussion: Reminders! Website: http://starsarestellar.blogspot.com/ Lectures 1-5 are available for download as study aids. Reading: You should have Chapters 1-4 read, Chapter 5 by the end of today, and Chapters 6

More information

Astronomy Ch. 2 The Copernican Revolution. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch. 2 The Copernican Revolution. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 2 The Copernican Revolution MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The principal culture that transferred

More information

Next: The Science of Astronomy. Geocentric vs Heliocentric. ASTR 105 Intro Astronomy: The Solar System

Next: The Science of Astronomy. Geocentric vs Heliocentric. ASTR 105 Intro Astronomy: The Solar System Next: The Science of Astronomy ASTR 105 Intro Astronomy: The Solar System Geocentric vs Heliocentric Astronomically Important Historians a.k.a. Famous Dead White Guys The Greeks (600 B.C. ~ 200 A.D.) Plato

More information

ASTR 105 Intro Astronomy: The Solar System

ASTR 105 Intro Astronomy: The Solar System ASTR 105 Intro Astronomy: The Solar System Next: The Science of Astronomy Geocentric vs Heliocentric Earth-Centered (Geocentric) Sun-Centered (Heliocentric) Astronomically Important Historians a.k.a. Famous

More information

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravity 1 Using the unit of distance 1 AU = Earth-Sun distance PLANETS COPERNICUS MODERN Mercury 0.38 0.387 Venus 0.72 0.723 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52

More information

Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity

Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter 13. Newton s Theory of Gravity The beautiful rings of Saturn consist of countless centimeter-sized ice crystals, all orbiting the planet under the influence of gravity. Chapter Goal: To use Newton

More information

Lecture 3: The Heliocentric Model, Gravity, & Orbits

Lecture 3: The Heliocentric Model, Gravity, & Orbits Lecture 3: The Heliocentric Model, Gravity, & Orbits Sec 3.3-3.6, 4.1-4.4 (4th Ed) Sec 3.2-3.5 (3rd Ed) As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced,

More information

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111

Lecture 5: Newton s Laws. Astronomy 111 Lecture 5: Newton s Laws Astronomy 111 Isaac Newton (1643-1727): English Discovered: three laws of motion, one law of universal gravitation. Newton s great book: Newton s laws are universal in scope,

More information

Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation

Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation Chapter 13: Universal Gravitation I. The Falling Apple (13.1) A. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 1. Formulated ideas based on earlier work by Galileo (concept of inertia) 2. Concept if object undergoes change

More information

Astronomy 1 Winter 2011

Astronomy 1 Winter 2011 Astronomy 1 Winter 2011 Lecture 4; January 10 2011 Previously on Astro-1 Lunar Phases: How do they arise? Length of the Month: How long does it take for the moon to go around the Earth? The Moon s Orbit:

More information

7.2 Calculate force of gravity at a given distance given the force of gravity at another distance (making use of the inverse square relationship).

7.2 Calculate force of gravity at a given distance given the force of gravity at another distance (making use of the inverse square relationship). Chapter 7 Circular Motion and Gravitation 7.1 Calculate force of gravity using Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation. 5. What is the gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun? (Mass of Earth: 5.98

More information

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity

Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter 13 Newton s Theory of Gravity Chapter Goal: To use Newton s theory of gravity to understand the motion of satellites and planets. Slide 13-2 Chapter 13 Preview Slide 13-3 Chapter 13 Preview Slide

More information

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System

Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Chapter 25.1: Models of our Solar System Objectives: Compare & Contrast geocentric and heliocentric models of the solar sytem. Describe the orbits of planets explain how gravity and inertia keep the planets

More information

Gravitation. Gravitation

Gravitation. Gravitation 1 Gravitation Newton s observations A constant center seeking force is required to keep an object moving along a circular path. You know that the moon orbits the earth and hence there should be a force

More information

Circular Motion and Gravitation

Circular Motion and Gravitation Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Circular Motion and Gravitation Introduction Circular motion Acceleration is not constant Cannot be reduced to a one-dimensional problem Examples Car

