3. Which of the following is a fear that persists even when no realistic danger exists? a. unconditioned reaction b. compulsion c. phobia d.

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1 Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Billy's parents beg him not to smoke, but his parents smoke themselves. If Billy continues to smoke, he has been influenced by a. negative reinforcement. b. counter conditioning. c. the paradoxical intention. d. modeling. 2. To be effective, punishment should be a. delivered by the same person each time. b. immediate. c. delivered late in the day. d. a type of negative reinforcement. 3. Which of the following is a fear that persists even when no realistic danger exists? a. unconditioned reaction b. compulsion c. phobia d. neurosis 4. In higher-order conditioning, the a. US is used as if it were a CR. b. US is used as if it were a CS. c. CS is used as if it were a US. d. CS is used as if it were a UR. 5. Regarding the effects of negative reinforcement and punishment on responding, which of the following statements is TRUE? a. Both negative reinforcement and punishment decrease responding. b. Both negative reinforcement and punishment increase responding. c. Negative reinforcement increases responding, while punishment decreases responding. d. Negative reinforcement decreases responding, while punishment increases responding. 6. During a conditioned emotional response, which area of the brain becomes more active and produces feelings of fear? a. corpus callosum b. pons c. reticular formation d. amygdala Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 1

2 7. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus that naturally elicits a reflex response. This neutral stimulus will become known as the a. reflexive stimulus. b. latent stimulus. c. unconditioned stimulus. d. conditioned stimulus. 8. Learning your way through the various levels of a video game requires that you develop which of the following regarding this video game? a. projective assessment b. a cognitive map c. a behavioral contract d. automatic adaptation 9. Because Cindy was disruptive during the family game time, she was sent to her room. Being sent to her room and away from the family fun is an example of the behavioral procedure known as a. negative reinforcement. b. time out. c. negative feedback. d. avoidance learning. 10. From a response contingent viewpoint, which of the following tells a person or an animal that a response was right and worth repeating? a. acquisitional cue b. reinforcer c. conditioned stimulus d. operant 11. Social reinforcers consist of a. primary and secondary reinforcers. b. knowledge and ability. c. positive environment stimuli and a lack of punishment. d. the learned desires for attention and approval. 12. When using the three tools to control behavior, it is usually best to begin a. with severe punishment to eliminate problem behaviors. b. with mild punishment for problem behaviors. c. by suppressing problem behaviors with negative reinforcement. d. by making liberal use of positive reinforcement. Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 2

3 13. Eye blink conditioning can be accomplished with individuals in a. a minimally conscious state. b. a vegetative state. c. both a minimally conscious and a vegetative state. d. neither a minimally conscious nor a vegetative state. 14. The probability of repeating a response is increased by which of the following consequences? a. negative reinforcement b. nonreinforcement c. punishment d. response cost 15. We are more adaptable because learning is extended to related situations through a. spontaneous recoveries. b. acquisitional conditioning. c. extinction. d. stimulus generalization. 16. Which of the following terms applies to the observation that responses reinforced in the presence of certain stimuli will occur under similar stimulus conditions? a. the Premack principle b. operant disinhibition c. operant stimulus generalization d. the partial reinforcement effect 17. When a reward or other pleasant event follows a response, which of the following is being used? a. positive reinforcement b. negative reinforcement c. bribe d. conditioned stimulus 18. Escape learning reflects the operation of a. classical conditioning. b. negative reinforcement. c. positive reinforcement. d. respondent conditioning. 19. In which type of associative learning are the antecedents the most important aspect for the learning to take place? a. operant conditioning b. instrumental learning c. cognitive learning d. classical conditioning Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 3

4 20. Which form of learning would most likely be studied in a Skinner box? a. vicarious conditioning b. conditioned emotional responses c. operant conditioning d. classical conditioning 21. B.F. Skinner is known for studying a. latent learning. b. classical conditioning. c. vicarious conditioning. d. operant conditioning. 22. Printed money has little or no value of its own, but you can exchange it for food, water, lodging, and other necessities. Thus, money would be considered a type of reinforcer. a. token b. negative transfer c. unconditional d. higher-order 23. A baby cries when it hears a stranger s voice but not when it hears its mother s voice. This illustrates a. spontaneous recovery. b. stimulus discrimination. c. response chaining. d. stimulus generalization. 24. Plans for determining which responses will be reinforced are known as a. token economies. b. programmed instruction. c. schedules of reinforcement. d. successive approximations. 25. Two schedules of reinforcement that produce the highest rates of response are a. fixed interval and variable interval. b. continuous and fixed interval. c. fixed ratio and variable ratio. d. variable interval and variable ratio. 26. Which of the following decreases the likelihood that the response will occur again by initiating discomfort? a. positive punishment b. negative reinforcement c. negative punishment d. response cost Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 4

