a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. LEARNING

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1 a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. LEARNING Learning by association; involves involuntary response & reflexive behavior CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Russian physiologist studying digestion who discovered classical conditioning & won the Nobel Prize. PAVLOV stimulus that automatically produces a reflex Pavlov - food UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UCS)

2 automatic response to the UCS Pavlov - salivation UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE (UCR) begins as a neutral that doesn t elicit a response & becomes a CS after repeated pairings with the UCS. Pavlov - tone CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS) learned response when the CS is presented alone. Pavlov - salivation CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR) best conditioning; CS begins before & stops with the UCS SHORT-DELAYED CONDITIONING

3 less effective; CS begins & ends before the UCS is presented TRACE CONDITIONING least effective; CS & UCS begins & ends at exactly the same time. SIMULTANEOUS CONDITIONING eliminating the CR by no longer pairing the UCS w/cs EXTINCTION recurrence of the CR after a rest interval following extinction. SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY

4 the CR occurs to a stimulus that is similar to the CS GENERALIZATION the CR only occurs to the CS because the differences between stimuli are detected. DISCRIMINATION occurs after extinction when the CS & UCS are paired again. Relearning is quicker than initial conditioning RECONDITIONING pairing a previous CS w/a new CS. Creates a weaker and easier to extinguish CR to the new CS. HIGHER ORDER CONDITIONING

5 developed principles of classical conditioning JOHN WATSON Watson's unethical experiment with children LITTLE ALBERT EXPERIMENT UCS noise UCR fear CS rat CR fear Principles of operant conditioning were developed by Skinner. Responses are learned because of their consequences; voluntary; reward follows behavior. OPERANT CONDITIONING (B. F. Skinner) behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated; behavior not rewarded tends not to be repeated. THORNDIKE'S LAW OF EFFECT

6 enclosure that provided food pellets, stimuli, & electric shock; designed by Skinner. SKINNER BOX subject reinforced as they get successively closer to the target behavior SHAPING or SUCCESSIVE APPROXIMATIONS REINFORCERS consequences for behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated. Primary reinforcers meet biological needs; food, water, air Secondary reinforcers have acquired value; grades, money When we reinforce/justify and already internally reinforcing behavior. It can create a desire to only do the behavior for external reinforcement. OVERJUSTIFICATION EFFECT

7 Continuous schedules - every response is reinforced 100% of the time. CONTINUOUS VS. INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES Intermittent schedules - response is not reinforced every time. Ratio schedules produce higher response rates than interval. Variable schedules are harder to extinguish than fixed schedules FIXED RATIO INTERMITTENT SCHEDULE reinforcement given after a fixed number of responses; high rate of responding, but fastest rate of extinction because subject realizes quickly that reinforcement has stopped. reinforcement after a varied number of responses; high rate of responding, but extremely resistant to extinction. VARIABLE RATIO INTERMITTENT SCHEDULE reinforcement after a certain amount of time; low rate of responding after reinforcer & increase before reinforcement interval; scalloped effect. FIXED INTERVAL INTERMITTENT SCHEDULE

8 reinforcement after a varied amount of time; steady, slow rate of responding. VARIABLE INTERVAL INTERMITTENT SCHEDULE cues that indicate a response is likely to be reinforced DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULI something desired (wanted) is presented to increase/maintain behavior POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (PR) something aversive (not wanted) is removed to increase/maintain behavior. It is removed by one of the following methods: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT (NR) Escape conditioning terminates an aversive (not wanted) stimulus Avoidance conditioning prevents exposure to an aversive (not wanted ) stimulus

9 something aversive (not wanted) is given to decrease/eliminate behavior PUNISHMENT something desired (wanted) is removed to decrease/eliminate behavior OMISSIONS TRAINING declining effectiveness with increasing delay. Also applies to punishment. GRADIENT OF REINFORCEMENT what is reinforcing is subjective to the individual. PREMACK PRINCIPLE

10 IMPRINTING Species-specific behavior that is built in. Lorenz was the first moving objects that the goslings saw so they followed him thinking he was their mother. INSTINCTUAL DRIFT when instinctive behavior makes it easier/harder to learn a response, such as trying to teach chickens to stand still on a platform. Keller & Breland's raccoons can be learned in a single trial, especially if severe sickness. May have been an adaptive response for survival. CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSIONS We are pre-wired to develop certain phobias as a survival mechanism. EX: heights, snakes, spiders PREPAREDNESS

11 behaviors learned by watching and imitating others OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Bobo doll research on aggression which led to the concept of observational learning. ALBERT BANDURA learn consequences through observation of others consequences VICARIOUS LEARNING learning that is not demonstrated at the time but at a later time when it is motivating to do so. LATENT LEARNING

12 learning patterns in the absence of reinforcement due to exposure that creates a mental map; rats in the maze COGNITIVE MAP sudden awareness of the solution; Kohler s chimps & bananas INSIGHT LEARNING applies conditioning to treating behaviors & disorders. Used mostly with animals, young children, & special challenges BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Phobias are acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning; not extinguished because avoiding/escaping makes it reinforcing MOWER'S TWO FACTOR THEORY

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