More information

Astronomy 1020 Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1

Astronomy 1020 Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1 Astronomy 1020 Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1 Chapter 1 1. A scientific hypothesis is a) a wild, baseless guess about how something works. b) a collection of ideas that seems to explain

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 2. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 2. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 2 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Units of Chapter 2 2.1 Ancient Astronomy 2.2 The Geocentric Universe 2.3 The Heliocentric Model

More information

Monday, October 3, 2011

Monday, October 3, 2011 the shuttle blasts off Then comes the tremendous pressure of three G s and the sudden release into weightlessness as the ship leaves the gravitational field behind -from The Arizona Republic 1 Quiz #3:

More information

Retrograde Motion. The planet appears brightest during retrograde motion.

Retrograde Motion. The planet appears brightest during retrograde motion. Retrograde Motion Most of the time, planets appear to move eastward against the background of stars. (Prograde Motion) Retrograde Motion occurs when for a brief period of time a planet (Mars most dramatic

More information

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion

Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion Kepler, Newton, and laws of motion !! " The only history in this course:!!!geocentric vs. heliocentric model (sec. 2.2-2.4)" The important historical progression is the following:!! Ptolemy (~140 AD) Copernicus

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Astro Quiz 3 (ch3) Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following people did NOT accept a heliocentric model

More information

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

More information

Observations from Earth

Observations from Earth Observations from Earth Sun Constellation Orion Constellation Orion All objects in the heavens rise in the east and set in the west. The Sun and stars all moved across the sky in a regular, predictable

More information

Determination of the Force of Gravity

Determination of the Force of Gravity Determination of the orce of Gravity Go to http://tinyurl.com/ma8rw9x Learning Goal: Students will investigate the variables that affect the force of gravity on objects. Background information: -A variable

More information

Renaissance Astronomy. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 04-1

Renaissance Astronomy. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 04-1 Renaissance Astronomy Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 04-1 Cast of Characters Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Circular motion of planets around sun Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Recorded planets' positions Johannes Kepler

More information

A Little History. PHYS-1408-H01 Lecture 21. Chapter 13. Universal Gravitation. April. 8, Announcement

A Little History. PHYS-1408-H01 Lecture 21. Chapter 13. Universal Gravitation. April. 8, Announcement Announcement PHYS-1408-H01 Lecture 1 April. 8, 013 Course webpage http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/~slee/1408/ Homework.9 HW due 4/3 (next-to-next Tuesday) Ch.1 3, 9, 13, 3, 7, 3 Ch. 13 7, 1, 14, 17,, 7,

More information

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just two different versions of the same thing.

More information

AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy

AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy AST 301 Introduction to Astronomy John Lacy RLM 16.332 471-1469 lacy@astro.as.utexas.edu Myoungwon Jeon RLM 16.216 471-0445 myjeon@astro.as.utexas.edu Bohua Li RLM 16.212 471-8443 bohuali@astro.as.utexas.edu

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

From Essential University Physics 3 rd Edition by Richard Wolfson, Middlebury College 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc.

From Essential University Physics 3 rd Edition by Richard Wolfson, Middlebury College 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc. PreClass Notes: Chapter 8 From Essential University Physics 3 rd Edition by Richard Wolfson, Middlebury College 2016 by Pearson Education, Inc. Narration and extra little notes by Jason Harlow, University

More information

Inertia. Inertia. A body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless made to change that state by forces acting on it

Inertia. Inertia. A body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless made to change that state by forces acting on it Isaac Newton formulated three laws to describe the fundamental properties of physical reality. NEWTON S THREE LAWS OF MOTION LAW #1: A body remains at rest or moves in a straight line at constant speed

More information

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity

Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy, and Gravity 1. Newton s Laws 2. Conservation Laws Energy Angular momentum 3. Gravity Review from last time Ancient Greeks: Ptolemy; the geocentric

