1 Water Quality and Measuring the Health of Aquatic Ecosystems by C. Kohn, Waterford WI Name: Hour Date: Date Assignment is due: Why late? Day of Week Date If your project was late, describe why How do we know if a body of water is healthy? Sometimes, we can simply look at a pond, lake, river, or stream and see that something is wrong. A bad odor, dead fish, or an inappropriate color can all be indicators of how unhealthy a body of water is. However, usually we can t identify a problem in an aquatic ecosystem just by looking at it. Threats to the health of an aquatic ecosystem can come from many sources. Sometimes this source is a natural disturbance. For example, an exploding volcano will choke a river with dust, ash, and sulfur and there is little we can do about this kind of disturbance. More often than not, however, a disturbance to an aquatic ecosystem will be due to human activity. Usually humancreated pollutants are the major disturbance to a lake, river, or stream. These pollutants can be divided into two categories: 1. Point Source Pollution this is pollution that originates from a single source, such as a factory, failing sewage treatment plant, or a sewer pipe. 2. Non-point Source Pollution this is pollution that cannot be traced to a specific point because it comes from many individual places over a large, widespread area. Agriculture is the largest source of non-point water pollution. Parking lots, suburban lawns, and roads also are common sources of non-point pollution. Often these sources of pollution are unknown and unseen we cannot see, smell, or taste toxic levels of mercury, for example. Toxic pollutants are also a concern because of the process of biomagnification. Biomagnification is the process in which pollutants become more and more concentrated in living tissue. This occurs because toxins will become stored in the bodily tissue of every organism that consumes it. While a toxin will be absorbed in small amounts by phytoplankton and species at the bottom of the food chain, macroinvertebrates will eat large amounts of this phytoplankton. Small fish will eat large amounts of macroinvertebrates, and these small fish will be eaten by larger fish such as pike and muskellunge. In order for a pollutant to biomagnify, the following conditions must be met: 1. The pollutant must be long-lived. 2. The pollutant must be concentrated by the producers. 3. The pollutant must be fat-soluble.
2 Each time a toxin goes up a level in the food chain, it becomes more and more concentrated in the tissues of living organisms. Because humans are at the top of the food chain and live long lives, we are most susceptible to fat-soluble toxins. These are toxins that are able to be stored for long periods of time in body fat and tissue. This is also exactly why children and pregnant women are advised to minimize their consumption of large fish. Other toxins can be mutagenic and interfere with a living organism s DNA. DNA is basically the instruction manual for a living organism s cells. When a mutagenic pollutant is present, it can interfere with the instructions given by DNA, causing birth defects, cancer, and other adverse health effects. PCBs are one such pollutant. PCBs, or Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB), are actually part of a wider range of chemicals known as chlorinated hydrocarbons 1. PCB s were manufactured from 1929 until they were banned in They were used because they were not flammable, were very chemically stable, did not melt easily, and were great insulators for electrical wiring. They were widely used in paints, plastics, rubber products, dyes, and many other industrial applications. Despite being banned in 1979, PCBs still enter the environment due to improper disposal of old equipment, leaking hazardous waste sites, and the burning of wastes. Once released, PCBs break down very slowly and are easily carried far distances by rain, snow, and water. They are now found all over the world in varying amounts and can be absorbed by crops and aquatic organisms. If ingested in high enough levels, PCBs can cause cancer, weaken the immune system, reduce birth weights, lower fertility, and cause neurological problems. PCB levels in top predators such as bald eagles, lake trout and humans can be millions of times those found in surface water. Because PCBs can be stored in body fat, they stay can build to harmful levels over time. Despite being banned 30 years ago, the impact of PCBs is still felt today. As recently as October 19 th, 2009, the Department of Justice halted the dredging of the Fox River in Green Bay to prevent the spread of PCBs. While the health concerns are obvious, there are other concerns. If the Fox River cannot be dredged so that ships can easily pass through, it may seriously affect the 650 jobs and $75 million that shipping on this river directly contributes to the Green Bay area. In addition, multiple lawsuits are pending between the paper companies who largely created the PCB problem and the US Army Corps of Engineers who spread the PCBs by dredging. In the end, if an individual is not affected medically and physically by PCBs, they are certainly affected economically, and this is only one of many toxic and mutagenic water pollutants. Other toxic or mutagenic pollutants can be molecularly simpler, but just as deadly. Lead, mercury, and heavy metals can all cause nervous problems, infertility, and birth defects and will bioaccumulate just like PCBs. Hunters should never use 1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons are found in many household items, including tires, tennis shoes, plastics, insecticides, and Teflon. CFCs, the aerosol ingredient that breaks down the ozone layer, also are hydrocarbons, as is DDT. Chlorinated hydrocarbons can be deadly pollutants and by comparison break down very slowly in the environment.
