1 CAUS Outreach and Engagement The faculty and students in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies have been active in a broad range of outreach and engagement activities over the past year (5/16/2010 to 5/15/2011). They work with community groups, industry, professional societies and governmental agencies in creating safer and more sustainable communities; economic development opportunities, public education and places that support people, both physically and spiritually. They do this work both domestically and internationally. The work takes many forms from one time professional advice to long term interaction or engagement, and it often serves as a laboratory for student learning. But, perhaps more importantly, engagement contributes to our sense of self-worth and relevance as teachers, scholars and students. It is impossible to capture every outreach and engagement activity that occurs in the college in this report. Instead this report is intended to demonstrate the range and importance of outreach and engagement in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies. For the purposes of this report outreach and engagement activities are broken into the following categories: Community Building, Working Toward a Sustainable Future, Book Documenting Lost Communities of Virginia, Public Outreach and Education, Awards for CAUS Outreach and Engagement, Planning and Design for Healthy Living, National Security, International Outreach, Economic Development and the Community Design Assistance Center (CDAC). Community Building Many of the degree programs in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies are professional programs that prepare students to engage in professional planning and design of communities. The pedagogy used in these programs relies on the design studio. Students are given real design projects to work on in the design studio. This creates an opportunity for community outreach and engagement a form of service learning. Many of the outreach and engagement activities reported below are the product of this studio pedagogy where the students learning also produces something of value for the community they are working with.
2 Hurt Park Community Garden The Hurt Park Community Garden is the result of an ongoing relationship between the Landscape Architecture program, the Hurt Park Neighborhood Alliance, and the City of Roanoke, and the Roanoke Community Gardens Association. The project started in the fall of 2009 and reflects the work of students from three separate community engagement projects. The first project included an interdisciplinary team of graduate students from the landscape architecture program and the urban and affairs and planning program, working with residents to identify vacant lands that could be utilized for neighborhood green spaces. The second project consisted of undergraduate Figure 1- Perspective view Hurt Park. students who worked to develop a community gathering space for the community. The final project consisted of a team of both undergraduate and graduate students to design and implement a community garden centered on both food production and communal space. All projects had varying degrees of engagement between students and community members. Figure 2 - Citizens of Hurt Park plan community garden.
3 The community garden has transformed a half acre vacant lot into a thriving neighborhood hub where low and moderate income residents of all ages will have access to garden plots. This new garden has become a focal point of the neighborhood and will serve, directly or indirectly, hundreds of Hurt Park residents. Figure 3 - Hurt Park community members working in the garden. The Hurt Park Community Garden (HPCG) will serve not only as a place where individuals and families will grow food: it will be a gathering place for residents, a place where educational workshops will take place, and a place where schoolchildren will have an opportunity to learn (through the development of a Youth Garden) about the cultivation of vegetables, fruits, herbs and flowers as well as encouraging academic learning, life skills, and giving youth opportunities to serve and interact in our community. C.L. Bohannon, a Ph.D. student in the Architecture and Design Research Program, is VT organizer for this engagement project. His Ph.D. studies are focusing on community engagement. To see a video of the garden click on the following link (Hurt Park Community Garden). Freedom Park Competition The Landscape Architecture Program held a student competition seeking proposals for the landscape revitalization of Freedom Park in Rosslyn, Virginia. Elevated above street grade at the intersection of Wilson Boulevard and Lynn Street, Freedom Park is a unique urban park. Formerly a highway overpass (the Loop Road) abandoned by Arlington County in 1993, the
4 park remains a little-known privately-owned (by Monday Properties) retreat, serving nearby commercial tenants, pedestrians and picnickers. Adjacent to the site of the former Newseum, Freedom Park was also the original location for the Forum Journalists Memorial (honoring those killed on assignment), which was removed for relocation in As part of the curriculum, 100 students from both Blacksburg and the Washington Alexandria Architecture Center divided into teams of five to develop plans for the park. Terry Clements, associate professor in the landscape architecture program, organized the competition. The five best teams worked with the Brickman Group to hone their proposals. Monday will use ideas from the competition in redoing the park as an amenity for its tenants and the Rosslyn community. Revitalize Site in City of Falls Church The students Conceptual Plan for West Jefferson Street proposes the total redevelopment of nine acres on the east side of West Jefferson Street bordering Arlington County. The site serves as a gateway into Falls Church for those traveling on Route 29 (Lee Highway/N. Washington Street) and those exiting Interstate 66. The site, which includes a significant number of underutilized properties, is also served by transit located less than one-quarter mile from the East Falls Church Metro station. While many attractions and amenities are within a 20-minute-walk radius from the West Jefferson Street site, most of the sidewalks are too narrow and walking to and from the East Falls Church Metro at night is desolate, dark, and undefined. Because of this, most people choose to drive. The students worked on the plan to revitalize this area in a planning studio under the direction of Shelley Mastran, professor of practice in the urban affairs and planning program, and Jim Snyder, who at the time of the studio, was also adjunct faculty, Urban Affairs and Planning. Mastran explained that the project came about through the Land Use Planning class she taught at Virginia Tech with Snyder in fall The students spent a lot of time walking the site as they formulated their conceptual plan. One student researched redevelopments in other cities in Ohio, Maryland, and Texas. In the West Jefferson Street Conceptual Plan, the students concluded that the West Jefferson Street site presents Falls Church with a unique opportunity for redevelopment in a targeted corridor. Troutville Community Design Charrette Graduate students in the Landscape Architecture Program in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies developed a master plan for Troutville Virginia. Once a thriving economic community located along historic Route 11, Troutville has lost some of its economic vitality after Interstate 81 was developed. The studio course was taught by Brian Katen, chair of the Landscape Architecture Program and Patrick Miller, associate dean for graduate studies and outreach in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies. As part of their design research the
5 students held a community design charrette with Troutville residents. The final plan included recommendation for a town open space and trail system, connections to the Appalachian Trail and streetscape improvements. Design and Construction of the Covington Farmers Market Architecture students designed and built a farmer s market for Covington, Virginia. Lead by Marie Zawistowski and Keith Zawistowski, faculty in the School of Architecture + Design. Students have not only designed the farmer s market structure, but built it as well. This great educational activity for the students has resulted in a valuable community resource a farmer s market. The design/build LAB is a third year architecture studio focused on the research, development and implementation of innovative construction methods and architectural designs. Students collaborate with local communities and experts to develop concepts and propose solutions to problems found in their immediate surroundings. The Lab is currently working on the design and construction of the Covington Farmers Market, a charity project funded by a combination of material donations and a grant from the Alleghany Foundation. Figure 4 - Student constructing Covington Farmer's Market. During the fall semester, the students spent a number of weeks studying existing Farmers Markets around Virginia which they visited and around the world which they studied through publications, drawings and photographs. Using that information, a list of requirements given to them by the client and their own interviews of the Covington Farmers Market vendors, the students were able to establish guidelines and specific requirements for the project. All 17 students first made individual design propositions for the project. From those, a master plan was determined then a design for the building. In this way, all of the students contributed ideas to the discussion. It was very important from a pedagogical perspective that not one scheme was chosen. Rather, they collaborated to develop the final design for the project.