More information

Physics 130 Astronomy Exam #1 July 19, 2004

Physics 130 Astronomy Exam #1 July 19, 2004 Physics 130 Astronomy Exam #1 July 19, 2004 Name Multiple Choice: 1. A scientist observes a new phenomenon that disagrees with his explanation or hypothesis. Following the scientific methods, he should

More information

Chapter 5. Kepler s Laws. 5.1 Purpose. 5.2 Introduction

Chapter 5. Kepler s Laws. 5.1 Purpose. 5.2 Introduction Chapter 5 Kepler s Laws 5.1 Purpose In this lab, we will investigate the properties of planetary orbits. The motion of the planets had intrigued people throughout history. Johannes Kepler found three empirical

More information

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation

Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Field Strength Uniform Circular Motion Centripetal Force and Acceleration Vertical Circular Motion Horizontal Circular Motion Kepler s Laws Planetary

More information

6. CIRCULAR MOTION; GRAVITATION.

6. CIRCULAR MOTION; GRAVITATION. 6. CIRCULAR MOTION; GRAVITATION. Key words: Uniform Circular Motion, Period of rotation, Frequency, Centripetal Acceleration, Centripetal Force, Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion, Gravitation, Newton s

More information

SPACE THE EARTH S GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

SPACE THE EARTH S GRAVITATIONAL FIELD SPACE CONTEXTUAL OUTLINE (As written in the HSC Physics Syllabus Board of Studies, NSW.) Scientists have drawn on advances in areas such as aeronautics, material science, robotics, electronics, medicine

More information

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System

The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System Hypothesis: The Sun is the center of the solar system. Only Moon orbits around Earth; Planets orbit around Sun. Aristarchus of Samos was the first to propose

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution What is a Revolution? A Revolution is a complete change, or an overthrow of a government, a social system, etc. The Scientific Revolution In the 1500s and 1600s the Scientific

More information

UCM-Gravity. 2. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7 kilograms, placed 2 meters apart.

UCM-Gravity. 2. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7 kilograms, placed 2 meters apart. 1. A space probe is launched into space from Earth s surface. Which graph represents the relationship between the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted on Earth by the space probe and the distance

More information

Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics

Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics Universal Law of Gravitation Honors Physics Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation The greatest moments in science are when two phenomena that were considered completely separate suddenly are seen as just

More information

5. How did Copernicus s model solve the problem of some planets moving backwards?

5. How did Copernicus s model solve the problem of some planets moving backwards? PACKET #5 - MODELS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM Reading Guide: Chapter 27.2 (read text pages 691-694) 1k. Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence. 1n. Know that when an observation does not agree

More information

Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2.

Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2. Astron 100 Sample Exam 1 1. Solar eclipses occur only at (A) New moon (B) 1 st quarter moon (C) Full moon (D) 3 rd quarter moon (E) The equinoxes 2. If the Moon is at first quarter tonight in Amherst,

More information

Lab 6: Solar & Lunar Observations and Models for the Solar System Essentials of Physics: PHYS 101

Lab 6: Solar & Lunar Observations and Models for the Solar System Essentials of Physics: PHYS 101 NAME DATE Lab 6: Solar & Lunar Observations and Models for the Solar System Essentials of Physics: PHYS 101 In this lab we will use observations of the Sun s position in the sky during a day to explore

More information

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Chapter1 THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OUTLINE How Scientists Study Nature 1.1 The Scientific Method 1.2 Why Science Is Successful The Solar System 1.3 A Survey of the Sky 1.4 The Ptolemaic System 1.5 The Copernican

More information

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion

Introduction to Gravity and Orbits. Isaac Newton. Newton s Laws of Motion Introduction to Gravity and Orbits Isaac Newton Born in England in 1642 Invented calculus in early twenties Finally published work in gravity in 1687 The Principia Newton s Laws of Motion 1: An object

More information

Universal Laws of Motion

Universal Laws of Motion Universal Laws of Motion If I have seen farther than others, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 1727) Physicist Gravity in action The Acceleration of Gravity