3 lead-based ammunition, and lead sinkers should never be used by fishermen because of these concerns. Even a small amount of lead will bioaccumulate over time. However, a substance does not have to be toxic or mutagenic to be a pollutant. Fertilizers are a major source of water pollution and are not nearly as toxic or mutagenic, if at all (depending on the level at which they exist). Agricultural fertilizers are a concern because they can cause an ecological problem that other pollutants cannot eutrophication. Eutrophication is the process in which a body of water becomes too low in oxygen because of too high levels of nitrogen and phosphate. To understand the process of how eutrophication reduces the health of an aquatic ecosystem, let s consider it in a stepwise fashion. 1. Excessive levels of nitrogen and phosphorus make their way into an aquatic ecosystem when they are washed off from fields and lawns by rainwater. 2. This nitrogen and phosphorus work as fertilizers in the water just like they do on land. This causes an explosion of plant growth, including algae. 3. Algae forms a thick mat on the surface of the water. Light cannot penetrate this mat of algae, and oxygen production is reduced by bottom-dwelling plants. 4. Plants below the algae, as well as the algae, begin to die later in the season. The decomposers that consume these dying plants consume large amounts of oxygen, which was already diminished by the lack of light-inducing photosynthesis. 5. The low levels of oxygen reduce many kinds of desirable organisms, including gamefish and the macroinvertebrates they prey upon. The balance of the food web is upset by the loss of these species. 6. The remaining algal blooms produce toxins that reduce the quality and safety of the water. 7. Algae that stays alive until the fall dies when the weather cools, increasing the nutrient content of the water as it dies, sinks, and decomposes at the bottom. This also causes lakes and ponds to become shallower over time. 8. The aquatic ecosystem becomes less and less suitable for native species; the risk of invasive species that can thrive in these conditions, including carp and invasive species of cattails, increases as native species decrease.
4 So how do we know if a lake has become or will become eutrophic? How would we know if toxins or mutagens are upsetting the energy flow and nutrient cycles of an aquatic ecosystem? It is not usually readily evident, and lakes, rivers, and streams that seem fine on the surface may be collapsing without providing any visible signs. This makes water testing very crucial for preserving the health of gamefish and the aquatic ecosystem in general. Regular checks of several factors in a lake, river, or stream can allow us to identify threats and minimize their damage. Failure to do this could lead to the loss of native species and even the ecosystem itself. The first test we d want to consider is the Macroinvertebrate test. Macroinvertebrates are basically aquatic bugs. These aquatic bugs are bioindicators, or organisms that provide a lot of information about the health of an aquatic ecosystem. Macroinvertebrates are excellent indicators of water quality because they cannot move to a new section of water if it becomes unsuitable for life. Examples of macroinvertebrates include aquatic insects, snails, crayfish, and worms. They typically live on the bottom of an aquatic ecosystem, and are often sampled by sifting a stream or lake bottom with a sieve or a filter. A major advantage of using macroinvertebrates as quality indicators is that they provide evidence of water quality over a long stretch of time. While temperature, ph and other tests can fluctuate day to day and even hour to hour, macroinvertebrates show long-term trends in water quality. The presence of a mixed population of macroinvertebrates indicates that water quality has been suitable for a while. The absence of some macroinvertebrates may indicate that this body of water is not suitable for fish or other aquatic life. While toxins and other pollutants may come and go from time to time, their impact on aquatic life will be most evident by analyzing how many and what kinds of macroinvertebrates there are in a stream or lake. The disadvantage of macroinvertebrates is that they cannot tell us exactly what the cause of the problem may be, just that we have a problem. Macroinvertebrate testing can also be known as EPT Testing. EPT stands for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, three highly sensitive species otherwise known as mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies. The higher the percentage of these pollution intolerant species, the better the water quality of the site due to the fact that they require cool, oxygenated water. On the other hand, leeches, midges, worms, and black flies can handle a lot of pollution and will be found at higher concentrations in waters with poor quality. We want to see lots of mayflies and stoneflies and relatively fewer leeches and blackflies. On the