6 Figure 5 Students working at CAUS Environmental Systems Laboratory prefabricate market components. The project is conceived as 3 parts: Ground Plane, Occupied Space, and Pavilion Roof. All component parts are based on a 10 wide module to facilitate prefabrication and transportation to the site. At the scale of the town, the building reads as a seamless gesture. At the scale of the occupant, the details express the modular construction. A locust deck serves as the market floor. It folds up to allow the nesting of an office, storage room and toilet room. It extends beyond the market and into a sloped earth park to provide a stage and seating. A sculptural roof of reclaimed heart-pine and galvanized sheet steel floats over-head. The students spent most of first semester taking down the old 7000 square feet tire warehouse in Clifton Forge, VA. They were able to salvage about 90% of the wood from beautiful heart pine boards to pine and oak posts and beams. Less valuable wood left at the site was donated to community members. The metal from the warehouse was recycled, which generated enough revenue to pay for the cost of fuel for most of the heavy equipment during the deconstruction. Since the goal was to recuperate most of the material, the students had to proceed in meticulous order to disassemble the structure. This was a long and delicate process. The salvaged wood to be used in the construction of the Farmers Market was brought back to the Environmental Systems Laboratory at Virginia Tech, where the students prefabricated the market components.
7 Figure 6 Prefabricated components of farmer s market being loaded for shipment to Covington. The students used their blog as a means to keep people informed of their progress (http://designbuildlab.blogspot.com). They also met regularly with their client to present their work, and organized a public presentation on February 16th at the Historic Train Depot in Covington. The presentation was attended by members of Olde Town Covington, members of the Covington Farmers Market (vendors) and local supporters of the project. The City of Covington owns the site (previously a parking lot) which it has allowed the Covington Farmer s Market to develop and maintain. The project was primarily funded by an $119,000 grant from the Alleghany Foundation. In addition, substantial contributions were made in support of the project by local contractors and material suppliers, as well as national and international companies. These include material donations, in-kind contributions or substantial discounts on the purchase of products or materials. In addition to the students design work and labor, the students solicited donations, ordered materials, and managed the project budget. It is worth knowing that all of the students have taken safety training during first semester, which has been excellent for maintaining safety of the job site. Blacksburg YMCA Site Design Charrette Landscape architecture students, under the direction of Dean Bork, associate professor in the Landscape Architecture Program, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, prepared a
8 landscape plan for the Blacksburg YMCA. The project was juried by Donna Dunay, professor of architecture, Elizabeth Grant, assistant professor of architecture and Patrick Miller, associate dean for graduate studies and outreach. Working Toward a Sustainable Future Sustainable Communities Research Roundtable The Metropolitan Institute, part of the College of Architecture and Urban Studies in Alexandria, Virginia, held a Sustainable Communities Research Roundtable, as part of its Sustainable Communities Research Initiative. With assistance from the Virginia Center for Housing Research in Blacksburg a Sustainable Communities Research Roundtable was convened. More than 50 leading professors and policy experts from across the country met in Washington, D.C., for the roundtable. The objective was to provide high-ranking officials at the U.S. Department of Housing and Development (HUD) with ideas supporting the development of a sustainability research and policy agenda. The plan now is to synthesize the insights from the roundtable into a cohesive research and policy framework and deliver them to HUD and the interagency partners by early November. The Metropolitan Institute has developed a project page in Scholar that all participants can access to review the roundtable proceedings and offer additional research ideas. Focus Group Examines Renewable Energy for Blacksburg Students from the Urban Affairs and Planning program led a focus group meeting of Blacksburg citizens and business owners in a discussion of the Renewable Energy portion of the Town s proposed Climate Action Plan. This meeting was held on Monday, October 25 at the Blacksburg YMCA. Elizabeth Grant, assistant professor in the School of Architecture + Design guided the discussion helped the group develop recommendations. Sedalia Center Landscape Master Plan The Sedalia Center is dedicated to the performing arts. Fifth year landscape architecture student, Emily Rothrock, developed a master plan envisioning possibilities for future site development and a process for the board of directors to engage members of the center in future planning efforts. Dean Bork, associate professor in the landscape architecture program was her advisor.
9 Broadening the Pallet Competition Elizabeth Grant and Mario Cortes, faculty members in the School of Architecture + Design, worked with their students on a design competition for the reuse of wooden pallets. The competition was arranged by Elizabeth Gilboy, director of the Community Design Assistance Center for the Town of Blacksburg. Virginia Tech Students Create Plans for the Catawba Sustainability Center William Morrison, a fifth-year architecture student in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, joined other Virginia Tech students in coming up with ingenious ideas to guide the evolution of the 377- acre Catawba Sustainability Center. One student even created an alternate reality for the center in the virtual world Second Life. See the full story at Plans for Catawba Sustainability Center. Book Documents Lost Communities of Virginia Community Design Assistance Center (CDAC) has published a book titled, Lost Communities of Virginia. The Community Design Assistance Center in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech has been working in rural communities for more than 20 years. Many of these communities have declined in modern times. This book is the celebration of history of those communities. It is intended to provide a window into the past of these communities and promote public education of our heritage and tourism.