More information

Kepler s Laws & Satellite Motion

Kepler s Laws & Satellite Motion Kepler s Laws & Satellite Motion Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Tycho Brahe (1546 1601) built the first modern astronomical observatories. His instruments like the mural quandrant enabled him to measure the

More information

ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 1 Answers

ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 1 Answers ASTR 1010 Astronomy of the Solar System Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 1 Answers 1. The number of degrees in a full circle is (c) 360 2. An arcsecond is a measure of (d) angle. 3. How many

More information

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular Solar Eclipses The Sun disappears behind the Moon The Moon is always in the New phase during a solar eclipse Can only be seen from certain places on Earth These events are even more rare than lunar eclipses

More information

Chapter 4: Renaissance Astronomy

Chapter 4: Renaissance Astronomy Chapter 4: Renaissance Astronomy Astronomy after Ptolemy [http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/westciv/westciv.html] Decline of Western Civilization (extended) knowledge of ancient astronomy lost Islamic

More information

Let s say you were able to build a tunnel through the center of the Earth to the opposite side. If you were to jump in, you would accelerate toward

Let s say you were able to build a tunnel through the center of the Earth to the opposite side. If you were to jump in, you would accelerate toward Let s say you were able to build a tunnel through the center of the Earth to the opposite side. If you were to jump in, you would accelerate toward the center. However your acceleration decrease as your

More information

Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart.

Version A Page 1. 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. Physics Unit Exam, Kinematics 1. The diagram shows two bowling balls, A and B, each having a mass of 7.00 kilograms, placed 2.00 meters apart. What is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by

More information

Assignments. Do Online Exercise 04 (inlcuding "Orbits and Kepler's Laws" tutorial)

Assignments. Do Online Exercise 04 (inlcuding Orbits and Kepler's Laws tutorial) Assignments Do Online Exercise 04 (inlcuding "Orbits and Kepler's Laws" tutorial) Begin reading Ch. 4, Making Sense of the Universe: Understanding Motion, Energy & Gravity Clicker poll (not for credit)

More information

Assignment 3. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 3. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assignment 3 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The scientist who formulated the three laws of planetary motion by analyzing

More information

Summary. Models of our Solar System (Ch. 4) Geocentric Model Heliocentric Model

Summary. Models of our Solar System (Ch. 4) Geocentric Model Heliocentric Model Summary Models of our Solar System (Ch. 4) Geocentric Model Heliocentric Model Lunar Eclipse Yesterday morning! Strange Motions in the Sky The motions of planets are not easy to explain Planets may take

More information

14 Satellite Motion. The path of an Earth satellite follows the curvature of the Earth.

14 Satellite Motion. The path of an Earth satellite follows the curvature of the Earth. The path of an Earth satellite follows the curvature of the Earth. 14.1 Earth Satellites A stone thrown fast enough to go a horizontal distance of 8 kilometers during the time (1 second) it takes to fall

More information

First Midterm Exam. Physics General Physics Lecture 8 Planetary Motion 9/18/2016. Fall 2016 Semester Prof. Matthew Jones

First Midterm Exam. Physics General Physics Lecture 8 Planetary Motion 9/18/2016. Fall 2016 Semester Prof. Matthew Jones Physics 22000 General Physics Lecture 8 Planetary Motion Fall 2016 Semester Prof. Matthew Jones 1 First Midterm Exam Tuesday, October 4 th, 8:00-9:30 pm Location: PHYS 112 and WTHR 200. Covering material

More information

1 Newton s Laws of Motion

1 Newton s Laws of Motion Exam 1 Ast 4 - Chapter 2 - Newton s Laws Exam 1 is scheduled for the week of Feb 19th Bring Pencil Scantron 882-E (available in the Bookstore) A scientific calculator (you will not be allowed to use you

More information

Summary: The Universe in 1650

Summary: The Universe in 1650 Celestial Mechanics: The Why of Planetary Motions Attempts to Describe How Celestial Objects Move Aristotle, Hipparchus, and Ptolemy: The Ptolemaic System Aristarchus, Copernicus, and Kepler: The Copernican

More information

13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else.