following page, you can see three different classes of macroinvertebrates. While macroinvertebrates can tell us if an aquatic ecosystem is healthy, they cannot tell us exactly what is wrong. If we find very few pollution intolerant species, we must conduct further testing on specific factors to determine what the exact problem may be. The tests we will consider are Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen, ph, and Temperature. More information about these specific tests is included at the end of this packet. Knowing exactly what is wrong with an aquatic ecosystem can help us to find the source of the problem. High levels of toxic substances, mutagens, or heavy metals would indicate industrial pollution. A factory may be leaking toxic chemicals into a river or stream and may not even know it. On the other hand, high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus would more likely indicate that the problem is too much fertilizer on yards, fields, or both. The Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972 was created to address these kinds of problems in surface water (groundwater is not covered by the CWA). The CWA has changed since its passing into law. Originally the CWA was created to achieve the broader goal of restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters so that they can support "the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water."
5 While chemical pollutants and point source polluters were the original target of the CWA, it has changed recently to focus on the overall health of all aquatic ecosystems regardless of how healthy or unhealthy they may be. All factors that affect the health of aquatic ecosystems are now under increased scrutiny as the CWA changes to become more widespread in the goal to prevent the collapse of natural ecosystems below and above the waterline.
6 Nitrogen is an element needed by all living plants and animals to build protein. It is most commonly found as N 2, composing 78% of the air we breathe. Blue-green algae can convert nitrogen from this form to NH 3 (ammonia) and NO 3 (nitrate), which plants can take up via their roots for growth. Manure is rich in nitrate and ammonia, and can cause eutrophication. Excess nitrates can come from sewage, inadequate waste water treatment plants, and improperly functioning septic systems. Other important sources include excessive fertilizer use (on fields and lawns) and improperly constructed barnyards and feedlots. Water with high concentrations of nitrates can cause methemoglobinemia, or bluebaby syndrome. This condition results when nitrates prevent a baby s blood from taking in oxygen, quickly causing death. Phosphorus (or phosphates): phosphates are widely used in fertilizers, detergents, and municipal water systems. Like nitrogen, phosphorus and phosphates can cause algal blooms and eutrophication. Dissolved Oxygen: like plants and animals on land, most aquatic plants and animals need oxygen for basic physiological processes. Most oxygen in the water comes from the atmosphere and from photosynthesis by aquatic plants. Lack of light, decreased water clarity and increased decomposition can all reduce levels of dissolved oxygen to critically low levels. ph is the measure of hydrogen ion concentrations. It is measured on a scale from 0-14, and for every one unit change on a ph scale, there is a 10-fold change in how acidic or basic the sample is (e.g. a ph of 5 is ten times more acidic than a ph of 6). Most organisms have adapted to life in water of a specific ph value. ph levels can be lowered (become more acidic) by nitrogen oxide emissions and sulfur dioxide emissions from automobile and power-plant emissions. These emissions usually enter aquatic ecosystems via acid rain. Significant changes to a body of water s ph may indicate that contaminants are being introduced. Temperature is the measure of degree heat. Cool water can hold more oxygen than warm water because gases are more easily dissolved in cool water. Thermal pollution is one of the most serious ways humans can affect water ecology. Thermal pollution is the increase in water temp caused by adding relatively warm water to a body of water from industry (e.g. power plants) or urban activities (e.g. run-off from sidewalks and streets). Removing shoreline trees can also increase temperature by allowing direct sunlight to warm the water. Soil erosion, which causes soil particles to enter the water, can also raise the temperature of the water; the sunlight is turned to heat when it hits the darker colored soil. As water temperature rises, oxygen levels usually decrease both because of a lowered ability of the water to hold oxygen and because of increased oxygen use by bacteria (decomposing bacteria are more active in warm water). In addition to lowering oxygen levels, increased temperatures affect aquatic organisms because they are often adapted to a specific temperature range. Level at which aquatic life cannot be supported Max oxygen the water can hold at the given temperature.
