1 Water Quality and Measuring the Health of Aquatic Ecosystems by C. Kohn, Waterford WI Name: Hour Date: Date Assignment is due: Why late? Day of Week Date If your project was late, describe why How do we know if a body of water is healthy? Sometimes, we can simply look at a pond, lake, river, or stream and see that something is wrong. A bad odor, dead fish, or an inappropriate color can all be indicators of how unhealthy a body of water is. However, usually we can t identify a problem in an aquatic ecosystem just by looking at it. Threats to the health of an aquatic ecosystem can come from many sources. Sometimes this source is a natural disturbance. For example, an exploding volcano will choke a river with dust, ash, and sulfur and there is little we can do about this kind of disturbance. More often than not, however, a disturbance to an aquatic ecosystem will be due to human activity. Usually humancreated pollutants are the major disturbance to a lake, river, or stream. These pollutants can be divided into two categories: 1. Point Source Pollution this is pollution that originates from a single source, such as a factory, failing sewage treatment plant, or a sewer pipe. 2. Non-point Source Pollution this is pollution that cannot be traced to a specific point because it comes from many individual places over a large, widespread area. Agriculture is the largest source of non-point water pollution. Parking lots, suburban lawns, and roads also are common sources of non-point pollution. Often these sources of pollution are unknown and unseen we cannot see, smell, or taste toxic levels of mercury, for example. Toxic pollutants are also a concern because of the process of biomagnification. Biomagnification is the process in which pollutants become more and more concentrated in living tissue. This occurs because toxins will become stored in the bodily tissue of every organism that consumes it. While a toxin will be absorbed in small amounts by phytoplankton and species at the bottom of the food chain, macroinvertebrates will eat large amounts of this phytoplankton. Small fish will eat large amounts of macroinvertebrates, and these small fish will be eaten by larger fish such as pike and muskellunge. In order for a pollutant to biomagnify, the following conditions must be met: 1. The pollutant must be long-lived. 2. The pollutant must be concentrated by the producers. 3. The pollutant must be fat-soluble.
2 Each time a toxin goes up a level in the food chain, it becomes more and more concentrated in the tissues of living organisms. Because humans are at the top of the food chain and live long lives, we are most susceptible to fat-soluble toxins. These are toxins that are able to be stored for long periods of time in body fat and tissue. This is also exactly why children and pregnant women are advised to minimize their consumption of large fish. Other toxins can be mutagenic and interfere with a living organism s DNA. DNA is basically the instruction manual for a living organism s cells. When a mutagenic pollutant is present, it can interfere with the instructions given by DNA, causing birth defects, cancer, and other adverse health effects. PCBs are one such pollutant. PCBs, or Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB), are actually part of a wider range of chemicals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons 1. PCB s were manufactured from 1929 until they were banned in They were used because they were not flammable, were very chemically stable, did not melt easily, and were great insulators for electrical wiring. They were widely used in paints, plastics, rubber products, dyes, and many other industrial applications. Despite being banned in 1979, PCBs still enter the environment due to improper disposal of old equipment, leaking hazardous waste sites, and the burning of wastes. Once released, PCBs break down very slowly and are easily carried far distances by rain, snow, and water. They are now found all over the world in varying amounts and can be absorbed by crops and aquatic organisms. If ingested in high enough levels, PCBs can cause cancer, weaken the immune system, reduce birth weights, lower fertility, and cause neurological problems. PCB levels in top predators such as bald eagles, lake trout and humans can be millions of times those found in surface water. Because PCBs can be stored in body fat, they stay can build to harmful levels over time. Despite being banned 30 years ago, the impact of PCBs is still felt today. As recently as October 19 th, 2009, the Department of Justice halted the dredging of the Fox River in Green Bay to prevent the spread of PCBs. While the health concerns are obvious, there are other concerns. If the Fox River cannot be dredged so that ships can easily pass through, it may seriously affect the 650 jobs and $75 million that shipping on this river directly contributes to the Green Bay area. In addition, multiple lawsuits are pending between the paper companies who largely created the PCB problem and the US Army Corps of Engineers who spread the PCBs by dredging. In the end, if an individual is not affected medically and physically by PCBs, they are certainly affected economically, and this is only one of many toxic and mutagenic water pollutants. Other toxic or mutagenic pollutants can be molecularly simpler, but just as deadly. Lead, mercury, and heavy metals can all cause nervous problems, infertility, and birth defects and will bioaccumulate just like PCBs. Hunters should never use 1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons are found in many household items, including tires, tennis shoes, plastics, insecticides, and Teflon. CFCs, the aerosol ingredient that breaks down the ozone layer, also are hydrocarbons, as is DDT. Chlorinated hydrocarbons can be deadly pollutants and by comparison break down very slowly in the environment.
