Chapter 10. (1) Lewis Theory of Bonding. (2) Lewis Symbols: . :O:.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 10. (1) Lewis Theory of Bonding. (2) Lewis Symbols: . :O:."

Transcription

1 Chapter 10 (1) Lewis Theory of Bonding * Bonds between atoms form due to interactions between valence electrons (VE). (i) Ionic Bonds: Form due to a transfer of VE s. (ii) Covalent Bonds: Form due to sharing of VE s. (2) Lewis Symbols: * Show the VE s about an atom as dots. * Unpaired VE s predict ionic charges for many atoms and preferred # of covalent bonds for nonmetals.. :O:. 2 unpaired (a) 2 covalent bonds or electrons (b) predicts a 2 charge

2 (3) Lewis Structures (pp: in GCN) (a) Critical to determine Bond Order first: Bond Order = [6N + 2] [Total # VE s] (i) For every + 2 N = # non atoms (a) 1 multiple bond (b) 1 Carbon ring (5 or 6 C atoms) (c) An e deficient atom (B or Be) (ii) For every 2 Expanded octet on central atom by 2 e s (at least n = 3 atom) (b) Draw the skeleton (atomic arrangement): * Use single bonds except for specifics from Bond Order. * Remember the preferred # covalent bonds for each atom! (c) Complete Octet Rule: * Add lone pairs so that all atoms obey the Octet Rule (except )

3 Example Lewis Structures: (a) N 2 C 2 C 2 COO [6N + 2] [#VE] = [6(6) + 2] [36] = = 2 1 double bond (b) ICl 4 :O:.. : N C C C O.. (watch extra VE from the species charge!!) [6N + 2] [#VE] = [6(5) + 2] [36] = = :Cl: :Cl: : I : :Cl:.. :Cl:.. expanded octet on I atom by 4

4 (c) Resonance: * When Multiple Lewis Structures are valid. * Usually differ by the placement of multiple bonds. * Use Formal Charges to determine the best structure. FC = (#VE) (# lone pair e s) [(½)(# bonding e s] (lowest values are best; sum of FC values = overall species charge) Example: CO 2.. :O C O: :O = C = O: :O C O: best structure..

5 (4) Bond Polarity * The separation of charge between atoms in a bond. * Based on the electronegativity difference ( EN) * EN is an atom s attraction for bonding electrons (a) Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: 0 < EN < 0.4 (b) Polar Covalent Bonds: 0.4 < EN < 1.7 (c) Ionic Bonds: EN > 1.7 * Better to use % Ionic Character from a plot. * Polar bonds have a Dipole Moment with a partially positive (δ + ) side and a δ side (more EN atom)

6 (5) Molecular Shape (Geometry) * The VSEPR Model theorizes the arrangement of atoms about a central atom based on minimizing repulsion of electron groups. * Also predicts Bond Angles. (a) Draw the Lewis Structure (b) Count total # electron groups (any region of electrons) * Provides the Electron Group Geometry about the central atom (c) Find # Bonding e groups vs. nonbonding e groups * Provides the Molecular Geometry (the answer!!) * Use Table in the Textbook for Molecular Shapes and Bond Angles.

7 VSEPR Model examples 6 e groups about central Xe atom Octahedral e group Geometry 5 e groups about central S atom Trigonal Bipyramid e group Geometry 90 o Bond Angles 120 o Bond Angles 90 o Bond Angles 4 bonding e groups and 2 lone pairs Square Planar Molecular Geometry 4 bonding e groups and 1 lone pair See Saw Molecular Geometry

8 VSEPR Structures (Shapes) * These are Lewis Structures drawn with proper molecular geometries and bond angles. * Lone pairs do not need to be included. * Label the molecular shapes of each central atom. Example: Draw the VSEPR structure for C 3 CCN 2 Bond order = [6N + 2] [#VE] = = > 1 double bond Lewis Structure.. C C = C N VSEPR Structure Trigonal planar (120 o angles) C C = C N Tetrahedral Trigonal pyramid (109.5 o angles) (~ o angles)

9 (6) Molecular Polarity * The overall charge distribution about an entire molecule. * Polar Molecules have dipole moments (like bonds) * Molecular Polarity is determined by 2 factors: (i) Bond Polarity: * Polar molecules MUST AVE at least one polar bond. * If all bonds are nonpolar, then the molecule is nonpolar. (ii) Molecular Symmetry: * Use the VSEPR Model to determine molecular symmetry. * Nonpolar molecules have perfect symmetry. (all polar bonds cancel out if EN values are the same) * Polar molecules are NOT symmetric (at least 1 polar bond!)

