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1 Chemistry

2 INFORMATION IN THE TABLE BELOW AND IN THE TABLES ON PAGES 3-5 MAY BE USEFUL IN ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION OF THE EXAMINATION DO NOT DETACH FROM BOO 1 H Li Na Rb Cs Fr (3) 4 Be Mg Ca PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS Sr Ba Ra 60 1 Sc Y *La Ac 703 Ti Zr 91 7 Hf V Nb Ta Cr Mo W Mn Tc (98) 75 Re Fe Ru Os Co Rh Ir Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt (61) (6) (63) (6) (65) (66) 8 Ni Pd Pt (69) 9 Cu Ag Au (7) 30 Zn Cd Hg (77) 5 B Al Ga In Tl C Si Ge Sn Pb 07 7 N P As Sb Not yet named Bi O S Se Te Po (09) 9 F Cl Br I At (10) *Lanthanide Series Actinide Series Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy HoEr Tm Yb Lu (145) Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md NoLr (44) (43) (47) (47) (51) (5) (57) (58) (59) (60) He Ne Ar r Xe Rn () GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

3 STANDARD REDUCTION POTENTIALS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AT 5 C Half-reaction E ( V ) F ( g) e F 87 3 Co e Co 18 3 Au 3e Au() s 150 Cl ( g) e Cl 136 O ( g) 4H 4 e H O( l) 13 Br () l e Br 107 Hg e Hg 09 Hg e Hg( l) 085 Ag e Ag( s) 080 Hg e Hg( l) Fe e Fe 077 I () s e I 053 Cu e Cu() s 05 Cu e Cu() s 034 Cu e Cu Sn e Sn 015 S () s H e H S () g 014 H e H ( g) 000 Pb e Pb() s 013 Sn e Sn() s 014 Ni e Ni() s 05 Co e Co( s) 08 Tl e Tl() s 034 Cd e Cd( s) Cr e Cr 041 Fe e Fe( s) Cr 3 e Cr() s 074 Zn e Zn() s 076 Mn e Mn() s Al 3 e Al() s 166 Be e Be() s 170 Mg e Mg( s) 37 Na e Na() s 71 Ca e Ca() s 87 Sr e Sr() s 89 Ba e Ba() s 90 Rb e Rb() s 9 e (s) 9 Cs e Cs() s 9 Li e Li () s GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

4 ATOMIC STRUCTURE ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY EQUATIONS AND CONSTANTS DE E c l hv v h mu p mu n l n joule E v l p u n m energy frequency wavelength momentum velocity principal quantum number mass EQUILIBRIUM a b w [ H ][ A ] [ HA] [ OH ][ HB ] [ B] 14 [ OH ][ H ] 10 5oC a b ph log [ H ], poh log [ OH ] 14 ph poh log [ A ph p ] a [ HA] log [ HB poh p ] b [ B] p log, p log a a b b D ( RT), p c n where Dn moles product gas moles reactant gas THERMOCHEMISTRY DSo So products So reactants DHo DHo products DHo reactants DGo DGo products DGo reactants DGo DHo TDSo RT ln 303 RT log ne DG DGo RT ln Q DGo 303 RT log Q q mcdt C p DH DT f f o f f 8 1 Speed of light, c m s 34 Planck s constant, h J s 3 1 Boltzmann s constant, k J Avogadro s number molecules mol 19 Electron charge, e coulomb 1 electron volt per atom 96 5 kj mol Equilibrium Constants a b w p c C p (weak acid) (weak base) (water) (gas pressure) (molar concentrations) So standard entropy Ho standard enthalpy Go standard free energy E o standard reduction potential T temperature n moles m mass q heat c specific heat capacity molar heat capacity at constant pressure 1faraday 96500, coulombs 4 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