3 lead-based ammunition, and lead sinkers should never be used by fishermen because of these concerns. Even a small amount of lead will bioaccumulate over time. However, a substance does not have to be toxic or mutagenic to be a pollutant. Fertilizers are a major source of water pollution and are not nearly as toxic or mutagenic, if at all (depending on the level at which they exist). Agricultural fertilizers are a concern because they can cause an ecological problem that other pollutants cannot eutrophication. Eutrophication is the process in which a body of water becomes too low in oxygen because of too high levels of nitrogen and phosphate. To understand the process of how eutrophication reduces the health of an aquatic ecosystem, let s consider it in a stepwise fashion. 1. Excessive levels of nitrogen and phosphorus make their way into an aquatic ecosystem when they are washed off from fields and lawns by rainwater. 2. This nitrogen and phosphorus work as fertilizers in the water just like they do on land. This causes an explosion of plant growth, including algae. 3. Algae forms a thick mat on the surface of the water. Light cannot penetrate this mat of algae, and oxygen production is reduced by bottom-dwelling plants. 4. Plants below the algae, as well as the algae, begin to die later in the season. The decomposers that consume these dying plants consume large amounts of oxygen, which was already diminished by the lack of light-inducing photosynthesis. 5. The low levels of oxygen reduce many kinds of desirable organisms, including gamefish and the macroinvertebrates they prey upon. The balance of the food web is upset by the loss of these species. 6. The remaining algal blooms produce toxins that reduce the quality and safety of the water. 7. Algae that stays alive until the fall dies when the weather cools, increasing the nutrient content of the water as it dies, sinks, and decomposes at the bottom. This also causes lakes and ponds to become shallower over time. 8. The aquatic ecosystem becomes less and less suitable for native species; the risk of invasive species that can thrive in these conditions, including carp and invasive species of cattails, increases as native species decrease.
4 So how do we know if a lake has become or will become eutrophic? How would we know if toxins or mutagens are upsetting the energy flow and nutrient cycles of an aquatic ecosystem? It is not usually readily evident, and lakes, rivers, and streams that seem fine on the surface may be collapsing without providing any visible signs. This makes water testing very crucial for preserving the health of gamefish and the aquatic ecosystem in general. Regular checks of several factors in a lake, river, or stream can allow us to identify threats and minimize their damage. Failure to do this could lead to the loss of native species and even the ecosystem itself. The first test we d want to consider is the Macroinvertebrate test. Macroinvertebrates are basically aquatic bugs. These aquatic bugs are bioindicators, or organisms that provide a lot of information about the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Macroinvertebrates are excellent indicators of water quality because they cannot move to a new section of water if it becomes unsuitable for life. Examples of macroinvertebrates include aquatic insects, snails, crayfish, and worms. They typically live on the bottom of an aquatic ecosystem, and are often sampled by sifting a stream or lake bottom with a sieve or a filter. A major advantage of using macroinvertebrates as quality indicators is that they provide evidence of water quality over a long stretch of time. While temperature, ph and other tests can fluctuate day to day and even hour to hour, macroinvertebrates show long-term trends in water quality. The presence of a mixed population of macroinvertebrates indicates that water quality has been suitable for a while. The absence of some macroinvertebrates may indicate that this body of water is not suitable for fish or other aquatic life. While toxins and other pollutants may come and go from time to time, their impact on aquatic life will be most evident by analyzing how many and what kinds of macroinvertebrates there are in a stream or lake. The disadvantage of macroinvertebrates is that they cannot tell us exactly what the cause of the problem may be, just that we have a problem. Macroinvertebrate testing can also be known as EPT Testing. EPT stands for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, three highly sensitive species otherwise known as mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies. The higher the percentage of these pollution intolerant species, the better the water quality of the site due to the fact that they require cool, oxygenated water. On the other hand, leeches, midges, worms, and black flies can handle a lot of pollution and will be found at higher concentrations in waters with poor quality. We want to see lots of mayflies and stoneflies and relatively fewer leeches and blackflies. On