7 Questions to Test Your Understanding 25 pts Name: Hour Date: Date Assignment is due: Why late? Day of Week Date If your project was late, describe why 1. What is the difference between Point Source and Nonpoint Source Pollution? 2. A river shows signs of excessive levels of yard fertilizers. a. If the source of this fertilizer pollution was several yards, would this be Point or Nonpoint Pollution? b. If the source of this fertilizer pollution was a specific factory, would this be Point or Nonpoint Pollution? 3. Children and pregnant women are advised not to eat large fish more than once per week. The water these fish swim in is not excessively high in lead or mercury. Explain why lead and mercury are still a concern; be sure to use and explain the term biomagnification in your explanation. 4. What three things are necessary in order to a substance to bioaccumulate? i ii 5. (2 pts) What do mutagenic pollutants do that harms living species? (hint: what do mutagens interfere with?) a. What are 3 examples of problems can mutagenic pollutants create? i ii 6. What does PCB stand for? Where did PCB s come from?
8 7. What are four reasons PCBs were widely used in manufacturing? i ii iv. 8. Why did the Dept. of Justice stop the dredging (deepening) of the Fox River in Green Bay? Why is this a concern? 9. What is Eutrophication? 10. (4 pts) Rewrite the 8 steps of Eutrophication in your own words: i ii iv. v. v vi vii 11. (2 pts) What is the major advantage of using macroinvertebrates to test water quality? a. What is the major disadvantage of using macroinvertebrates?
9 12. Stream A has Dragonflies, Mayflies, Stoneflies, Sowbugs, and Aquatic Earthworms. Stream B has Maggots, Dragonflies, Craneflies, Leeches, and Sowbugs. Stream C has Sowbugs, Dragonflies, Aquatic Earthworms, Sowbugs, and Freshwater Clams. a. Which is the healthiest stream? b. Which is the least healthy? 13. Which pollutant can cause Blue Baby Syndrome, where the blood cannot take up oxygen? 14. If ph changes significantly in the course of a year, what might this indicate? 15. What three factors can decrease levels of oxygen in the water? i ii 16. Which is better for a fish, cold water or warm water? Be sure to explain why. (Hint: which has more oxygen?) 17. How can soil runoff, or reduced water clarity, raise the water temperature? Use the graph below to answer the following questions. Oxygen concentrations are given in mg/l. 18. What is the maximum dissolved oxygen possible at 50 o F? 19. What is the maximum dissolved oxygen possible at 60 o F? 20. What is the maximum dissolved oxygen possible at 80 o F?
Chapter 7 Water Chemistry - Introduction to Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Training Notebook - Water chemistry plays an important role in the health, abundance and diversity of the aquatic life that
Section 3: Water Pollution Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives Water Pollution Point-Source Pollution Nonpoint-Source Pollution Point and Nonpoint Sources of Pollution Principal Water Pollutants Wastewater
Water Quality Clio 2013 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A lake that is a relatively clear body of water that is cold and contains little
Water Pollution in Rural Watersheds: Sources and Effects of Physical, Chemical and Biological Contaminants Water Quality Improvement Workshop September 20, 2011 Demopolis, Alabama Presenter: Leonard Githinji
NAME: Urban Ecology: Watersheds and Aquatic Ecology A BIOBUGS program Objective: To describe the health of the Muddy River in the Fens wetlands system of Boston by examining abiotic and biotic parameters.
4.4 Water Pollution IB ESS Mrs. Page 2015-2016 Significant Ideas Water pollution, both groundwater and surface water, is a major global problem the effects of which influence human and other biological
The Story behind Acid Rain There is a lot of talk these days about acid rain. Do you know what acid rain is? Do you know if humans are involved in causing it? The problem begins when we burn coal, oil,
Phosphorus Phosphorus Brochure Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management Reducing Phosphorus Website Washington State Department of Ecology www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Nutrients
2.1 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Organisms interact with the ecosystem by: 1. Obtaining food from the ecosystem (eating) Plants are called producers because they produce carbohydrates during photosynthesis.