5 GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLUTIONS PV nrt n a P V nb nrt V ( - ) moles A PA Ptotal X A, where X A total moles Ptotal PA PB PC n m M oc 73 PV 1 1 PV T1 T m D V 3kT 3RT urms m M E per molecule 1 mu E per mole 3 RT r1 M r M1 molarity, M moles solute per liter solution molality moles solute per kilogram solvent DTf if molality DTb ib molality p nrt V i OXIDATION-REDUCTION; ELECTROCHEMISTRY c d [ C] [ D] Q, where a A b B c C d D a b [ A] [ B] I q t Ecell RT E o ln Q E o cell cell log 5 o C n n log ne o P pressure V volume T temperature n number of moles D density m mass u velocity urms root-mean-square speed E kinetic energy r rate of effusion M molar mass p osmotic pressure i van t Hoff factor f molal freezing-point depression constant b molal boiling-point elevation constant Q reaction quotient I current (amperes) q charge (coulombs) t time (seconds) o E standard reduction potential equilibrium constant Gas constant, R 831 J mol L atm mol 831 volt coulomb mol -3-1 Boltzmann s constant, k J -1 for H O 186 kg mol f b for H O 051 kg mol 1atm 760mm Hg 760 torr STP 0 000oC and atm Faraday s constant, 96, 500 coulombs per mole of electrons 5 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

6 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) CHEMISTRY Section II (Total time 90 minutes) Part A Time 40 minutes YOU MAY USE YOUR CALCULATOR FOR PART A CLEARLY SHOW THE METHOD USED AND THE STEPS INVOLVED IN ARRIVING AT YOUR ANSWERS It is to your advantage to do this, since you may obtain partial credit if you do and you will receive little or no credit if you do not Attention should be paid to significant figures Be sure to write all your answers to the questions on the lined pages following each question in the booklet with the goldenrod cover Do NOT write your answers on the lavender insert Answer Question 1 below The Section II score weighting for this question is 0 percent HC 3 H 5 O 3 (aq) H (aq) C 3 H 5 O 3 (aq) 1 Lactic acid, HC 3 H 5 O 3, is a monoprotic acid that dissociates in aqueous solution, as represented by the equation above Lactic acid is 166 percent dissociated in 050 M HC 3 H 5 O 3 (aq) at 98 For parts (a) through (d) below, assume the temperature remains at 98 (a) Write the expression for the acid-dissociation constant, a, for lactic acid and calculate its value (b) Calculate the ph of 050 M HC 3 H 5 O 3 (c) Calculate the ph of a solution formed by dissolving 0045 mole of solid sodium lactate, NaC 3 H 5 O 3, in 50 ml of 050 M HC 3 H 5 O 3 Assume that volume change is negligible (d) A 100 ml sample of 010 M HCl is added to 100 ml of 050 M HC 3 H 5 O 3 Calculate the molar concentration of lactate ion, C 3 H 5 O 3, in the resulting solution Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 6 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

7 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Answer EITHER Question below OR Question 3 printed on page 8 Only one of these two questions will be graded If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 0 percent A rigid 80 L flask contains a mixture of 50 moles of H, 0500 mole of O, and sufficient Ar so that the partial pressure of Ar in the flask is 00 atm The temperature is 17ºC (a) Calculate the total pressure in the flask (b) Calculate the mole fraction of H in the flask (c) Calculate the density (in g L 1 ) of the mixture in the flask The mixture in the flask is ignited by a spark, and the reaction represented below occurs until one of the reactants is entirely consumed H (g) O (g) H O(g) (d) Give the mole fraction of all species present in the flask at the end of the reaction Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 7 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

8 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 3 Nitrogen monoxide, NO(g), and carbon monoxide, CO(g), are air pollutants generated by automobiles It has been proposed that under suitable conditions these two gases could react to form N (g) and CO (g), which are components of unpolluted air (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction described above Indicate whether the carbon in CO is oxidized or whether it is reduced in the reaction Justify your answer (b) Write the expression for the equilibrium constant, p, for the reaction (c) Consider the following thermodynamic data NO CO CO DGo f (kj mol 1 ) (i) Calculate the value of G for the reaction at 98 (ii) Given that H for the reaction at 98 is 746 kj per mole of N (g) formed, calculate the value of S for the reaction at 98 Include units with your answer (d) For the reaction at 98, the value of p is In an urban area, typical pressures of the gases in the reaction are P NO atm, P CO atm, P N 0781 atm, and P CO atm (i) Calculate the value of G for the reaction at 98 when the gases are at the partial pressures given above (ii) In which direction (to the right or to the left) will the reaction be spontaneous at 98 with these partial pressures? Explain Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 8 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE

9 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) CHEMISTRY Part B Time 50 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED FOR PART B Answer Question 4 below The Section II score weighting for this question is 15 percent 4 Write the formulas to show the reactants and the products for any FIVE of the laboratory situations described below Answers to more than five choices will not be graded In all cases, a reaction occurs Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated Represent substances in solution as ions if the substances are extensively ionized Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction You need not balance the equations Example: A strip of magnesium is added to a solution of silver nitrate (a) A sample of 1-propanol is burned in air (b) Solutions of sodium chromate and lead nitrate are mixed (c) A bar of iron metal is added to a solution of iron(iii) chloride (d) Concentrated ammonia solution is added to copper(ii) sulfate solution (e) Sulfur dioxide gas is bubbled into a beaker of water (f) Equal volumes of 01 M sodium phosphate and 01 M hydrochloric acid are mixed (g) Hydrogen chloride gas is bubbled through a solution of potassium cyanide (h) Liquid bromine is carefully added to a solution of potassium iodide Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 9

10 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Your responses to the rest of the questions in this part of the examination will be graded on the basis of the accuracy and relevance of the information cited Explanations should be clear and well organized Examples and equations may be included in your responses where appropriate Specific answers are preferable to broad, diffuse responses Answer BOTH Question 5 below AND Question 6 printed on page 11 Both of these questions will be graded The Section II score weighting for these questions is 30 percent (15 percent each) 5 Consider five unlabeled bottles, each containing 50 g of one of the following pure salts AgCl BaCl CoCl NaCl NH 4 Cl (a) Identify the salt that can be distinguished by its appearance alone Describe the observation that supports your identification (b) Identify the salt that can be distinguished by adding 10 ml of H O to a small sample of each of the remaining unidentified salts Describe the observation that supports your identification (c) Identify a chemical reagent that could be added to the salt identified in part (b) to confirm the salt s identity Describe the observation that supports your confirmation (d) Identify the salt that can be distinguished by adding 10 M Na SO 4 to a small sample of each of the remaining unidentified salts Describe the observation that supports your identification (e) Identify the salt that can be distinguished by adding 10 M NaOH to a small sample of each of the remaining unidentified salts Describe the observation that supports your identification Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 10

11 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 6 Using principles of chemical bonding and molecular geometry, explain each of the following observations Lewis electron-dot diagrams and sketches of molecules may be helpful as part of your explanations For each observation, your answer must include references to both substances (a) The bonds in nitrite ion, NO, are shorter than the bonds in nitrate ion, NO 3 (b) The CH F molecule is polar, whereas the CF 4 molecule is not (c) The atoms in a C H 4 molecule are located in a single plane, whereas those in a C H 6 molecule are not (d) The shape of a PF 5 molecule differs from that of an IF 5 molecule (e) HClO 3 is a stronger acid than HClO Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 11

12 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) Answer EITHER Question 7 below OR Question 8 printed on page 13 Only one of these two questions will be graded If you start both questions, be sure to cross out the question you do not want graded The Section II score weighting for the question you choose is 15 percent 7 The diagram below shows the experimental setup for a typical electrochemical cell that contains two standard half-cells The cell operates according to the reaction represented by the following equation Zn(s) Ni (aq) Ni(s) Zn (aq) (a) Identify M and M in the diagram and specify the initial concentration for M in solution (b) Indicate which of the metal electrodes is the cathode Write the balanced equation for the reaction that occurs in the half-cell containing the cathode (c) What would be the effect on the cell voltage if the concentration of Zn was reduced to 0100 M in the half-cell containing the Zn electrode? (d) Describe what would happen to the cell voltage if the salt bridge was removed Explain Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 1

13 00 AP CHEMISTRY FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS (Form B) 8 The graph below shows the result of the titration of a 5 ml sample of a 010 M solution of a weak acid, HA, with a strong base, 010 M NaOH (a) Describe two features of the graph above that identify HA as a weak acid (b) Describe one method by which the value of the acid-dissociation constant for HA can be determined using the graph above (c) On the graph above, sketch the titration curve that would result if 5 ml of 010 M HCl were used instead of 010 M HA (d) A 5 ml sample of 010 M HA is titrated with 00 M NaOH (i) What volume of base must be added to reach the equivalence point? (ii) The ph at the equivalence point for this titration is slightly higher than the ph at the equivalence point in the titration using 010 M NaOH Explain END OF EXAMINATION Copyright 00 by College Entrance Examination Board All rights reserved Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board 13

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