the following page, you can see three different classes of macroinvertebrates. While macroinvertebrates can tell us if an aquatic ecosystem is healthy, they cannot tell us exactly what is wrong. If we find very few pollution intolerant species, we must conduct further testing on specific factors to determine what the exact problem may be. The tests we will consider are Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen, ph, and Temperature. More information about these specific tests is included at the end of this packet. Knowing exactly what is wrong with an aquatic ecosystem can help us to find the source of the problem. High levels of toxic substances, mutagens, or heavy metals would indicate industrial pollution. A factory may be leaking toxic chemicals into a river or stream and may not even know it. On the other hand, high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus would more likely indicate that the problem is too much fertilizer on yards, fields, or both. The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 was created to address these kinds of problems in surface water (groundwater is not covered by the CWA). The CWA has changed since its passing into law. Originally the CWA was created to achieve the broader goal of restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters so that they can support "the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water."
5 While chemical pollutants and point source polluters were the original target of the CWA, it has changed recently to focus on the overall health of all aquatic ecosystems regardless of how healthy or unhealthy they may be. All factors that affect the health of aquatic ecosystems are now under increased scrutiny as the CWA changes to become more widespread in the goal to prevent the collapse of natural ecosystems below and above the waterline.
6 Nitrogen is an element needed by all living plants and animals to build protein. It is most commonly found as N 2, composing 78% of the air we breathe. Blue-green algae can convert nitrogen from this form to NH 3 (ammonia) and NO 3 (nitrate), which plants can take up via their roots for growth. Manure is rich in nitrate and ammonia, and can cause eutrophication. Excess nitrates can come from sewage, inadequate waste water treatment plants, and improperly functioning septic systems. Other important sources include excessive fertilizer use (on fields and lawns) and improperly constructed barnyards and feedlots. Water with high concentrations of nitrates can cause methemoglobinemia, or bluebaby syndrome. This condition results when nitrates prevent a baby s blood from taking in oxygen, quickly causing death. Phosphorus (or phosphates): phosphates are widely used in fertilizers, detergents, and municipal water systems. Like nitrogen, phosphorus and phosphates can cause algal blooms and eutrophication. Dissolved Oxygen: like plants and animals on land, most aquatic plants and animals need oxygen for basic physiological processes. Most oxygen in the water comes from the atmosphere and from photosynthesis by aquatic plants. Lack of light, decreased water clarity and increased decomposition can all reduce levels of dissolved oxygen to critically low levels. ph is the measure of hydrogen ion concentrations. It is measured on a scale from 0-14, and for every one unit change on a ph scale, there is a 10-fold change in how acidic or basic the sample is (e.g. a ph of 5 is ten times more acidic than a ph of 6). Most organisms have adapted to life in water of a specific ph value. ph levels can be lowered (become more acidic) by nitrogen oxide emissions and sulfur dioxide emissions from automobile and power-plant emissions. These emissions usually enter aquatic ecosystems via acid rain. Significant changes to a body of water s ph may indicate that contaminants are being introduced. Temperature is the measure of degree heat. Cool water can hold more oxygen than warm water because gases are more easily dissolved in cool water. Thermal pollution is one of the most serious ways humans can affect water ecology. Thermal pollution is the increase in water temp caused by adding relatively warm water to a body of water from industry (e.g. power plants) or urban activities (e.g. run-off from sidewalks and streets). Removing shoreline trees can also increase temperature by allowing direct sunlight to warm the water. Soil erosion, which causes soil particles to enter the water, can also raise the temperature of the water; the sunlight is turned to heat when it hits the darker colored soil. As water temperature rises, oxygen levels usually decrease both because of a lowered ability of the water to hold oxygen and because of increased oxygen use by bacteria (decomposing bacteria are more active in warm water). In addition to lowering oxygen levels, increased temperatures affect aquatic organisms because they are often adapted to a specific temperature range. Level at which aquatic life cannot be supported Max oxygen the water can hold at the given temperature.