5 27. Negative attention-seeking will develop in some children because a. the children receive attention when they are ill-behaved but are ignored when they are well-behaved. b. the parents reward the children's correct social behaviors in only limited situations. c. punishment is always ineffective and teaches aggression. d. punishment was not used to get rid of the negative attention-seeking in the children. 28. Two important aspects of stimulus control are a. operant inhibition and operant disinhibition. b. operant stimulus habituation and operant stimulus dishabituation. c. operant stimulus generalization and operant stimulus discrimination. d. operant extinction and spontaneous recovery. 29. Michael is 12 years old and is undergoing chemotherapy treatment. After his first chemotherapy treatment, Michael experienced nausea and vomiting. After several treatments, Michael now experiences anticipatory nausea as soon as he enters the treatment room and before he receives the chemotherapy. In this classical conditioning example, Michael s initial chemotherapy treatment would be considered the a. conditioned stimulus. b. conditioned response. c. unconditioned stimulus. d. unconditioned response. 30. Regarding the experiments using intracranial self-stimulation, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. After the rats had pressed the intracranial self-stimulation lever to exhaustion, they were less likely to press the lever again once they were revived. b. Intracranial self-stimulation involves electrical stimulation of the limbic system of the brain. c. When rats self-administer nicotine, they are even more likely to engage in intracranial self-stimulation because nicotine further increases the sensitivity of the pleasure pathways. d. Intracranial self-stimulation is considered to be a primary reinforcer. 31. According to the informational view, the brain learns to anticipate the future event of the US following the CS. Thus, this view explains classical conditionig in terms of a. reinforcement. b. a mental expectancy. c. a consequence. d. instrumental conditioning. 32. The effects of modeling and imitation underlie a. response chaining. b. discovery learning. c. classical conditioning. d. observational learning. Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 5

6 33. If you try to avoid, narrow down, or remove stimuli that elicit the bad habit, you are breaking this bad habit using the strategy that involves a. cues and antecedents. b. breaking up response chains. c. negative reinforcement. d. alternate responses. 34. Which schedule of reinforcement would be most useful when a person or animal is initially learning new responses? a. fixed interval b. fixed ratio c. continuous d. intermittent 35. The schedule of reinforcement in which a set number of responses must be made for each reward is called a. fixed interval. b. variable interval. c. fixed ratio. d. variable ratio. 36. A conditioned stimulus comes to evoke a response because it has been repeatedly paired with a(n) a. unconditioned response. b. unconditioned stimulus. c. conditioned response. d. neutral stimulus. 37. Mike and Jeff are brothers who have just moved with their parents into a beautiful old house. Mike soon discovers that if he flushes the toilet while Jeff is taking a shower, it will cause the water in the shower to become scalding hot. Naturally, Jeff screams as his reflexes cause him to leap backward in pain. After Mike has repeated this procedure several times, Jeff has begun to twitch involuntarily every time he hears any toilet flush. In this example, the sound of the flushing toilet would be the a. conditioned response (CR). b. unconditioned response (UR). c. unconditioned stimulus (US). d. conditioned stimulus (CS). 38. In behavioral self-management, the activity you want to change is called the a. primary reinforcer. b. target behavior. c. goal gradient. d. baseline. Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 6

7 39. A corporate pay policy comparable to a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement would a. involve salary adjustments based on the quality of work performed. b. pay employees at the end of each day. c. pay employees on a piece-work basis. d. pay employees a fixed salary. 40. Placing a child in time-out removes the child from playtime, television, and other positive situations. Therefore, time-out would be considered a. positive punishment. b. response cost. c. negative reinforcement. d. discriminative stimuli. 41. Each time he steps up to the plate, a baseball player touches the bill of his cap three times, just as he did before hitting a home run in a previous game. Which principle accounts for his actions? a. positive transfer b. modeling c. superstitious behavior d. reminiscence 42. As a child, you associated pain with a dentist s office. In later visits, your heart began to pound and your palms began to sweat before the dentist began any procedure. You are exhibiting a a. conditioned emotional response. b. conscious attempt to act frightened in order to gain attention. c. rational fear based upon realistic dangers. d. fear that was shaped by operant conditioning in childhood. 43. If a rat is on an FI-30-second schedule for bar pressing, the rat will be reinforced a. for a bar press after an interval that averages 30 seconds. b. continuously for 30 seconds and then will receive no more reinforcement. c. on the average, for every 30 seconds of responding. d. for a bar press after having waited exactly 30 seconds after the last reinforced response. 44. In a self-management program, self-recording a. provides feedback and lets you know if you are reaching your goal. b. is only effective if the Premack principle is utilized. c. involves setting goals and readjusting them. d. is only effective if extra rewards are utilized. Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 7

8 45. Three-year-old Josh has been classically conditioned to salivate to a bell. We now clap our hands and then ring the bell. Little Josh will soon learn to salivate when we clap our hands because of a. the law of effect. b. instrumental conditioning. c. higher-order conditioning. d. shaping. 46. Frequent punishment makes a person or an animal all of the following EXCEPT a. unhappy and confused. b. better behaved. c. aggressive. d. anxious and fearful. 47. In his experiments, Pavlov found that conditioning worked best if the CS was presented a. just before the US. b. just after the US. c. instead of the US. d. at the same time as the US. 48. The law of effect was proposed by a. John B. Watson. b. Ivan Pavlov. c. B.F. Skinner. d. Edward Thorndike. 49. The idea that a high frequency response can be used to reinforce a low frequency response was proposed by a. Wolfe. b. Olds. c. Premack. d. Skinner. 50. Learning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfort is known as a. escape learning. b. avoidance learning. c. latent learning. d. respondent conditioning. Cengage Learning Testing, Powered by Cognero Page 8

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