10 Figure 7 - Cover of Lost Communities of Virginia book, produced by the Community Design Assistance Center. Lost Communities of Virginia documents stories of coal towns and grist mills, railroads and steamboats, clay smoking pipe makers and excelsior manufacturers, maple syrup and shad, church meetings and jousting matches, traveling salesmen and springs resort visitors to pique the imagination. The communities have lost their original industry, transportation mode, or way of life, but contemporary photographs, historical information, maps, and excerpts of interviews with longtime residents awaken the bustling past. Each community, though typical, is also unique. Virginia s back roads and rural areas are dotted with traces of once-thriving communities. General stores, train depots, schools, churches, banks, and post offices provide intriguing details of a way of life now gone. The buildings may be empty or repurposed today, the existing community may be struggling to survive or rebuilding itself in a new and different way, but the story behind each community s original development is an interesting and important footnote to the development of Virginia and the United States.
11 David Bearinger, Director of Grants and Public Programs with the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, notes This book is a book of shadows and disappearances, of wind in the clapboard, of souls departed and the souls that remain. It s also a book of stark, unsettling beauty, as deep and mysterious as the water in an abandoned quarry. Credit goes to Kirsten Sparenborg, an Architecture student who helped get the project going, Terri Fisher, for her diligence in bringing the book to fruition, and all those who contributed to the book to make it a reality! The book is available online and will be available in bookstores soon. You can follow us on Facebook and Twitter for the latest happenings such as presentations and radio spots. Public Education and Outreach Public outreach and engagement takes many forms in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies. It ranges from creating a forum for public idea exchange to demonstrations and exhibits, Geographers Meet in National Capital Region to Discuss Geopolitical Challenges Geographers from around the world gathered in Old Town Alexandria to attend "The Ridenour Symposium: Geopolitics at Virginia Tech," sponsored by the School of Public and International Affairs in Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies. The one-day symposium was designed to bring together a diversity of speakers and stimulate conversations across disciplinary, theoretical, and political lines; reflect upon the history and practice of geographical reasoning in public affairs, and consider and review the geopolitical challenges of the present-day in a critical open minded manner. Emmons Chairs the Architectural Advisory Board of Falls Church Paul Emmons, professor of architecture at the Washington Alexandria Architecture Center, led the design review of hundreds of millions of dollars of construction (built and proposed) and has been asked to participate in the city center redesign team as well as contribute to the comprehensive rezoning of Falls Church. Virginia Tech Lumenhaus Shows Solar Possibilities to the Public The Virginia Tech Lumenhaus, an innovative, solar-powered house designed, constructed, and operated by students and faculty for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon, arrived in Times Square in New York City and was exhibited from January The house was featured on ABC's Good Morning America on Thursday, January 28th. (http://www.unirel.vt.edu/audio_video/lumenhaus-arrival.html).
12 Community Voices Community Voices is a series of public discussions organized by the Institute for Policy and Governance that focus on Creative Leadership for Community Resilience and Innovation by inviting leaders from all sectors to discuss their approaches to leadership and problem solving. Each talk will be recorded and made available to the public through the Institute for Policy and Governance. Future Community Voices talks will be held at The Lyric Theatre, at 135 College Ave. in Blacksburg. Lumenhaus at Farnsworth After winning the Solar Decathlon Europe in Spain last summer Lumenhaus was exhibited to the public at Millennium Park in Chicago and on the Virginia Tech Drillfield. The Virginia Tech Lumenhaus is also exhibited at the historic Farnsworth House in Illinois, where it will be on display from April through July Considered one of Mies van der Rohe s masterpieces and now owned by the National Trust for Historic Presentation, Farnsworth is a landmark work of modernist design architecture. Van der Rohe s open and clean design is reflected throughout Virginia Tech's solar house. Virginia Tech Lumenhaus north and south walls clearly demonstrate the inspirations from Farnsworth the all-glass walls make the best use of bright, natural daylight to provide both indoor light and passive solar heating. The project s advanced technologies and cutting-edge design demonstrate how a home can operate without being connected to the electrical grid. Indeed, during hours of peak sunlight, the solar house creates more energy than it needs. Visitors to the site will be able to see the connection between van der Rohe s timeless design and 21st innovations in energy efficiency. Improving Foster Care for Children, Youth and Families A study of WIC utilization among foster care children, youth and families was undertaken for the Virginia Department of Health and local departments of social services. WIC stands for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children. The study was completed by Mary Beth Dunkenberger, PI; George Still, project manager; Margaret Gaines and Nancy White, project associates. The study researched the incentives and barriers to WIC utilization by foster families on behalf of qualifying foster care children and recommend marketing strategies for increased utilization. Vacant Property Analysis for City of Roanoke Graduate students in the Urban Affairs and Planning Program in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, working under direction of Tom Sanchez, professor and chair of the Urban Affairs and Planning Program, conducted a study of vacant properties in the City of Roanoke and developed planning recommendations for the city on the use of these properties.