7 Questions to Test Your Understanding 25 pts Name: Hour Date: Date Assignment is due: Why late? Day of Week Date If your project was late, describe why 1. What is the difference between Point Source and Nonpoint Source Pollution? 2. A river shows signs of excessive levels of yard fertilizers. a. If the source of this fertilizer pollution was several yards, would this be Point or Nonpoint Pollution? b. If the source of this fertilizer pollution was a specific factory, would this be Point or Nonpoint Pollution? 3. Children and pregnant women are advised not to eat large fish more than once per week. The water these fish swim in is not excessively high in lead or mercury. Explain why lead and mercury are still a concern; be sure to use and explain the term biomagnification in your explanation. 4. What three things are necessary in order to a substance to bioaccumulate? i ii 5. (2 pts) What do mutagenic pollutants do that harms living species? (hint: what do mutagens interfere with?) a. What are 3 examples of problems can mutagenic pollutants create? i ii 6. What does PCB stand for? Where did PCB s come from?
8 7. What are four reasons PCBs were widely used in manufacturing? i ii iv. 8. Why did the Dept. of Justice stop the dredging (deepening) of the Fox River in Green Bay? Why is this a concern? 9. What is Eutrophication? 10. (4 pts) Rewrite the 8 steps of Eutrophication in your own words: i ii iv. v. v vi vii 11. (2 pts) What is the major advantage of using macroinvertebrates to test water quality? a. What is the major disadvantage of using macroinvertebrates?
9 12. Stream A has Dragonflies, Mayflies, Stoneflies, Sowbugs, and Aquatic Earthworms. Stream B has Maggots, Dragonflies, Craneflies, Leeches, and Sowbugs. Stream C has Sowbugs, Dragonflies, Aquatic Earthworms, Sowbugs, and Freshwater Clams. a. Which is the healthiest stream? b. Which is the least healthy? 13. Which pollutant can cause Blue Baby Syndrome, where the blood cannot take up oxygen? 14. If ph changes significantly in the course of a year, what might this indicate? 15. What three factors can decrease levels of oxygen in the water? i ii 16. Which is better for a fish, cold water or warm water? Be sure to explain why. (Hint: which has more oxygen?) 17. How can soil runoff, or reduced water clarity, raise the water temperature? Use the graph below to answer the following questions. Oxygen concentrations are given in mg/l. 18. What is the maximum dissolved oxygen possible at 50 o F? 19. What is the maximum dissolved oxygen possible at 60 o F? 20. What is the maximum dissolved oxygen possible at 80 o F?
NAME: Urban Ecology: Watersheds and Aquatic Ecology A BIOBUGS program Objective: To describe the health of the Muddy River in the Fens wetlands system of Boston by examining abiotic and biotic parameters.