10 (7) Bond Dissociation Energies (D) * The energy required to break a bond. * Bond energies (BE) that are averaged over several molecular environments are used and are tabulated in the text. * BE values are commonly used for rough estimates of rxn values. Example: What is rxn for the combustion of methane? C + 2 O = O -----> O = C = O + 2 O rxn = Σ BE (reactants) Σ BE (products) rxn = [(4 mol C ) + (2 mol O=O)] [(2 mol C=O) + (4 mol O )] rxn = 4 mol 414 kj + 2 mol 498 kj 2 mol 799 kj + 4 mol 464 kj mol mol mol mol rxn = (2652 kj) (3454 kj) = 802 kj

N H H. For example, consider ammonia, NH 3, which has the Lewis structure: The nitrogen atom has four pairs of valence electrons, 3 bonding pairs

N H H. For example, consider ammonia, NH 3, which has the Lewis structure: The nitrogen atom has four pairs of valence electrons, 3 bonding pairs Objectives: The objectives of this laboratory experience are to: Write Lewis structure representations of the bonding and valence electrons in molecules. Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometries

More information

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures

Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Illustrating Bonds - Lewis Dot Structures Lewis Dot structures are also known as electron dot diagrams These diagrams illustrate valence electrons and subsequent bonding A line shows each shared electron

More information

Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry

Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry The purpose of this lab is to use molecular models to help you understand the theoretical concepts of covalent bonding

More information

Lewis Structure Exercise

Lewis Structure Exercise Lewis Structure Exercise A Lewis structure shows how the valence electrons are arranged and indicates the bonding between atoms in a molecule. We represent the elements by their symbols. The shared electron

More information

5/26/2015. Chapter 10 Structures of Solids and Liquids. VSEPR Theory. Two Electron Groups. Shapes of Molecules. Two Electron Groups with Double Bonds

5/26/2015. Chapter 10 Structures of Solids and Liquids. VSEPR Theory. Two Electron Groups. Shapes of Molecules. Two Electron Groups with Double Bonds Chapter 10 Structures of Solids and Liquids 10.2 Shapes of Molecules and Ions (VSEPR Theory) VSEPR Theory In the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), the electron groups around a central

More information

Shapes of Molecules. AX m E n. A. Molecular Geometry

Shapes of Molecules. AX m E n. A. Molecular Geometry Shapes of Molecules A. Molecular Geometry Lewis structures provide us with the number and types of bonds around a central atom, as well as any NB electron pairs. They do not tell us the 3-D structure of

More information

Chem 11 Practice Questions for Ch. 8

Chem 11 Practice Questions for Ch. 8 Chem 11 Practice Questions for Ch. 8 1. Atoms having equal or nearly equal electronegativities are expected to form A) no bonds B) polar covalent bonds C) nonpolar covalent bonds D) ionic bonds E) covalent

More information

Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds

Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds Chapter 4 Compounds and Their Bonds 4.7 Shapes and Polarity of Molecules Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 VSEPR In the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory

More information

!"#$%&'()(!*+,-./0(1* (

!#$%&'()(!*+,-./0(1* ( (!"#$%&'()(!*+,-./0(1*-.23-.4( ( ( (!"#"$%&'()$*%#+,'(-(.+/&/*+,%&(01"2+34$5( 6%#+,"(!/$75#38+(92+41( CHAPTER 4: molecules Learning Objectives:! Define covalent bonding and difference between it and ionic

More information

2. Atoms with very similar electronegativity values are expected to form

2. Atoms with very similar electronegativity values are expected to form AP hemistry Practice Test #6 hapter 8 and 9 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? a. Ionic bonding results from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. b. Dipole moments result