How Work Table of Contents Section 3 How Section 3 How ecosystems change Objectives List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain
Biocomplexity Lab Activity: Eutrophication Lab Objective: To examine the effects of detergents and fertilizers on aquatic life Warm Up: Describe algae. Materials: 1) 50 small jars (10 per class) 2) Pond
3.4 Cycles of Matter Lesson Objectives Describe how matter cycles among the living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. Describe how water cycles through the biosphere. Explain why nutrients are important
Storm Water and Pollution Prevention What is storm water? Storm water is water from precipitation such as rain or snow that flows across the ground and pavement. That water seeps into the ground or collects
Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?
HOLT ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 05 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK I. Energy Flow in Ecosystems List two examples of ecological succession. Explain how a pioneer species contributes to ecological succession. Explain
Page1 Teacher s Instruction Biogeochemical Cycles Foldable This graphic organizer is used to demonstrate cycles showing the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological parts
BACKGROUND INFORMATION Is the Bronx River Healthy? Is the Bronx River the heart of a healthy ecosystem? This is really the question we are trying to answer as we take a look at the physical (e.g., tree
Water Quality Indicators Lab Introduction Water is an essential resource for all life forms. In fact, water is the main component in cells and it composes up to 60 to 70 percent of the weight of living
A Lesson Plan Developed by Introductory Activity Lead a discussion on the diversity of living organisms in, on, or around a lake. Record the names of as many organisms as the students can think of. They
Ecosystems and Food Webs How do AIS affect our lakes? Background Information All things on the planet both living and nonliving interact. An Ecosystem is defined as the set of elements, living and nonliving,
Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 49 TEK 8.11D: Human Dependence on Ocean Systems TEK 8.11D: Recognize human dependence on ocean systems and explain how human activities such as runoff, artificial
M A S T E R 5.1 NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Study Forecasts Future Food Shortage THE daily HERALd Special Edition, December 14 A new study published in the Journal of World Agriculture raises concerns that in the
Title: Decaying Substances and Water Pollution Time: 5 class periods Objectives: Observe oxygen consumption caused by natural pollutants. Understand the use of a control when conducting experiments. Introduction:
Name: Pd. Ch 5: How Ecosystems Work Section 1: Energy Glow in Ecosystems Objectives: Students will be able to: Describe how energy is transferred from the sun to producers and then to consumers. Describe
Interpreting Your Data (It is important to note that there are not always answers to some of these systems interaction questions. Suggested way to think about framing answers or further questions are in
B-6.1 Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. ecosystem - biotic community (all
TEACHER S GUIDE Supplies Powerpoint presentation that follows the Background Information section Article on aquatic biodiversity Handouts for each small group o Background information o AIS fact sheets
Activity 3-8 Understanding Nutrients: Phosphorus Cycle Adapted from BTNEP/LSU AgCenter: Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Focus/Overview Understanding the role of phosphorus in aquatic plant growth and the
Threats To The Bay Purpose: To help students understand the causes and effects of pollution on air, water and land resources using the Tampa Bay watershed as a local example. The focus will be on pollution
reflect The story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears describes how the little girl, Goldilocks, preferred the porridge that was neither too cold nor too hot, but just right. Much like Goldilocks, certain
Testing Stormwater Chemistry A Watersafe Science Project Background After reading about common water pollutants below, you will use maps, water chemistry kits, and critical thinking to answer these questions:
Water Quality Testing Activity time: 1.5-2.5 hrs, also pre-activity sample collection time TEACHERS: Read Woodland SS Water Quality Monitoring on page 127 and Sanitary Reporting on page 65 of Peel Water
AP Biology Chapter 54 notes Ecosystems Ecosystem ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical recycling An ecosystem consists of all the organisms in a community and all the abiotic factors with which they
Station 1: DISSOLVED OXYGEN Just like we need oxygen in the air to breathe, fish and other aquatic life need oxygen in the water to breathe. Oxygen found in the water is called dissolved oxygen because
How healthy is your stream? A hands-on assessment of the chemical and physical properties of stream water using the visual arts. For grades 9-12 Created by the Athens-Clarke County Stormwater Management
NUTRIENT CYCLES (How are nutrients recycled through ecosystems?) Why? We have learned the importance of recycling our trash. It allows us to use something again for another purpose and prevents the loss
Pollution I choose correct answer 1. A reason for pollution which may not be always natural is mining 2. The common name for the unavoidable end product of human activity that spoils the quality of biosphere
Acid Rain Effects Acid Rain Adapted from: Where Are the Frogs? in Project Wet: Curriculum & Activity Guide. Bozeman: The Watercourse and the Council for Environmental Education, 1995. Grade Level: Basic
Urbanization and Eutrophication Featured scientists: Charles Hopkinson from University of Georgia and Hap Garritt from the MBL Ecosystems Center Research Background: An estuary is a habitat formed where
Introduction Welcome to the learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: How dissolved oxygen is defined and measured in numbers Why dissolved oxygen is important Natural
POLLUTIION OF AIIR AND WATER Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.