Phosphorus Phosphorus Brochure Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management Reducing Phosphorus Website Washington State Department of Ecology www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Nutrients
Pamela Birak, Jordan Lake State Park, Chatham County, NC 3 Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds Forty-six states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia (collectively referred to as states in the rest of this
Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed
Missouri Streams Fact Sheet By Danny Brown & Jim Czarnezki Edited by Chris Riggert & Sarah Wolken Chemical parameters play an important role in the health, abundance, and diversity of aquatic life. They
Natural Resources Key Concepts Why is it important to manage air and water resources wisely? How can individuals help manage air and water resources wisely? Air and Water Resources What do you think? Read
LIMNOLOGY, WATER QUALITY PA RANI ET E R S, AN D c 0 IV D IT I 0 N S AND ECOREGIONS Water Quality Parameters Nutrients are important parameters because phosphorous and nitrogen are major nutrients required
Chapter 7 1. An (1) is a substance that speeds up the rate of a biochemical reaction. All living (2) make enzymes. 2. Large quantities of useful enzymes can be produced by culturing the (3) that make them
Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other
Phosphorus inputs to Lough Neagh. The increasing impact of agriculture Table of contents Introduction Why does phosphorus create water quality problems? An algal bloom Eutrophication and phosphorus How
47 Acids, Bases, and the ph Scale r e a d i n g Wherever chemical solutions are involved, ph matters. Some important chemical reactions, such as those involved in corrosion of iron or digestion of food,
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Read the Fremont Examiner article below and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify ONE component of the sewage that is targeted for removal
Lesson Plan: How Do We Clean Polluted Water? Oil Spill Cleanup / Phosphate Cleanup / Groundwater Contamination / Water Treatment Simulation Estimated Time: 2-4 days State Standards taught and addressed
Water Clean- up Crew Learn about water quality and how to solve different water quality problems Time Needed 1 hour Ages 4 th to 6 th Season Any Materials aluminum trays, tape, tin foil, sponges, clay,
What Is Integrated Solid Waste Management? This fact sheet provides an overview of options for managing solid waste, identifies the important issues you should consider when planning for solid waste management,
Water Recycles poster The "Water ReCycles" poster is designed for students of all ages. It shows the natural water cycle and humans influence on water resources. Raincloud illustration The raincloud in
Part B Integrated Monitoring Design for Comprehensive Assessment and Identification of Impaired Waters Contents Chapter 10. Selecting Metrics or Indicators of WQS Attainment... 10-2 Chapter 11. Monitoring
septic systems What is a Septic System? A septic system is a private sewage treatment system. They are common in rural areas where there are no municipal sewage pipes for homes, farms, businesses or other
WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES The student will do the following: 1. Define wastewater and list components of wastewater. 2. Describe the function of a wastewater treatment plant. 3. Create a wastewater
Protect Your Pond, Protect Your Health Your role in conserving the health of Cape Cod Ponds We are all responsible for keeping our ponds clean. The ponds on Cape Cod provide many benefits to those living
Product Description: Nu G Medical Waste System Technology (Pyrolysis / Thermal Decomposition) The NU G System uses pyrolysis thermal decomposition to treat infectious wastes typically generated in hospitals.
Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy
Food Web Crasher An introduction to food chains and food webs Activity Students create a physical food web and watch what happens when an aquatic nuisance species is introduced into the ecosystem. Grade
Calendula Extract Safety Data Sheet SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking Product name: Calendula Extract Product code: 305-109 Supplier: Majestic Mountain Sage
Cobian 1 Karina Cobian Ms. Huntley English IV AP, Period 3 04 November 2013 A Step Closer To Stopping Ocean Pollution The solution to pollution is dilution (Marine). This is the catchphrase of many companies
Ponds, Lakes, Canals or River Remediation with Bioaugmentation Eutrophication: The introduction of an excessive amount of contaminants and nutrients (notably nitrogen and phosphorus) into an aquatic ecosystem
Activity: Students review a selection of career profiles and play a lively classroom game to find out more about marine and aquatic science professionals. Grade Level: 4-8 Subjects: Science, social studies
Did You Know? Because natural gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, mercaptan (a chemical that smells like sulfur) is added before distribution, to give it a distinct unpleasant odor (it smells like
Septic Systems How They Work and How to Keep Them Working PO Box 9300, 49 Exeter Street, Portland, Maine 04104-9300 (207) 780-4820 www.cascobayestuary.org 201 Main Street, Suite 6, Westbrook, Maine 04092
1 This Statement was prepared to give you information about fuel oils and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified
Environmental Benefits of Pervious Concrete Concrete Can Be Recycled When the time comes to demolish a concrete structure or pavement, the material need not be wasted. It can be crushed and used as aggregate,