More information

Chapter 7. Chemical Bond Concept

Chapter 7. Chemical Bond Concept Chapter 7 Covalent Bonds & Molecular Structure Chemical Bond Concept Recall that an atom has core and valence electrons. Core electrons are found close to the nucleus. Valence electrons are found in the

More information

Molecular Models: The shape of simple molecules and ions

Molecular Models: The shape of simple molecules and ions Molecular Models: The shape of simple molecules and ions Background The shape of a molecule is very important when investigating its properties and reactivity. For example, compare CO 2 and SO 2. Carbon

More information

Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts

Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts Chapter 7. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts Chemical bond: is an attractive force that holds 2 atoms together and forms as a result of interactions between electrons found in combining atoms We rarely

More information

EXPERIMENT - 1. Molecular Geometry- Lewis Dot structures

EXPERIMENT - 1. Molecular Geometry- Lewis Dot structures EXPERIMENT - 1 Molecular Geometry- Lewis Dot structures INTRODUCTION Although it has recently become possible to image molecules and even atoms using a high-resolution microscope, most of our information

More information

The Covalent Bond Model

The Covalent Bond Model 1 Chapter 5 Chemical Bonding: The Covalent Bond Model Atoms with similar ionization energy and electronegativity DO NOT form ionic bonds. There is NO electron transfer! Electron pairs are shared to form

More information

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Chapter 10)

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Chapter 10) Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Chapter 10) Molecular Structure 1. General Summary -- Structure and Bonding Concepts Electronic Configuration of Atoms Octet Rule Lewis Electron Dot ormula of

More information

Read Sections 4.7, 4.12 and 4.13 before viewing the slide show.

Read Sections 4.7, 4.12 and 4.13 before viewing the slide show. Read Sections 4.7, 4.12 and 4.13 before viewing the slide show. Unit 16 Shapes and Electrical Properties of Molecular Compounds VSEPR Theory (4.12) Electronegativity (4.7) Identification of Compounds as

More information

Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory)

Lewis Structures. Molecular Shape. VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) Lewis Structures Molecular Shape VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory) PART 1: Ionic Compounds Complete the table of Part 1 by writing: The Lewis dot structures for each metallic and

More information

Lewis Structures & the VSEPR Model

Lewis Structures & the VSEPR Model Lewis Structures & the VSEPR Model A Directed Learning Activity for Hartnell College Chemistry 1 Funded by the Title V STEM Grant #P031S090007 through Hartnell College For information contact lyee@hartnell.edu

More information

LEWIS STRUCTURES. 1. For the A-group elements, the number of valence electrons of an atom is equal to the group number.

LEWIS STRUCTURES. 1. For the A-group elements, the number of valence electrons of an atom is equal to the group number. Revised 12/2015 LEWIS STRUCTURES Chemistry 1104 L The purpose of this experiment is to gain practical experience of drawing lewis structures and to use molecular models to represent the three-dimensional

More information

VSEPR geometry. Molecular polarity

VSEPR geometry. Molecular polarity Chemistry 101 11-MLECULAR GEMETRY In this experiment, you will build models of molecules using a model kit. These models will then be used as a guide to draw a three-dimensional representation of the molecule.

More information

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures

Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts. Valence Electrons. Representative Elements & Lewis Dot Structures Chapter 8: Bonding General Concepts Valence Electrons 8.1 Chemical Bond Formation 8.2 Covalent Bonding (Lewis Dot Structures) 8.3 Charge Distribution in Covalent Compounds 8.4 Resonance 8.5 Molecular Shapes

More information

Valence shell electrons repel each other Valence shell electrons are arranged geometrically around the central atom to

Valence shell electrons repel each other Valence shell electrons are arranged geometrically around the central atom to Molecular Geometry (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion -VSEPR) & Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (Valance Bond Theory) Chapter 10 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Valence shell electrons

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

The Chemical Bond Chapter 9

The Chemical Bond Chapter 9 The Chemical Bond Chapter 9 This is our home as seen from far-out space. Its surface and atmosphere are composed of some free elements as well as ionic and molecular compounds. We look deeper into the

More information

CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s

CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s CHEMISTRY NOTES: Structures, Shapes, Polarity and IMF s DRAWING LEWIS STRUCTURES: RULES 1) Draw the skeleton structure for the molecule. The central atom will generally be the least electronegative element