CHAPTER 18 WATER POLLUTION 121 Chapter Objectives Define water pollution. Describe the types and effects of water pollutants. Investigate water quality today. Explain water pollution control. Summarize
CHAPTER 16 AIR POLLUTION 108 Chapter Objectives Describe the air around us. Identify natural sources of air pollution. Discuss human-caused air pollution. Explain how climate topography and atmospheric
Section 1: Freshwater Ecosystems Preview Classroom Catalyst Objectives Freshwater Ecosystems Characteristics of Aquatic Ecosystems Lakes and Ponds Life in a Lake How Nutrients Affect Lakes Section 1: Freshwater
Nitrates In Our Water Nitrates Adapted from: "What's in Our Water?" in Living in Water. National Aquarium in Baltimore, 1997. Grade Level: intermediate Duration: 1 class period Setting: classroom Summary:
Chapter 14 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Chesapeake Bay? a. it is one of many small
Watchin the Wabash A publication of the Upper Wabash River Basin Commission Volume 2, Issue 1 May 2014 The Upper Wabash River Basin Commission meets every 2 months at 7:00 a.m. at the Wells Co. Government
Pollution Postcards This activity incorporates writing and drawing while teaching students about the common pollutants that can get into our water sources. For grades K - 8 Created by the Athens-Clarke
Human Impact on Earth Resources SECTION 27.1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources In your textbook, read about population growth and the use of resources by organisms. Examine the graphs below.
Pamela Birak, Jordan Lake State Park, Chatham County, NC 3 Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds Forty-six states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia (collectively referred to as states in the rest of this
Fertile Green: Nutrients and Water Students observe the effects of nutrients on algae growth in water samples. Level(s): 6-8 Subject(s): Life Science; Chemistry Virginia SOLs: 6.5 f,g; 6.7 a,f,g; 6.9 a,c;
1 Water Quality: Nitrate and Phosphate In this investigation, students will measure the nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the water at their monitoring site. Time: 15-20 minutes When: Every visit
Biological indicator Water quality Eleni Diapouli MSc in Water Resources Management Water Framework Directive The sustainable management of water resources is a tool to serve the main objective of Directive
This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Apple Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Activitydevelop Dissolved Oxygen
Danger from Afar: Non-point Source Pollution and the Lake Superior Basin Summary: Students play a game to learn about non-point source pollution in Lake Superior. Grade Level: 3-8 TIme: 1-3 class periods
Nonpoint Source Pollution Issues in Urban/Suburban Communities Created by the Great Lakes Commission in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and National Association of Conservation Districts
Water pollution: the human connection boat ramp surfing waves Warm up: have you ever seen polluted water? what does polluted water look like? what does it smell like? Notes: 1. Ask the students to write
www.irishseedsavers.ie POND LIFE FACT SHEET Natural surface water on earth includes lakes, ponds, streams, rivers, estuaries, seas and oceans. A pond is a small body of fresh water shallow enough for sunlight
Ecosystems Chapter 31 31.1 Energy Flows Through Ecosystems Ecology Study of interactions of living organisms with one another and their physical environment Community Collection of all organisms living
Information from "Water's The Matter" module How Does Dissolved Oxygen Affect Freshwater Ecosystems? 1 Dissolved Oxygen in Freshwater Ecosytems. Organisms must have a minimum level of dissolved oxygen.