13 Study of Employment Development for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Clients A study was undertaken for NRV-LDSS (local department of social services) (Floyd, Giles, Pulaski, Montgomery, and the City of Radford) TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) Clients. The study examined employment development for TANF clients with significant barriers to employability and sustainability; regional interagency training and research to develop improved domestic violence interventions and targeted MH (mental health) referral and services through New River Valley Community Services. The study was undertaken by Mary Beth Dunkenberger, PI; Holly Lesko, project manager; George Still, Hazel Smith and Rhonda Carner, project support; and vocational specialist (5 dedicated staff). 'Oak Flame' event promotes fire safety by burning mock residence hall rooms Members of the Virginia Tech community and general public were invited to see a demonstration of the effects of the materials and furnishings on the combustion process, and the impact sprinkler systems have for those trying to survive a building fire. On April 8th, researchers and students from Virginia Tech and Virginia Western Community College participated in an unusual experiment in the name of fire safety by igniting two nearly identical residence hall rooms on fire. 'Oak Flame 2011' is the result of partnership between Virginia Tech and several area community colleges and is part of a $3.8 million Department of Labor grant. The project provides community college participants with valuable construction and management experience while demonstrating to students living on college campuses and university officials the importance of sprinkler systems and obeying fire safety regulations. Each room reflected contemporary designs and building codes and were furnished like typical student rooms, and like many rooms, they featured elements such as decorations and unapproved curtains that violate existing fire safety rules. After the burn visitors were able to see exhibits and demonstrations from a variety of related groups, including the Society of Fire Protection Engineers student chapter, the Division of Student Affairs, and Environmental Health and Safety, which conducted hands-on fire extinguisher demonstrations. The Blacksburg Volunteer Fire Department and the Virginia Tech Rescue Squad were also available to talk about their roles and field questions. We wanted students and others to see how these furnishings and decorations contribute to a fire and make them realize the reason behind fire codes and other safety regulations in dormitories with visual representation, said event organizer Tolga Durak, a Ph.D. candidate majoring in environmental design and planning in the Myers-Lawson School of Construction and Virginia Tech fire engineering programs manager.
14 Statewide Survey of Technology Use by Planners Tom Sanchez, professor and chair of the Urban Affairs and Planning Program guided graduate students in developing a statewide survey of technology use by planners. Plans are to host a technology symposium in Alexandria and Blacksburg based on the survey results. Green Jobs Initiative Virginia Tech s two-year focus on training for green jobs helped Nader Rasoul, of Blue Ridge in Botetourt County, get a job. Because of the green jobs grant that Office of Economic Development spearheaded, Rasoul now works part-time for Breakell Incorporated, a Roanokebased company. Georg Reichard, Andrew McCoy, John Randolph were instructors for the project. Get the full story from this report on YouTube. (Green Jobs Initiative). Awards for CAUS Outreach and Engagement The high caliber of the outreach and engagement work done by faculty and students in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies receives recognition in many ways, including: professional awards, institutional awards, fellowships and competition winners. Glen Echo Park Project Garners First Place A Virginia Tech National Capital Region landscape architecture team garnered first place in the Historic American Landscapes Survey competition sponsored by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. The purpose of the competition was to document the landscapes of childhood. The 2010 Theme Park Challenge was initiated to mark the tenth anniversary of the Historic American Landscapes Survey. Entrants were asked to complete at least one short format history for a historic theme park landscape. Associate Professor Paul Kelsch and three students from the Master of Landscape Architecture Program Nicholas Colombo, Luke Van Belleghem, and Seth Estep chose to interpret the history of Glen Echo Park, Maryland, a National Park Service arts and culture venue for their 2010 Theme Park Challenge submission. The team was awarded the top prize for "Topographies of Amusement: The Evolving Terrain of Glen Echo Park" during the recent Figure 8 - Students Luke Van Belleghem and Seth Estep with Paul Kelsch, associate professor in the landscape architecture program at the Washington Alexandria Architecture Center American Society of Landscape Architects Annual
15 Meeting and Expo in Washington, D.C. Virginia Tech structural engineer part of a winning design team for unusual corporate headquarters The American Institute of Steel Construction has presented a national award to a design team, including CAUS faculty member Mehdi Setareh of the School of Architecture + Design, for its work on a dramatic cantilevered corporate headquarters in Michigan. Mehdi Setareh is an expert in structural vibration problems. He used his expertise to help design and build the headquarters of Lamar Construction Company in Hudsonville, Michigan in collaboration with Integrated Architecture, Grand Rapids, Michigan. The 5,200 square-foot glass and steel structure that houses offices perches16 feet above the company s workshop and warehouse in such a way that it almost appears to be hovering in the air. The overhang is 113 feet long, which makes it the longest cantilevered office building structure ever constructed. Because of the unusual design, the architects needed to ensure that vibration was minimized so that that building would be secure and comfortable for people officed there. Jaan Holt Receives CIVIC Award Jaan Holt, the Patrick and Nancy Lathrop Professor of Architecture and director of the Virginia Tech Washington Alexandria Architecture Center, was awarded a 2010 Park and Recreation CIVIC Award from the City of Alexandria in recognition of his 30 years of exemplary service in design education, public outreach, and professional work in addition to instilling the core value of community service to alumni. Holt's on-going guidance and mentorship remain the catalyst for multiple generations of students and professionals who -- by using Alexandria as a learning and professional practice laboratory -- have contributed to the preservation, design, and construction of the city's urban fabric." Elizabeth Gilboy, Andrew McCoy receive 2011 Alumni Award for Outreach Excellence for team achievement Elizabeth Gilboy, director of the Community Design Assistance Center, and Andrew McCoy, assistant professor of building construction, both based in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech, received the university s 2011 Alumni Award for Outreach Excellence for team achievement. Established by the university's Commission on Outreach and International Affairs with the support of the Virginia Tech Alumni Association, the Alumni Award for Outreach Excellence is
16 presented annually to recognize outstanding contributions by Virginia Tech faculty members who have extended the university's outreach mission throughout the commonwealth, the nation, and the world. Recipients are nominated by their peers, share a $2,000 cash prize, and are inducted into the university's Academy of Outreach Excellence. Gilboy and McCoy have collaborated on several recent projects. One example began in 2008 when Gilboy worked to develop Chef Roulette, a program encouraging local chefs to prepare foods available at the Blacksburg Farmers Market in a public setting. This led to a donation of a state-of-the-art convection oven which Gilboy wanted to make mobile for even greater public use. Gilboy turned to McCoy whose students then designed a mobile demonstration kitchen that will be used to transport and protect a gas oven and grill. The design is expected to be constructed this fall. A second Gilboy and McCoy collaboration led to Broadening the Pallet, the original contest to encourage the creative reuse of wooden pallets. The event, held in conjunction with Sustainability Week 2010, attracted more than 30 entries and engaged students, university centers, local farmers, and local business and national chain stores. Beyond the event itself, Gilboy and McCoy were able to more broadly educate the community about pallet use and reuse. Jaan Holt Named Patrick and Nancy Lathrop Professor of Architecture Jaan Holt, professor of architecture in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech and director of the university s Washington Alexandria Architecture Center has been named the Patrick and Nancy Lathrop Professor of Architecture by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors. Holt has been principal administrator of more than $600,000 in sponsored projects and outreach related activities. Many of these projects involve government and military contracts in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. He managed competitions for the Women in Military Service for America National Memorial and the Martin Luther King Jr. National Memorial, which is presently under construction. Visual Arts Students Win 42 Awards in Advertising Competition Virginia Tech students from the School of Visual Arts, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, received 19 gold and 23 silver Advertising Federation of the Roanoke Valley (AD FED) Student ADDY awards including the Best in Show and Student Judges Choice Awards and 13 District Student ADDYs. To view a list of the recipients click on award recipients. Planning and Design for Healthy Living