13 Universal Gravitation. Everything pulls on everything else. Everything pulls on everything else. Gravity was not discovered by Isaac Newton. What Newton discovered, prompted by a falling apple, was that gravity is a universal force that it is not unique to Earth,

More information

G = N m 2 /kg 2

G = N m 2 /kg 2 PH2213 : Examples from Chapter 6 : Gravitation Key Concepts Two point-mass objects of masses m 1 and m 2 separated by a distance of r will attract each other with a gravitational force of magnitude F =

More information

Gravity & Circular Motion

Gravity & Circular Motion Physics Name: KEY Date: Period: Gravity & Circular Motion (Unit Review) Gravity Circular Motion Centripetal force Periodic motion Rotation Revolution Axis of rotation Axis of revolution Tangential (linear)

More information

Homework 1 Solutions

Homework 1 Solutions Homework 1 Solutions September 13, 2011 1 Chapter 1 1. Why are scientists interested in the possibility of life beyond Earth? From page 3 of the text - The discovery of life of any kind beyond Earth would

More information

2. The radius vector from the center of one mass to the center of the other, sweeps out equal areas in equal times - the areal rate is a constant

2. The radius vector from the center of one mass to the center of the other, sweeps out equal areas in equal times - the areal rate is a constant Introduction to Aerospace Engineering 9. Orbital Mechanics Once the vehicle is launched into space, one must now consider the conditions that are necessary to keep the vehicle in orbit. In addition we

More information

Name Class Date. true

Name Class Date. true Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

More information

1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion

1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion Name: 1 Kepler s Laws of Planetary Motion 1.1 Introduction Johannes Kepler published three laws of planetary motion, the first two in 1609 and the third in 1619. The laws were made possible by planetary

More information

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Solar System

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Solar System Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Solar System Lesson Overview The Solar System refers to the sun and all of the objects that orbit around it. But, history has shown that it has not always been thought of this

More information

M OTION. Chapter2 OUTLINE GOALS

M OTION. Chapter2 OUTLINE GOALS Chapter2 M OTION OUTLINE Describing Motion 2.1 Speed 2.2 Vectors 2.3 Acceleration 2.4 Distance, Time, and Acceleration Acceleration of Gravity 2.5 Free Fall 2.6 Air Resistence Force and Motion 2.7 First

More information

Astronomy 110 Homework #03 Assigned: 01/30/2007 Due: 02/06/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #03 Assigned: 01/30/2007 Due: 02/06/2007. Name: Astronomy 110 Homework #03 Assigned: 01/30/2007 Due: 02/06/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

More information

Review Circular Motion, Gravitation, and Kepler s Laws. Answers will be on that page along with a link to a pdf showing how the problem was solved.

Review Circular Motion, Gravitation, and Kepler s Laws. Answers will be on that page along with a link to a pdf showing how the problem was solved. CP Physics Review Circular Motion, Gravitation, and Kepler s Laws Name Date Answers will be posted on Ms. Mac s website. To find the answers go to: West Orange High School Home Page Select Teachers from

More information

6. What is the approximate angular diameter of the Sun in arcseconds? (d) 1860

6. What is the approximate angular diameter of the Sun in arcseconds? (d) 1860 ASTR 1020 Stellar and Galactic Astronomy Professor Caillault Fall 2009 Semester Exam 1 Multiple Choice Answers (Each multiple choice question is worth 1.5 points) 1. The number of degrees in a full circle

More information

Isaac Newton & Gravity

Isaac Newton & Gravity Isaac Newton & Gravity Isaac Newton was born in England in 1642 the year that Galileo died. Newton would extend Galileo s study on the motion of bodies, correctly deduce the form of the gravitational force,

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler

Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler. Tycho Brahe ( ) Johannes Kepler Lecture 6: Newton & Kepler Johannes Kepler (1600) was employed by Tycho to develop a mathematical theory to explain the observations made by Tycho Kepler was a pure theorist; Tycho a pure observer Issac

More information

2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth.