ACTION PROJECT: WATER QUALITY Grade 10 Physical Science Student Name: School: Class: Date: 1 Annexure 1 A. Identifying aquatic river life Finding or not finding certain aquatic animals in a water source
Winter Pond Teacher s Guide February 2011 Grades: 5 12 Time: 2 ½ hours Study the limiting factors that affect life in a world with a lid by collecting scientific data through holes in the ice. Students
MILK We drink it - surely it s ok for fish? Milk spilt into waterways has a serious impact by killing fish and other aquatic life through suffocation. How does milk kill fish? Milk contains large amounts
1. Recent evidence indicates that lakes in large areas of New York State are being affected by acid rain. The major effect of acid rain in the lakes is (1) an increase in game fish population levels (3)
Missouri Streams Fact Sheet By Danny Brown & Jim Czarnezki Edited by Chris Riggert & Sarah Wolken Chemical parameters play an important role in the health, abundance, and diversity of aquatic life. They
Pollution & Conservation Pollution & Conservation What is pollution? Any substance in water, soil, or air that degrade the natural quality of the environment, offend the senses of sight, taste, or smell,
Chapter 11 Environmental Issues Water is most essential to life. Thus, its quality is a serious concern to any government and even civilization. In developing countries, fecal pollution of drinking water
CHAPTER 4: INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG LIVING ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 4.1 INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG LIVING ORGANISM AND ENVIRONMENT HABITAT, SPECIES, POPULATION, COMMUNITY AND ECOSYSTEM Go to http://www.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/habitat.html
Unit 2: Interactions in the Environment Chapter 4: Healthy Ecosystems 4.1: What is an Ecosystem Vocabulary biotic element: any living thing found in the environment (e.g. plants, animals) abiotic element:
CHAPTER 4 PHYSICAL SCIENCE CONNECTIONS 4.3 Physical Variables You have read about the compounds that make up living things. The presence and amount of other compounds like oxygen and water are variables
Water Quality ph Computer 11 Water contains both hydrogen ions, H +, and hydroxide ions, OH. The relative concentrations of these two ions determine the ph value. 1 Water with a ph of 7 has equal concentrations
Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle Heather McGraw, Mandy Williams, Suzanne Heinzel, and Cristen Whorl, Give SIUE Permission to Put Our Presentation on E-reserve at Lovejoy Library. What is Nitrogen?
Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed
We greatly appreciate your help with the Storm Drain Medallion Program. This program is a joint effort between your locality and HR Green. When you are awarded your grant HR Green will connect you with
Don t spit in the well - you may need to drink from it! -- Unknown, Russia. WATER POLLUTION Water is a unique substance, because it can naturally renew and cleanse itself, by allowing pollutants to settle
Water Treatment Filtration Lab Brandon Lyons P.5 APES Abstract: How could polluted water be remediated so that it could support life when it is discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water
Izaak Walton League Creek Freaks Chemical Observations and Measurements Procedures As you explore your stream s water chemistry, it is important to understand that water chemistry is very complex. While
Learning Activity 3 HOW IS THE ENVIRONMENT AFFECTED BY STORM WATER POLLUTION? INTRODUCTION: When people overwater their lawns, wash their cars, or hose off their driveways, and when it rains, runoff flows
Powerpoint lessons can be downloaded from left menu Biology Lecture Topics, then Ecological and Environmental Topics, direct link here http://www.ptbeach.com/site/default.aspx?pagetype=3&moduleinstanceid=444&viewid=7b97f7ed
Nutrient Nuisance Lesson Plan SOL Connections Science 6.1 Scientific Investigation The student will plan and conduct investigations. 6.7 Living Systems The student will investigate and understand the natural
Ecological Relationships 55 Who can harvest a walleye? The Great Lakes are an example of a natural community. In this community the small organisms (living things) outnumber the large organisms. The smaller
Chapter 5 The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystem 5.1: The Roles of Organisms in an Ecosystems photosynthesis a process by which plants use water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to produce sugars (food) Types