17 With the current obesity epidemic in the United States planning and designing for healthy living is receiving increased attention. Below are some examples of how students and faculty are contributing to the design and planning of a healthier world. Study Links Walking and Cycling to Better Health through Design and Planning A study conducted by Ralph Buehler, assistant professor of urban affairs and planning at Virginia Tech National Capital Region, and three other researchers have contributed to mounting evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. The study found, European countries with high rates of walking and cycling have less obesity than do Australia and countries in North America that are highly car dependent. The study, Walking and Cycling to Health: A Comparative Analysis of City, State, and International Data, which appears in the October 2010 issue of the American Journal of Public Health, suggests that building more sidewalks, crosswalks, bike paths and lanes will help build a slimmer, healthier community, because people who live in areas that are more conducive to walking and cycling are more likely to engage in these forms of active transport. "Moreover, land-use policies should foster compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter trip distances that are more suitable for walking and biking," the researchers wrote in their report. Student Starts Nonprofit to Raise Funds for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Research A Virginia Tech student celebrated striking success of re-cycled bike trips. What s it like to load food and provisions onto your bicycle and set off for a two-month, crosscountry, quadriceps-powered ride? Ask Virginia Tech student Mason Cavell. By day, Cavell crunches data and numbers for the Office of Economic Development. By night, Cavell, who graduated in May with a master s degree in urban planning and regional planning from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, recruits riders and plots routes for a threeyear-old bike-riding enterprise that raises hundreds of thousands of dollars for multiple sclerosis (MS) research. The cross-country trips came about when alumnus Don Fraser, who graduated in 2007 with a bachelor's degree in biology, talked three friends into cycling from Maine to Seattle. Cavell was one of those friends. Since that first sojourn, the friends have built a nonprofit organization that does more than just spin its wheels. The nonprofit is called Bike the US for MS. Last year s riders pedaled 3,800 miles to raise more than $100,000, starting out in Virginia and ending up at San Francisco s Golden Gate Bridge. The group also engages in service projects such as building a ramp for an MS patient in Roanoke. MS is a chronic disease that attacks the central nervous system, sometimes affecting the patient s mobility.
18 Community Involvement Class Grow Healthy Food for VT Dining Services at Kentland Farm A group of Virginia Tech students engage in learning outside the classroom by volunteering at the Dining Services Garden at Kentland Farm. Since mid-october, some members of a community involvement class, in the urban affairs and planning program have been promoting local food while getting hands-on experience by weeding, harvesting, and learning about the local food system. The Virginia Tech class focuses on issues, concepts, and practices of citizen participation in the development of a community. Brianna Farr, a senior majoring in environmental policy and planning in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, learned even more about how important a local diet is, while being able to contribute to the health of the community and environment. Volunteers have the opportunity to grow some of the food that the Virginia Tech community eats in dining halls on campus. The Dining Services Garden at Kentland Farm has become almost two acres, which harvests sustainable herbs and vegetables. It has been in production since summer 2010, serving fresh vegetables and herbs in dining centers across campus. The expansion has had an immense impact on local foods available on campus. Buehler s Study shows That Bicycle Use in Nine Large North American Cities has More Than Doubled in Last 20 Years Cycling rates have increased much faster in Chicago; Minneapolis; Montréal; New York City; Portland, Ore.; San Francisco; Toronto; Vancouver, Canada; and Washington, D.C., than in their countries as a whole, at least doubling in all the cities since This is one of the findings of a study co-authored by Ralph Buehler, assistant professor of urban affairs and planning in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies Virginia Tech National Capital Region, and John Pucher, professor, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University. The study, Bicycling Trends and Policies in Large North American Cities: Lessons for New York, researched trends over the past two decades in cycling levels, safety, and policies. These nine cities in the United States and Canada have increased their cycling rates because they have implemented a wide range of infrastructure and programs to promote cycling and increase cycling safety, said Buehler. They have expanded and improved bike lanes and paths, traffic calming, parking, bike-transit integration, bike sharing, training programs, and promotional events, for example, a comprehensive package of cycling policies has succeeded in raising cycling levels six-fold, and provides an excellent example for other North American cities to follow. National Security
19 Congressional Testimony on New Legislation Randall Murch, associate director for Research Program Development at Virginia Tech in the National Capital Region and an adjunct faculty in the School of Public and International Affairs, provided testimony before a U.S. House of Representatives Homeland Security subcommittee hearing on Emerging Threats, Cyber security, and Science and Technology. Murch, said he strongly supported the development, coordination, and implementation of a National Intelligence Strategy for Countering the Threat from Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The strategy was recommended by the WMD Commission and led by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). At the same time, however, Murch asserted that as with many other endeavors in government public policy programs, successful implementation through plans with measures of progress and accountability are crucial. He agreed with a subcommittee member that the strategy document should be broader and more overarching. Murch testified with three other experts in related fields who all gave brief summaries of submitted written testimonies and answered questions of subcommittee members. during the 90-minute hearing on H.R. 5498, the WMD Prevention and Preparedness Act of 2010, Murch continually emphasized that clearly articulated goals and objectives, assignments of responsibility, requirements or expectations, and measures of success are key to progress. International Outreach and Engagement International outreach and engagement takes many forms from scholarly research to planning and design assistance for devastated communities or less fortunate groups. Both faculty and students in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies are involved in International Outreach and Engagement. Students and faculty are active in developing opportunities for international exchanges and collaboration. Two visiting scholars were in residence last year and numerous students participated in exchanges. The college initiated bi-lateral exchange agreements with Fachhochschule Düsseldorf, University College Dublin and Kyushu University. The college is in the process of developing bi-lateral exchange agreements with Universität Bern, TU Braunschweig and University of Putra Malaysia. Haitian Neighborhood May Benefit from Architecture Student s Design With a goal to give hope back to a community that is still trying to rebuild, Virginia Tech architecture student Christopher Morgan has won an international competition to design a music studio for one of Haiti s neighborhoods. The competition challenged young architects from around the world to design a 1,000 sq. ft. music studio in Cité Soleil, a neighborhood in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, that would combine music
20 recording and radio programming with vocational training, micro-enterprise opportunities and job creation for at-risk youth in the area. The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) launched the competition on behalf of Yéle Haiti, a charity founded by Grammy award-winning musician, record producer and native Haitian, Wyclef Jean, and was sponsored by architectural firm John McAslan & Partners and Allied London, a property development and investment company. Morgan s proposal brings together back-to-back amphitheaters that are stacked on top of each other, with one opening towards an adjacent park and waterfront, and the other facing the front of station Radio Boukman, an important hub for the community. The result is an open and inviting space that engages the community. Figure 9 Morgan s vision of a music studio in Cité Soleil, a neighborhood in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. New Account of Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and its Reversal (Oxford University Press), is the culmination of more than a decade of work by Gerard Toal, professor and director, of government and international affairs in the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech s National Capital Region, on the conflict that defined the post-cold War era in the early 1990s.
