Psych 101. How do we learn? Ivan Pavlov. Association Learning. Terminology. Association between. Learning. 3 main types. Learning

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1 How do we learn? Psych 101 Learning Learning A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience 3 main types Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning Association Learning Learning a basic association between two things Noticed that when he walked into the room to feed dogs, they were already salivating Why would this be? Food causes salivation No food was present why are the dogs salivating? Ivan Pavlov Association between Pavlov entering the room = dog s get food This is learning!! Classical Conditioning Terminology Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally-- triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus 1

2 Again Unexpected Associations UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) UCS (passionate Kiss) CR (sexual arousal) UCR (sexual arousal) Timing is everything How should the US and the CS be presented? Any particular ordering? Ideally: CS then US Other ideas Extinction Playing CS with no US The response (CR) disappears Spontaneous Recovery The CS elicits a diminished response (CR) after time has passed and after extinction Well, how specific is the learning? Generalization The tendency to respond to a CS that is similar to the initial CS that the animal was trained on Discrimination The ability to tell the difference between certain aspects of the learned association 2

3 Examples: Generalization Examples: Discrimination chocolate Still want it? Associations have to make sense Rats are more likely to learn an association between food and nausea than light and nausea Also they are more likely to learn to associate light and shock than food to shock Operant Conditioning Relies on the Law of Effect Rewarded behavior is more likely to recur type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Skinner Box chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses B.F. Skinner guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal Successive approximations (bribing good grades with money) Shaping 3

4 Reinforcement Seeking to strengthen the behavior Positive: adding something to strengthen behavior Negative: removing something to strengthen behavior Examples Positive reinforcement Money for good grades Negative reinforcement Removal of restriction for good grades Punishment Seeking to decrease the behavior Positive: adding something to diminish the behavior Negative: removing something to diminish the behavior Examples Positive punishment Spanking Negative punishment Taking the car away for getting a speeding ticket Which is most effective? Punishment is most effective when accompanied by reinforcement Don t do this, do this instead. What if the reinforcement/punishment is not occurring EVERY time? In real life, people don t get punished every time they do something bad or rewarded every time they do something good Continuous reinforcement: If everytime you did something there was a reward 4

5 Partial reinforcement More common than continuous reinforcement Which is better? Continuous: faster learning Partial: longer lasting learning Types of Partial Reinforcement Fixed Ratio schedules Every 30 pieces gives a reward Variable Ratio schedules Rewards are given in an unpredictable manner Fixed Interval schedules Rewards are given every 30 minutes Variable Interval schedules Rewards are given at random time intervals Examples: Most Effective? Which reinforcement schedule do these fit into? Door to door salesmen Checking the cookies to see if they re done Airline frequent flier miles programs Gambling Observational Learning Learning through observing Albert Bandura Conducted Bobo Doll Experiments The Bobo Doll Experiment 2 groups of children Watched an adult interact with a bobo doll 1 group saw an adult be violent with the bobo doll 1 group saw an adult ignore the bobo doll The children that observed the violence were more violent towards the bobo doll 5

6 Quiz A dog will naturally sneeze after being tapped on the nose. For a short period, the dog is shocked (lightly) prior to being tapped on the nose and prior to them sneezing. After training, the dog will sneeze after being shocked. What is the unconditioned stimulus here? What is the conditioned response? #2 A monthly salary is an example of which type of partial reinforcement schedule? Variable ratio Fixed ratio Variable interval Fixed interval 6

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