HÄSSLEHOLM COMMUNITY MUNICIPAL OFFICE THE RESTORATION OF LAKE FINJASJÖN Summary After having lowered the sea-level twice to gain farmland and heavy nutrient load mainly from sewage, Lake Finjasjön in 1950
Appendix 1 Water Quality and Water Usage Surveys This appendix contains copies of the Water Quality Survey and the Lake Usage Survey that we used to complete the watershedbased community assessments. We
P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation
reflect Imagine for a moment that you stay after school one day to clean up the classroom. While cleaning, you move some plants away from the sunny windows. A week later, you remember to move the plants
Stream Monitoring at Tumacácori NHP Santa Cruz River Researcher s Day Tucson Community Service Center March 27 2009 Presented by E.L.Gwilliam Overview why, what, where, when and how Stream Protocol Importance
How do you treat water based on water quality from different water sources? Why? Authors: Wendy Lane and Kim Sciarrone Seattle Public Schools; Seattle, WA Water from different sources will contain different
Septic Tank Maintenance Information This section has been adapted from materials developed by the Rouge RAP Advisory Council On-site Septic Subcommittee, which included representatives from Oakland, Wayne
Sometimes hot water will have a sour smell, similar to that of an old damp rag. This smell often develops when the thermostat has been lowered to save energy or reduce the potential for scalding. Odor-causing
1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product Name Magnesium Powder Chemical Symbol Mg CAS No 7439-95-4 EINECS No 231-104-6 Supplier Name & Address THE METAL POWDER COMPANY LTD Thirumangalam - 625706 Tamil
Viewed broadly, the concept of ecosystem services describes the many resources and services provided by nature. Typically, traditional planning and development practices do not adequately represent the
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question1 Read the following article from the Fremont Gazette and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify and describe TWO water-related environmental
5. Environmental problems 5.1. INTRODUCTION An environmental problem arises whenever there is a change in the quality or quantity of any environmental factor which directly or indirectly affects the health
United States Environmental Protection Agency June 2000832-F-00-005 Office of Water 4204 Benefits of Protecting Your Community From Sanitary Sewer Overflows Sanitary Sewer Overflow Control Enhances Community
Throughout each unit, assessments are incorporated into lessons. These assessments are activities that occur within the context of each lesson providing the guidelines for assessing students' progress.
Impacts of air pollution on human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage Air pollution causes damage to human health, crops, ecosystems and cultural heritage The scientific data presented in this brochure
What is a septic tank? Where is my septic tank located? Do septic tanks last forever? What should and should not go into my septic tank? How can I tell if my septic tank is working properly? Why should
INTRODUCTION Phosphates (ortho- and total) Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all aquatic plants and algae. Only a very small amount is needed, however, so an excess of phosphorus can easily occur.
ICON Analyzer Dedicated online photometer for water and wastewater analysis Straightforward online water monitoring 02 If there is one thing that everybody depends on, it is water. We drink it every day.
Pests and Pest Control The need for pest control Philosophies of control Development of Chemical Pesticides Promises and problems of the chemical approach Some of the more commonly used icides Alternative
Dukes of Hazard Activity Time: TEACHERS: Read Populution and Water Source Protection on page 80 of Peel Water Story book. Objectives: Students will: Identify household hazardous waste (HHW) materials around
Environmental Education using Live Birds of Prey Thank you to Xcel Energy Foundation and their Environmental Partnership Program The Balance of Nature Food Chains 101 (Suitable for grades 4-12) OBJECTIVE
7 Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem investigation 2 c l a s s se s s i o n s Overview Students create a food web of a kelp forest ecosystem with which they explore the flow of energy between ecosystem organisms.
United States Office of Water EPA 916-F-01-032 Environmental Protection (4606) July 2001 Agency Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin Managing Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Combined Sewer Overflows
About and the Toxic Site Identification Program is a New York based not-for-profit organization that partners with governments, NGOs and community groups to solve life-threatening pollution problems in
Topic 7: Oceans on the Edge 7.1 How and why are some eco-systems threatened with destruction? How are human activities degrading and destroying marine ecosystems on a global scale? Mangrove removal- over
Costs of air pollution from European industrial facilities 2008 2012 an updated assessment Summary In 2012, air pollution from European industrial facilities cost at least EUR 59 billion (and up to EUR
The Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) for the Mercury Air Toxics Standard (MATS) Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Associate Division Director, Sector Policies and Programs Division
FACTS Private Well Testing Introduction 3 Why Should You Test Your Well Water? 4 What Are the Most Common Sources of Well Water Contamination? 6 What Health Effects Are Associated with Well Water Contaminants?