Pulitzer Arts Foundation and Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts at Washington University in St. Louis Launch Second Cycle of National Design-Build Competition, PXSTL Artists, Architects, and Designers
GARFIELD BOULEVARD concept planning PRAIRIE AVE CTA STATION CURRENCY EXCHANGE CAFE ARTS INCUBATOR CALUMET AVE 54TH PL GAS STATION GARFIELD BLVD MUFFLER SHOP 55TH PL DR MARTIN LUTHER KING JR DR STUDY AREA
Page 1 of 8 About Contact Home Degrees Colleges Rankings The 10 Best Graduate Programs In Urban And Regional Planning Select a Degree Select a Category Select a Subject Top College Rankings The 25 Best
Downtown Tampa Transportation Vision Executive Summary August 1, 2006 Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization County Center, 18 th Floor Tampa, Florida 33602 813-272-5940 www.hillsboroughmpo.org
Healthy, Active, & Vibrant Communities Initiative... working to make the healthy choice the easy choice Problem: Low-income communities in the St. Louis region face greater disparities than the rest of
Education Session MON-A03 Monday November 18 th 8:00 AM - 9:30 AM Sustaining Parks with a Triple Bottom Line: Ecology, Economy and Equity Sustaining our beloved parks and public spaces is a key concern
The University of Toledo College of Engineering Strategic Directions 2005-2015 November 9, 2005 The University of Toledo College of Engineering Strategic Directions 2005-2015 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE
Building Future Leaders Select AIA Component Leadership Programs AIA components across the United States have recently launched a number of leadership curricula to strengthen their local governance and
FY2014 Budget Support Act Section 9014 District of Columbia Public Library Introduction The DC Public Library s Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library, located at 901 G Street, NW, needs a major renovation
SURVEY BACKGROUND The 2010 Salida Community Priorities Survey was distributed in September in an effort to obtain feedback about the level of support for various priorities identified in the draft Comprehensive
Atlanta Regional Commission s Lifelong Communities Initiative: Creating Communities for All Ages and Abilities Laura Keyes, MS, AICP and Cathie Berger, LMSW The Atlanta region is experiencing a monumental
Ivywild School District Model of a Sustainable Neighborhood: a national symbol of Colorado s sustainability leadership What is Ivywild s national significance? In addition to being the repurposing of a
POSITION SPECIFICATION President Northern Virginia Community College Preamble The Virginia Community College System provides programs and courses of instruction, through the associate degree level, encompassing
Green Development Profile: Greater Cincinnati & Northern Kentucky LISC Complete Profile The Local Initiatives Support Corporation of Greater Cincinnati & Northern Kentucky works to bring new, significant,
Grand Valley State University School of Social Work Grand Valley State University was chartered by the Michigan Legislature in 1960, in response to the need for a public, four-year institution of higher
DENSITY AND PUBLIC SPACE AT BISHOP STREET Niehoff Urban Studio Senior Planning Capstone Spring 2015 Justin M. Lightfield U N I V E R S I T Y O F C I N C I N N A T I Table of Contents Overview... 3 Design
CITY OF ROANOKE AND TOWN OF VINTON, VIRGINIA RSTP Funds Joint Application FOR Tinker Creek Pedestrian Bridge: Tinker Creek and Glade Creek Greenways Connection Date: September 15, 2014 RSTP Project Profile
Schenk-Atwood Neighborhood Business District Master Plan Prepared for the Schenk-Atwood Revitalization Association (SARA) and the City of Madison SCHREIBER/ANDERSON ASSOCIATES, INC. BEST Real Estate Group,
Citizen Advisory Group Meeting #1 December 8, 2011 6:00 p.m. Meeting Agenda 1. Background Information 2. Policy Framework 3. Plan Development Process 4. Public Input Results 5. Vision Statement 6. Group
IV. Market Analysis A. Executive Summary The Economy The St. Louis metropolitan area population has grown at the moderate annual rate of 4.4% over the last eight years while employment (the best measure
Presidential Brief COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Daniel F. Mahony, Ph.D. Dean B.S., Virginia Tech M.A., West Virginia University Ph.D., The Ohio State University Job Responsibilities:
Date Posted: 1/20/2016 Type: Administrative Salary: Competitive and commensurate with experience Enrollment Type: Full-time Position: Chair, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering College of
BASSETT CREEK VALLEY MASTER PLAN OPEN HOUSE February 23, 2006 PROJECT INTRODUCTION Project Area 230 acres $50 million estimated market value (approximately) 50 acres parkland 100 residences (estimated)
The Arts at Virginia Tech Strategic Directions and Opportunities Submitted to the Offices of the President and Senior Vice President and Provost by the Chair of the Arts Strategic Planning Team Paul Knox
Creative Place-Making & Adaptive Reuse Request for Proposal Historic Ajo Townsite Ajo, Arizona January 5, 2012 Program The International Sonoran Desert Alliance (ISDA) has been funded through the National
INVESTMENT & REAL ESTATE SERVICES Who We Are A trusted advisor. A consistent presence. A valued resource. Forest City Investment Management & Real Estate Services is the investment management and third-party
Margaret M. Cowell, PhD. Curriculum Vitae Fall 2010 CONTACT Dept. of Urban Affairs and Planning Virginia Tech, Alexandria Center 1021 Prince Street, Suite 200 Alexandria, VA 22314 703.706.8101 firstname.lastname@example.org
ARCHITECTURE CURRICULUM Master of Architecture DEGREE REQUIREMENTS Credits Masters Thesis Project Collaborative Competition I Collaborative Competition II AR8101 Studio in Critical Practice 3 AR8102 Seminar
Mercy Housing Lakefront Roseland Place Senior Apartments Chicago, Illinois 2015 RUDY BRUNER AWARD PROJECT DATA 2015 RUDY BRUNER AWARD PROJECT AT-A-GLANCE Roseland Place Senior Apartments 10426 South Michigan
Montgomery County Community College West Campus Expansion 60,000 Sq. Ft. Warehouse adaptive reuse of the former Vaughn Knitting Mill, a major architectural component of Pottstown s Industrial Heritage.