2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth. Discovering the Essential Universe Chapter 2, quiz. 2-1. True of False: All planets undergo retrograde motion as seen from Earth. a.) True b.) False X 2-2. The occasional westward (left to right) motion

More information

In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky?

In what ways do all humans employ scientific thinking? What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? What was once so mysterious about planetary motion in our sky? Planets usually move slightly eastward from night to night relative to the stars. You cannot see this motion on a single night. But sometimes

More information

~ SCIENCE SAMPLER ~ Unit 2 of 5

~ SCIENCE SAMPLER ~ Unit 2 of 5 College Guild PO Box 6448, Brunswick ME 04011 ~ SCIENCE SAMPLER ~ Unit 2 of 5 1 Physics *********************************************************************************************************************************************

More information

Lecture 4: Geocentric Universe

Lecture 4: Geocentric Universe Lecture 4: Geocentric Universe Earth was thought to be the center of the universe until only a few centuries ago! Man has been around for millions of years Our scientific revolution began only a few thousand

More information

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015

Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Name: Earth 110 Exploration of the Solar System Assignment 1: Celestial Motions and Forces Due in class Tuesday, Jan. 20, 2015 Why are celestial motions and forces important? They explain the world around

More information

Name: Date: Period: Gravity Study Guide

Name: Date: Period: Gravity Study Guide Vocabulary: Define the following terms. Law of Universal Gravitation Gravity Study Guide Weight Weightlessness Gravitational Field Black hole Escape velocity Math: Be able to use the equation for the law

More information

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2

Name Class Period. F = G m 1 m 2 d 2. G =6.67 x 10-11 Nm 2 /kg 2 Gravitational Forces 13.1 Newton s Law of Universal Gravity Newton discovered that gravity is universal. Everything pulls on everything else in the universe in a way that involves only mass and distance.

More information

12/3/10. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

12/3/10. Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. The beautiful rings of Saturn consist of countless centimeter-sized ice crystals, all orbiting the planet under the influence of gravity. Chapter Goal: To use Newton s theory of gravity to understand the

More information

Quest Chapter 13. Where is the event happening? What does the no atmosphere phrase mean in the problem? What is the ball doing during the event?

Quest Chapter 13. Where is the event happening? What does the no atmosphere phrase mean in the problem? What is the ball doing during the event? 1 (part 1 of 2) A ball is tossed straight up from the surface of a small, spherical asteroid with no atmosphere. The ball rises to a height equal to the asteroid s radius and then falls straight down toward

More information

Lecture #6: Newton's Laws of Motion

Lecture #6: Newton's Laws of Motion Lecture #6: Newton's Laws of Motion 1. Galileo (1564-1642) studied the kinematic motion of objects and understood the concepts of velocity and acceleration. However, he did not use the concept of force

More information

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction CHAPTER 1 SECTION Matter in Motion 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is gravity? How are weight and mass different?

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 5

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 5 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 5 From Ptolemy to Copernicus Friday, January 12 From Ptolemy to Copernicus: Key Concepts (1) Aristotle (4 th cent BC) showed that the Earth is

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Background Information System: Many pieces that make up a whole Solar System: Anything that orbits the Sun Just like in the formation of of stars.. Gravity plays a major role. Gravitational

More information

Lecture Outline Chapter 12. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outline Chapter 12. Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outline Chapter 12 Physics, 4 th Edition James S. Walker Chapter 12 Gravity Units of Chapter 12 Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation Gravitational Attraction of Spherical Bodies Kepler s Laws

More information

Gravity: The Law of Attraction

Gravity: The Law of Attraction Gravity: The Law of Attraction 2009, Copyright@2008 Lecture 1, Oct. 1 2009 Oct. 1, 2009 #1 Questions of the day: How are Force, acceleration, and mass related? Why is gravity the most important force for

More information