Chapter 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES, & IONS

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1 Chapter 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES, & IONS Atomic Theory & Atomic Structure Periodic Table of the Elements Naming Simple Compounds

2 Chemistry & The Elements Chemistry Is The Study Of And The It Undergoes What Is MATTER Composed Of? Matter Is Formed From One Or More Of The

3 What Are The Elements Composed Of? Elements Are Substances That Can Not Be Broken Down Chemically How do we know that? Experiment!

4 How Do We Study Chemistry? THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. Experiment 2. Explain Experiment 3. Do More Experiments to Test Explanation

5 Experiments and Observations Mass is neither nor in ordinary chemical reactions. Different samples of a pure chemical substance always contain the same proportion of elements by. If two elements combine to form different substances, the mass ratios are small, whole number of each other.

6 Atomic Theory & Atomic Structure The key concept in chemistry is that is composed of tiny particles called.

7 First Atomic Theory John Dalton ( ) the Theory of Matter in What does postulated mean? 1. To assume to be true 2. To take for granted

8 Postulates of Dalton s Atomic Theory 1. All matter (elements) is composed of tiny particles called. 2. All atoms of a given element have properties and atoms of different elements have different properties.

9 Dalton 3. Atoms of different elements combine in ratios of small numbers when forming compounds. 4. Chemical reactions only rearrange the way atoms are combined; the atoms themselves are changed.

10 Why is Dalton s theory significant? Dalton s theory explains The Laws of Conservation of Definite Multiple

11 Experiments and Observations Madam and Pierre Curie discovered some materials emitted high energy radiation

12 RADIATION 1. Which elements are radioactive? 2. What does radioactive mean? 3. What are the types of radiation? 4. How do the types of radiation differ?

13 Types of Radiation alpha(α) beta(β) gamma(γ)

14 Types of Radiation alpha(α) beta(β) gamma(γ) and radiation are both affected by an electric field while radiation is unaffected

15 The Discovery of Atomic Structure 1. Thomson 2. Millikan 3. Rutherford

16 S EXPERIMENTS Discovered Electrons are also called Cathode Rays

17 Cathode Rays and Electrons

18 S OIL DROP EXPERIMENT Determined the The on an electron and The of the electron

19 RUTHERFORD S S EXPERIMENTS Determined the of ATOMS PROTONS and NEUTRONS

20 Discovery of Nucleus (Rutherford, ) Rutherford

21 CONCLUSION OF RUTHERFORD S S EXPERIMENTS Gold Foil is Mostly

22

23 The Modern View of Atomic Structure The Nucleus, containing (protons an neutrons) is surrounded by

24 Atomic Number (Z): Number of protons Mass Number (A): Number of protons + neutrons o What is A O 1 A = 1 x meters

25 Weight of ATOMIC PARTICLES Name Charge Mass (grams) Proton x Neutron x Electron x 10-28

26 The Atomic Mass Unit (amu) defined as one twelfth the mass of an atom of 12 6 C and is equal to x g. Also known as the Dalton (Da)

27 Relative Weight of Atomic Particles Name Charge Mass (amu) Proton +1 1 Neutron 0 1 Electron -1 0

28 Atomic Weights Using atomic mass units: 1 amu = x g 1 g = x amu

29 Atomic Mass & Molar Mass Atomic Mass: A weighted of the isotopic masses of an element s naturally occurring isotopes. Molar Mass: The mass of one of any substance.

30 THE ATOMIC MASS SCALE By definition mass of 12 C = exactly 12 amu Using atomic mass units: 1 amu = x g 1 g = x amu Then 1 H weighs x g 16 O weighs x g

31 Notation For Atoms Mass Number = Protons + Neutrons Mass Number A Symbol X Atomic Number Z Atomic Number = Number of Protons

32 Notation For Helium 4 2 He Number of Protons? 2 Number of Neutrons? 2 Number of Electrons? 2

33 What is an ALPHA particle? An α Particle is the Helium nucleus Number of Protons? Number of Neutrons?. Number of Electrons?.

34 Notation For proton H Number of Protons? Number of Neutrons? Number of Electrons?

35 The Structure of Atoms Se The isotope is used medically for diagnosis of pancreatic disorders. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does an atom of Selenium 75 have? Protons =?... Neutrons =? Electrons =?

36 Notation For Sodium Ion Symbol for sodium Atomic Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons Na Unknown Number of Electrons Na

37 Notation For Chloride Ion Symbol for Chlorine Atomic Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons Cl Unknown Number of Electrons Cl

38 Identify the element that contains 47 protons and 61 neutrons. 47 protons = Atomic number = 108 which is the Atomic Mass

39 What is the mass number of an isotope of mercury that has 122 neutrons? (a) 120 (b) 80 (c) 200 (d) 202

40 Atoms with identical atomic numbers, but different mass numbers. Isotopes of Hydrogen: 1 1 H 1 2 H 13 H Number of Protons?. Number of Neutrons? Number of Electrons?

41 Same Number of Protons, Different number of Neutrons Isotopes of Carbon : 6 12 C 6 13 C 6 14 C Number of Protons? Number of Neutrons? Number of Electrons?