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 (a) Based on the rate cited above, calculate the expected increase in sea level, in meters, during the next 50 years. One point can be earned
SAFETY DATA SHEET PATHWAYS DRAIN TREATMENT Section 1. Chemical product and company identification Product name Recommended use and restrictions PATHWAYS DRAIN TREATMENT Drain Cleaner Use only for the purpose
6 Chemicals from human settlements 6.1 Introduction The world is becoming increasingly urban, particularly in developing countries. The transition of people from rural areas to cities represents a major,
MOFARNO 160EC MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Product Name: Mofarno 160EC Active Ingredients: Fomesafen + Quizalofop-p-ethyl Chemical name: SECTION 1 Chemical product and Company identification Fomesafen: 5-(2-chloro-a,a,a-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy)-N-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzamide
The Virginia Gardener http://www.hort.vt.edu/envirohort Name Help Sheets: Things Plants Need There are certain things that every living thing needs in order to live and grow. Just like you, plants need
DATACOM CABLE SOLUTIONS 7 FREE : A New Class of Halogen-Free Cables Written by: Alice Albrinck, Chemical Applications Engineer, General Cable July 00 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION What is a Halogen? Why
Monitoring Macroinvertebrates Life Skill: Communication Project Skill: Identifying stream macroinvertebrates (animals without a backbone that are visible without magnification) Objective: Collect and identify
Executive Summary The (NRS) will guide the state in reducing excess nutrients in waters so that in-state and downstream water quality goals are ultimately met. Nutrient impacts are widespread. Excessive
1 Septic Records and Maintenance Guidelines Proper design, installation, and maintenance of your septic system will maximize your system's life. It will prevent failures that can be unsightly, foul-smelling,
A GUIDE TO OPERATING & MAINTAINING YOUR SEPTIC SYSTEM WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW... The way you treat your septic system will influence how long the system lasts and how well it functions. If you own or rent
Rural Wellhead Protection Protection Fact Sheet Fact Sheet CONTAMINANT SOURCES JUNE 1998 Printed on recycled paper INTRODUCTION More than 75 percent of Wyoming s population relies on groundwater for part
Lesson Plan Grades 9-12 Note: The Student Resource Page and Student Worksheets can be found at the end of this lesson plan. Essential Questions > How can phosphate levels in water be measured? > How much
Released Form Spring 2013 North arolina Measures of Student Learning: N s ommon Exams Earth/Environmental Science RELESE Public Schools of North arolina State oard of Education epartment of Public Instruction
SECTION 1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product name : Other means of identification : Not applicable Recommended use : Laundry softener Restrictions on use : Reserved for industrial and professional
C LEAN WATER PARTNERS Make it your business to reduce water pollution and flooding. Clean water is good for business! C LEAN WATER PARTNERS Make it your business to reduce water pollution and flooding.
POLLUTION PREVENTION PRACTICES FOR SURFACE CLEANING YOUR GUIDE TO PRACTICAL METHODS THAT PROTECT OUR LOCAL CREEKS, RIVERS, LAKES, AND THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY. DECEMBER 2004 CREATED BY THE NAPA-SOLANO-SONOMA
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (a) Choose any ONE of the three pollutants mentioned above and respond to each of the following. (i) Describe one specific source, other than
Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 GOALS AND POLICIES 4.2.A General Goals and Policies 1 4.2.B
ANALYZING ENERGY Lesson Concepts: Students will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nine different energy sources. They will use their knowledge to predict what would happen if the world did not
Unit D: Controlling Pests and Diseases in the Orchard Lesson 1: Managing and Controlling Pests of Fruit and Nut Crops Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving
Pond Water Web Lesson Plan Purpose: As a result of this lesson, students will become familiar with common organisms found in a pond and discover their importance in a balanced aquatic habitat as they create
Water and Wastewater Sample Collection and Analysis December 2011 Introduction Accurate testing of drinking water is crucial to maintaining the health and safety of Islanders who rely on this resource.
1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Product information Trade name : Use of the : Drain Cleaner Substance/Mixture Company : S.C. Johnson & Son, Inc. 1525 Howe Street Racine WI 53403-2236 Emergency telephone