David F. Sacks Curriculum Vitae Education 2007 Ph.D., Educational Studies, University of Cincinnati Dissertation Title: The Effects of the Direct Instruction of Study Strategies on First Year College Students
DISCOVERY HALL, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON BOTHELL Bothell, Washington 78,200 sf Discovery Hall reflects its dynamic program and dramatic site, as well as the collaborative and student-centered spirit of
SAN FRANCISCO NEIGHBORHOOD PROFILES September 2011 Primary Sources: http://www.ubayp.com/neighborhoods/index.aspx http://www.sanfrancisco.travel/ Downtown: Union Square Area San Francisco's Downtown neighborhood
George Mason University Fairfax, Virginia Environmental Education and Outreach SCHOOL George Mason University, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is a public four-year research institution. Current enrollment
Friends of School Health Testimony Expanding Funding for CDC School Health Programs Statement of Sharon Murray, MHSE, CHES Executive Director, Society of State Directors of Health, Physical Education and
College of Architecture Strategic Plan 2014-2025 From the Dean The College of Architecture at the Georgia Institute of Technology houses a rich mix of disciplines that are critical in shaping how people
Leadership Statement Dean College of Design, Construction and Planning Opportunity The University of Florida seeks candidates for the position of Dean of the College of Design, Construction and Planning.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA BOARD OF VISITORS MEETING OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA'S COLLEGE AT WISE FEBRUARY 20, 2014 COMMITTEE ON THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA S COLLEGE AT WISE Thursday, February
TWO-YEAR PROGRESS REPORT BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES (BAS) SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO 1. INTRODUCTION As noted in the previous Report to the Senate Undergraduate Council of November
Wednesday 6/18, 2:30-3:45 Sustainable Design Courses and Tourism Studies at San Diego State University Topic Areas: Curriculum - Local 3110 Adams Humanities Building Lara Stucki Student, Interior Design,
Ninth Street Historic Park Acknowledgements This project was paid for in part by a State Historical Fund grant from the Colorado Historical Society. The contents contained herein do not necessarily reflect
Philadelphia County is located in the southeastern corner of Pennsylvania and is bordered by the Pennsylvania counties of Delaware, Montgomery, and Bucks, and the New Jersey counties of Burlington, Camden,
1 We Could Do That! A Guide to Diversity Practices in California Community Colleges Robert Gabriner, Eva Schiorring, and Gail Waldron City College of San Francisco We Could Do That! is a manual with tools
GREENING MAIN STREET: Resources from the National Trust for Historic Preservation Online Tools Sustainability Issue Page Link to a variety of new resources that are continually being updated, from historic
HUBERT H. HUMPHREY FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM 2015-16 Request for Proposals Humphrey Fellowship Program Enhancement Workshops 1. Introduction and Background The Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship Program is sponsored
McKenzie, page 1 Twenty-nine years of experience in education and technology leadership, including teaching, writing, speaking, professional development, administrative and instructional technology, higher
Expanding Distance Learning Through Videoconferencing Joan Hanor, Ph.D. Professor California State University San Marcos Katherine Hayden, Ed.D. Associate Professor California State University San Marcos
Miami University Ohio Mission Statement: Miami provides the opportunities of a major university while offering the personalized attention found in the best small colleges. It values teaching and intense
Early Administrators of Des Moines Area Community College By Carroll Bennett In June of 1966 a series of actions were about to take place that would revolutionize higher education and expand opportunities
The Public Dialogue: Innovative Design Study February 27, 2003 Lower Manhattan Development Corporation Introduction The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC), in close collaboration with the Port
Frederick Frederick Maryland Smart Growth Successes Frederick Maryland Department of Planning Smart, Green & Growing Martin O Malley Governor Anthony G. Brown Lt. Governor Maryland Department of Planning
SPECIALIZED COMMUNITY GRANT PROGRAM DEAR SPECIALIZED RETAIL PARTNERS: At Specialized we re driven by a simple, but powerful fact: bicycles change lives. We started the Dealer Grant Program to support you,
Course Description To design sustainably means to create something that will function and endure for an extended period of time, be powered by energies that do not negatively impact the ecological balance
The Strawberry Ladies by Tara Stood Economic Development Element Economic development enhances San Clemente s quality of life by providing local goods and services and expanding employment and business
8 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT in this chapter 8.1 Overview of Economic Conditions 8.2 Priority Economic Development Needs 8.3 Economic Development Goals and Policies chapter 8 economic development Creating new
ACADEMIC AND STUDENT AFFAIRS COMMITTEE April 30, 2008 Item: ASA 1 SUBJECT: Proposed Masters in Environmental Education Proposed Committee Action Approval of a new master s degree in Environmental Education
PROPOSED ACADEMIC PROGRAMS: The Pre-College program, Advanced Certificate program, M.A. program, and Masters of Design Practice program are conceptualized by faculty around the principles of the mission.