42 Average Atomic Mass Atomic weights are listed on the periodic table A weighted average of the isotopic masses of an element s occurring isotopes Atomic weight is also known as average atomic mass (atomic weight).

43 AVERAGE ATOMIC MASSES Naturally occurring Isotopes of Carbon are 12 C and 13 C % 12 C and % 13 C. AVERAGE mass of C is therefore ( )(12.000) + (0.0108)( ) =??????

44 Atoms, Elements & Compounds The smallest representative particle of an Element Are Fundamental Substances That Can Not Be Broken Down Chemically A Is A PURE Substance Formed When TWO or More ELEMENTS Combine

45 Seven elements that occur naturally as Diatomic Molecules (two atoms)

46 Table Salt Peroxide Household Ammonia Household bleach Baking Soda Epsom Salt Milk of Magnesia Vinegar NaCl H 2 O 2 NH 3 (aq) NaClO NaHCO 3 MgSO 4 7H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq)

47 Sodium Chloride Hydrogen Peroxide Ammonium Hydroxide Sodium HypoChlorite Sodium bi Carbonate Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium Hydroxide Acetic Acid NaCl H 2 O 2 NH 3 (aq) NaClO NaHCO 3 MgSO 4 7H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq)

48 PERIODIC TABLE Divided Into ROWS.. & COLUMNS of METALS METALLOIDS & NONMETALS

49 Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS

50 All of the following except are metalloids. (a)b (b) As (c) Al (d) Ge (e)si

51 I. METALS II. METALS & NON METALS 1. REPRESENTATIVE Metals GROUP IA Metals GROUP IIA Metals 2. TRANSITION Metals NONMETALS GROUP VIIA. HALOGENS GROUP VIIIA NOBLE GASES

52 Which of the following is a metal? (a)s (b)si (c)sr (d)se (e)p

53 The number of electrons an atom loses is related to its on the periodic table metal atoms tend to to form cations (positive ions) nonmetal atoms tend to to form anions (negative ions)

54 Predicting Ionic Charge

55 Can you count to three (3)? Now can you count to three BACKWARDS

56 Ions With a +1 Charge H +1.. Hydrogen Ion Li +1. Lithium Ion Na +1 Sodium Ion K +1 Potassium Ion Rb +1 Rubidium Ion Cs +1.. Cesium Ion Ag +1.. Silver Ion NH Ammonium Ion

57 Ions With a +2 Charge Be +2.. Beryllium Ion Mg +2 Magnesium Ion Ca +2. Calcium Ion Sr +2. Strontium Ion Ba +2. Barium Ion Zn +2 Zinc Ion

58

59 Ions With a - 1 Charge F -1 Fluoride Ion Cl -1 Chloride Ion Br -1 Bromide Ion I -1 Iodide Ion CN -1 Cyanide Ion OH -1 Hydroxide Ion NO -1 3 Nitrate Ion C 2 H 3 O -1 2 Acetate Ion

60

61 Ions combine to form NEUTRAL NEUTRAL compounds Metals + Nonmetals For Example NaCl Sodium Chloride and FeCl 3 Iron (III) Chloride Nonmetals + Nonmetals For Example CO Carbon Monoxide and CO 2 Carbon Dioxide

62 formula for Sodium Chloride Sodium ion Na 1+ Chloride ion Cl One Na + and one Cl combine to form

63 formula for Calcium Chloride Calcium ion : Ca 2+ Chloride ion : Cl One Ca 2+ and two Cl combine to form

64 formula for Aluminum Chloride Aluminum ion : Al 3+ Chloride ion : Cl One Al 3+ and three Cl combine to form

65 Nonmetals + Nonmetals Greek prefixes such as mono, di, or tri Are used: CO Carbon oxide CO 2 SO 3 CCl 4 Carbon oxide Sulfur oxide Carbon chloride

66

67 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds: Identify the positive ion and then the negative ion. The positive ion uses its elemental name. The negative ion substitutes the second half of its elemental name with ide. Do not use Greek prefixes such as mono, di, or tri.

68 Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds Binary compounds have elements The most metallic element is written first (i.e., the one to the farthest left on the periodic table). Exception: NH 3. If both elements are in the same group, the lower one is written first. Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms.

69 ACIDS You Should Know 1. HCl (g) Hydrogen Chloride 2. HCl (aq) Hydro Chloric Acid 3. HNO 3 (aq) Nitric Acid 4. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) Acetic Acid 5. H 2 CO 3 (aq) Carbonic Acid 6. H 2 SO 4 (aq) Sulfuric Acid 7. H 3 PO 4 (aq) Phosphoric Acid 8. H 3 BO 3 (aq) Boric Acid

70 Naming Inorganic Compounds Polyatomic anions containing oxygen with additional hydrogens are named by adding hydrogen or bi- (one H), dihydrogen (two H), to the name as follows: CO 3 2- is the carbonate anion HCO 3 - hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) H 2 PO 4- is the dihydrogen phosphate anion.

71

72 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Organic chemistry the study of the chemistry of carbon compounds Alkanes contain only C and H and are called

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