1 The Terminal Classic Period at Ceibal and in the Maya Lowlands Takeshi Inomata and Daniela Triadan University of Arizona Ceibal is well known for the pioneering investigations conducted by Harvard University in the 1960s (Sabloff 1975; Smith 1982; Tourtellot 1988; Willey 1990). Since then, Ceibal has been considered to be a key site in the study of the Classic Maya collapse (Sabloff 1973a, 1973b; Sabloff and Willey 1967). The results of this project led scholars to hypothesize the following: 1) Ceibal survived substantially longer than other centers through the period of the Maya collapse; and 2) the new styles of monuments and new types of ceramics resulted from foreign invasions, which contributed to the Maya collapse. In 2005 we decided to revisit this important site to re-examine these questions in the light of recent developments in Maya archaeology and epigraphy. The results of the new research help us to shape a more refined understanding of the political process during the Terminal Classic period. The important points that we would like to emphasize in this paper are: 1) Ceibal did not simply survive through this turbulent period, but it also experienced political disruptions like many other centers; 2) this period of political disruptions was followed by a revival of Ceibal; and 3) our data support the more recent view that there were no foreign invasions; instead the residents of Ceibal were reorganizing and expanding their inter-regional networks of interaction. Ceibal is located on the Pasión River, and a comparison with the nearby Petexbatun centers, including Dos Pilas and Aguateca, is suggestive. Some years after ad 761, Dos Pilas was abandoned by the elite, and its dynasty stayed in the more defensible twin center of Aguateca (Demarest 1997). The last ruler of Aguateca, as well as the small remaining population at Dos Pilas and other communities, hastily constructed defensive walls, which indicates that warfare in the region intensified significantly Inomata, Takeshi, and Daniela Triadan 2013 The Terminal Classic Period at Ceibal and in the Maya Lowlands. In Millenary Maya Societies: Past Crises and Resilience, edited by M.-Charlotte Arnauld and Alain Breton, pp Electronic document, published online at Mesoweb:
2 (Demarest et al. 1997; Inomata 2007). About the same time, Ceibal also experienced a political disruption. As noted by Houston and Mathews (1985; see also Houston 1993), there was a break in dynastic succession, and Ceibal was governed by an individual named Ajaw Bot, who apparently did not carry the Ceibal Emblem Glyph. Harvard researchers suggested that during the Late Classic period Ceibal s rulers and most elites lived in Group D, probably because of its defensible location. Despite the extensive defensive wall system, Aguateca did not last much longer. Our research has demonstrated that Aguateca was attacked and destroyed around ad 810 (Inomata 1997, 2003; Inomata et al. 2004). It is likely that about the same time Ceibal also suffered a political collapse. The enigmatic ruler, Ajaw Bot, is shown in Stelae 5 and 7, the latter of which records the date of ad 800 (Graham 1990). We re-examined Stela 5 closely and confirmed that it was not complete. Its lower left glyph blocks show square outlines but glyphic details were never carved (Figure 1). Monuments may be left unfinished for various reasons, but some of them, including Aguateca Altar M (Inomata et al. 2004) and Copan Altar L (Fash 2001) were not completed, most likely because of political disintegration. Ceibal Stela 5 probably belongs to this set of unfinished monuments. After ad 800 Ceibal fell into a nearly half century hiatus in monument erection. In this regard, Ceibal probably experienced political upheavals toward the end of the eighth century like many other centers in the Maya lowlands. However, what distinguishes Ceibal from many other centers is that Ceibal did have a dynastic revival. As discussed by Schele and Mathews (1998), Stela 11 states that a ruler whose name may be Wat ul K atel arrived at Ceibal in 829 under the auspices of a person from Ucanal, and he carried the Ceibal Emblem Glyph. It appears that Wat ul K atel was claiming to be a legitimate heir to the Ceibal throne. After twenty years he held a large ceremony celebrating a K atun ending. In relation to this ceremony held on , he erected five stelae. Contrary to the early views, subsequent studies by various scholars show that there is nothing in these monuments that Figure 1. Lower left glyph blocks of Stela 5. Their outlines are visible, but the glyphs were never carved (Ceibal Project). 63 suggests foreign invasions ( Just 2006; Stuart 1993). Instead, what they shows is an effort by this ruler to reestablish a network of alliance with other centers, recording visiting rulers from Tikal, Calakmul, Motul de San José, Lakamtuun, and the enigmatic city called Puh. Harvard researchers suggested that during this period the Ceibal ruler moved his palace from Group D to Group A (Tourtellot and González 2004). Our excavation of the East Court confirmed this idea. Structure A-16 was probably the residential and administrative building of Wat ul K atel. It was an elaborate building made of beautifully cut blocks, and its facade was decorated with intricate stucco
3 64 Figure 2. Northern part of Structure A-16 after excavation (Ceibal Project). sculptures, similar to those found on Structure A-3, Wat ul K atel s public temple (Smith 1982) (Figures 2 and 3). These sculptures closely followed Classic-period Maya iconographic canons, and there is no indication that the residents were foreigners. After the reign of Wat ul K atel, however, the quality of buildings and monuments deteriorated. In the excavation of a midden behind the East Court, we did not find many prestige items, such as greenstone and shell ornaments, which makes a clear contrast to the abundance of such objects at Aguateca. It is probable that the Ceibal rulers during the Terminal Classic period did not have the support of many court officials to manage affairs of polity and diplomacy, as well as to create elaborate art objects. The final end of Ceibal was relatively rapid. Our excavation shows that some elite buildings were ritually destroyed and burned. These buildings include A-16, A-14, and A-20 (Smith 1982). This process at Ceibal is not unique. We can see comparable patterns in a substantial part of the southern lowlands. Many centers, particularly those in the Pasión-Usumacinta area, suffered rapid falls around 800 and 810 (Houston and Inomata 2009). Some centers, including Ceibal, Toniná, Tikal, and Calakmul, had some period of revival before the collapse. For a better understanding of political processes during the Terminal Classic period, we need to examine these broad regional patterns, as well as variations between different areas.