DEFIANCE COLLEGE Strategic Plan 2013-2016 The at Defiance is part of the Division of Business, Education, and Social Work. The department includes majors in Business Administration and Accounting; minors
PROJECT PURPOSE The Warsaw + Winona Lake Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan establishes a comprehensive framework for a connected bicycle and pedestrian system that will be used for both recreation and
Community College Humanities Association (Pacific-Western Division) & Washington Community College Humanities Association in partnership present Humanities: The Heart of the Matter A Joint Conference Thursday-Saturday,
Advisory Committee Handbook TABLE OF CONTENTS Intent of the Committee: Purpose of the Advisory Committee...4 Role of the Advisory Committee...4 Functions of the Advisory Committee...5 Design of the Committee:
2015 Event Sponsorship Packet Sat. September 26th Sat. December 5th Destination Downtown South Boston, Inc. 432 Main Street South Boston, VA 24592 Phone: 434-575-4209 Fax: 434-575-4275 Web: downtownsobo.com
CIPCE Center for Initiatives in Pre-College Education Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Lester Rubenfeld, Director (518) 276-6906; (email) email@example.com; (FAX) 276-2113 110 8th Street, CII 9217, Troy, NY
An Assessment of Capacity Building in Washington State The Nonprofit Ecosystem Framework Executive Summary prepared by The Giving Practice A consulting service of Philanthropy Northwest February 2012 About
DANIEL E. JORANKO (615) 430-2455 2407 Heiman Street firstname.lastname@example.org Nashville, TN 37208 EDUCATION Michigan Sate University, East Lansing, Michigan Ph.D. Department of Resource Development-Urban
Jay T. Engeln Resident Practitioner: School/Business Partnerships National Association of Secondary School Principals The following written testimony is provided for the Research Subcommittee hearing on
JOSEPH H. MAROON EXPERIENCE SUMMARY Over 30 years in senior leadership positions with premier legislative, executive branch and private conservation organizations. Recipient of several awards for outstanding
Leadership Statement Dean Carson College of Business Fall 2014 The University Washington State University is a public research university committed to its land-grant heritage and tradition of service to
Electronic Portfolios in Evolution Roger Olsen email@example.com Nancy Wentworth Nancy_Wentworth@byu.edu David Dimond firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Electronic Portfolios in Evolution describes a dynamic
FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION HEALTH IN TRANSPORTATION WORKING GROUP: 2013 ANNUAL REPORT MARCH 7, 2014 FINAL EXTERNAL DOCUMENT Prepared for: Office of Natural Environment Federal Highway Administration
Tambra O. Jackson University of South Carolina Department of Instruction & Teacher Education 104 Wardlaw Building, Columbia, SC 29208 Phone: 803.777.2018 Email: email@example.com ACADEMIC DEGREES Ph.D.-
CULTIVATING STUDENT-LED ACTION and LEADERSHIP Emily Schosid - Campus Sustainability Planner, Virginia Tech Andrea Trimble - Sustainability Director, University of Virginia Smart and Sustainable Campuses
The SID is proactively working to combat these challenges and is poised to take the necessary steps to ensure downtown transitions from these difficult times to a vibrant and active center Strategic Planning
NOVA s Loudoun Campus: Taking it to the Next Level What is NOVA? Second largest community college in the United States: 78,000 students annually in credit courses (12,000 at Loudoun and Reston) Largest
Contact Information and Important Links For more information on Landscape Architecture: www.ced.uga.edu www.asla.org landscapearchitecturemagazine.org www.ahlp.org tclf.org www.facebook.com/ georgiastudentsoflandscapearchitecture
SEPTEMBER 2015 SCOPE OF WORK MONTGOMERY COUNTY PLANNING DEPARTMENT M-NCPPC MontgomeryPlanning.org table of contents table of contents... 1 introduction... 2 planning context... 2 purpose of master plan...
PAINTER EXECUTIVE SEARCH Position Description Painter Executive Search is supporting the in a search for an experienced to lead a broad regional coalition of Bay Area land conservation agencies and organizations
Dean, Jordan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology Position Description Overview California State University, Fresno is seeking a creative, energetic, innovative, articulate and dynamic leader
Toolkit for Participating Institutions Working in cooperation with the White House Domestic Policy Council and the Office of First Lady Michelle Obama, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)
Smith County Forum Sponsored and Facilitated by: Smith County Office Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System Smith County Forum 1 Smith County Forum Introduction This report presents
THE SEARCH FOR A DEAN OF EDUCATION AND EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AT INDIANA UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in Indiana, PA announces a national search for dean of the College
Mrs. KaAnn Varner, Superintendent 1100 East Oklahoma Street Sulphur, OK 73086 Document Generated On February 3, 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 1 Description of the School 2 School's Purpose 4 Notable
An Invitation to Apply: University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL) College of Education Orthwein Endowed Professor for Life-Long Learning in the Sciences THE SEARCH The Department of Teaching and Learning
January 12, 2016 Mr. Adam Sayre, AICP Director of Planning & Development City of Verona 111 Lincoln Street Verona, WI 53593 Re: Emerson on Main development Concept design; Rezoning & Conditional Use Mr.
Age Friendly Domain Workgroup Recommendations Steps to Implementation Due Date Outdoor Spaces and Buildings Construction or reconstruction of a new senior center. Review several locations throughout the
observe analyze transform PSYCHOLoGY, SOCIAL WORK AND RELIGIOUS STUDIES Psychology The mind works in mysterious ways but with a psychology degree from Clarke, you ll be prepared to enter the exciting field