4 65 References Figure 3. Stucco sculpture that decorated the facade of Structure A-16 (Ceibal Project). Demarest, Arthur A The Vanderbilt Petexbatún Regional Archaeological Project : Overview, History, and Major Results of a Multidisciplinary Study of the Classic Maya Collapse. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2): Demarest, Arthur A., Matt O Mansky, Claudia Wolley, Dirk Van Tuerenhout, Takeshi Inomata, Joel W. Palka and Héctor L. Escobedo 1997 Classic Maya Defensive Systems and Warfare in the Petexbatún Region: Archaeological Evidence and Interpretations. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2): Fash, William L Scribes, Warriors, and Kings: The City of Copán and the Ancient Maya. Thames and Hudson, London [1 st ed. 1991].
5 66 Graham, John A Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: Monumental Sculpture and Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, general editor Gordon R. Willey. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 14, no. 1. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Houston, Stephen D Hieroglyphs and History at Dos Pilas: Dynastic Politics of the Classic Maya. University of Texas Press, Austin. Houston, Stephen D. and Takeshi Inomata 2009 The Classic Maya. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Houston, Stephen D. and Peter Mathews 1985 The Dynastic Sequence of Dos Pilas, Guatemala. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute Monograph, no. 1, San Francisco. Inomata, Takeshi 1997 The Last Day of a Fortified Classic Maya Center: Archaeological Investigations at Aguateca, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 8(2): War, Destruction, and Abandonment: The Fall of the Classic Maya Center of Aguateca, Guatemala. In The Archaeology of Settlement Abandonment in Middle America, edited by Takeshi Inomata and Ronald W. Webb, pp University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City Warfare and the Fall of a Fortified Center: Archaeological Investigations at Aguateca. Vanderbilt Institute of Mesoamerican Archaeology Series, vol. 3, Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville. Inomata, Takeshi, Erick M. Ponciano, Oswaldo F. Chinchilla Mazariegos, Otto Román, Véronique Breuil-Martínez and Oscar Santos 2004 An Unfinished Temple at the Classic Maya Center of Aguateca, Guatemala. Antiquity 78(302): Just, Brian B Visual Discourse of Ninth-Century Stelae at Machaquila and Seibal. PhD. dissertation, Tulane University, New Orleans. Sabloff, Jeremy A. 1973a Continuity and Disruption during Terminal Late Classic Times at Seibal: Ceramics and Other Evidence. In The Classic Maya Collapse, edited by T. Patrick Culbert, pp University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 1973b Major Themes in the Past Hypotheses of the Maya Collapse. In The Classic Maya Collapse, edited by T. Patrick Cubert, pp University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: Ceramics, general editor Gordon R. Willey, Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 13, no. 2. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Sabloff, Jeremy A. and Gordon R. Willey 1967 The Collapse of Maya Civilization in the Southern Lowlands: A Consideration of History and Process. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 23: Schele, Linda and Peter Mathews 1998 The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs. Scribner, New York.
6 67 Smith, A. Ledyard 1982 Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: Major Architecture and Caches, general editor Gordon R. Willey, pp Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 15, no. 1. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Stuart, David 1993 Historical Inscriptions and the Maya Collapse. In Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D., edited by Jeremy A. Sabloff and John Henderson, pp Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C. Tourtellot, Gair, III 1988 Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: Peripheral Survey and Excavation, Settlement and Community Patterns, general editor Gordon R. Willey. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 16. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Tourtellot, Gair, III and Jason J. González 2004 The Last Hurrah: Continuity and Transformation at Seibal. In The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands: Collapse, Transition, and Transformation, edited by Arthur A. Demarest, Prudence M. Rice and Don S. Rice, pp University Press of Colorado, Boulder. Willey, Gordon R Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala: General Summary and Conclusions, general editor Gordon R. Willey. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 17, no. 4. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
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