More information

STUDY GUIDE AP Chemistry CHAPTER NINE- Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Sections 9.1 through 9.6 Only

STUDY GUIDE AP Chemistry CHAPTER NINE- Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Sections 9.1 through 9.6 Only 9.1 Molecular Shapes STUDY GUIDE AP Chemistry CHAPTER NINE- Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Sections 9.1 through 9.6 Only Lewis structures give atomic connectivity: they tell us which atoms are

More information

Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chapter 12 Review p.373 - Key Terms bond (12.1) bond energy (12.1) ionic bonding (12.1) ionic compound (12.1) covalent bonding (12.1) polar covalent bond (12.1) electronegativity

More information

Lecture and Covalent Bonding Theories

Lecture and Covalent Bonding Theories Lecture 22-24 and Covalent Bonding Theories Shapes we ve learned to draw Lewis structures and account for all the valence electrons in a molecule. But: Lewis structures are two dimensional and molecules

More information

Honors Unit 7 Notes Bonding & Molecular Geometry (Chapter 7 in Masterton & Hurley textbook)

Honors Unit 7 Notes Bonding & Molecular Geometry (Chapter 7 in Masterton & Hurley textbook) Name: Honors Unit 7 Notes Bonding & Molecular Geometry (Chapter 7 in Masterton & Hurley textbook) Objectives: 1. Students will form an understanding of the conceptual difference between covalent and ionic

More information

Bonding Models. Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Resonance Structures. Section 2 (Chapter 3, M&T) Chemical Bonding

Bonding Models. Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Resonance Structures. Section 2 (Chapter 3, M&T) Chemical Bonding Bonding Models Section (Chapter, M&T) Chemical Bonding We will look at three models of bonding: Lewis model Valence Bond model M theory Bonding Models (Lewis) Bonding Models (Lewis) Lewis model of bonding

More information

Bonding: General Concepts. Formal Charges

Bonding: General Concepts. Formal Charges More on Lewis Structures Bonding: General Concepts ormal Charges Resonance Breakdown of the ctet Rule VSEPR Theory Steric Number Chapter Review Week 6 CHEM 1310 - Sections L and M 1 ormal Charges or some

More information

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

More information

Chem C1403 Lecture 6. Lewis structures and the geometry of molecules with a central atom.

Chem C1403 Lecture 6. Lewis structures and the geometry of molecules with a central atom. Chem C1403 Lecture 6. Lewis structures and the geometry of molecules with a central atom. (1) Covalent bonding: sharing of electron pairs by atoms (2) Rules for writing valid Lewis structures (3) Multiple

More information

Chapter 8 Bonding and Molecular Structure

Chapter 8 Bonding and Molecular Structure Chapter 8 Bonding and Molecular Structure Jeffrey Mack California State University, Sacramento Chemical Bonding Things we must consider: What holds the atoms in a molecule or ionic compound together? Why

More information

Chapter 8. Homework. Valence Electrons. Molecular Structure & Bonding. Example of Lewis Dot Symbols

Chapter 8. Homework. Valence Electrons. Molecular Structure & Bonding. Example of Lewis Dot Symbols Homework Chapter 8 Bonding and Molecular Shapes: Fundamental Concepts Chapter 8 21, 23, 31, 35, 39, 47, 51, 57, 61, 65, 71, 73, 81, 83, 89, 105, 109, 113 Molecular Structure & Bonding Structure Refers

More information

3D Molecular Geometry

3D Molecular Geometry 3D Molecular Geometry Shades and Behaviours of 3D Molecules In order to understand the shapes the molecules form we must adhere to rules that are based on the repulsion of valence shell electrons! VSEPR

More information

Bonding and Molecular Structure - PART 1 - VSEPR

Bonding and Molecular Structure - PART 1 - VSEPR Bonding and Molecular Structure - PART 1 - VSEPR Objectives: 1. Understand and become proficient at using VSEPR to predict the geometries of simple molecules and ions. 2. Become proficient at predicting

More information

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories

Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 1 0 P a g e 1 Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II: Molecular Shapes; VSEPR, Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories Homework: Read Chapter 10: Work out sample/practice

More information

CHM 130 Lewis Dot Formulas and Molecular Shapes

CHM 130 Lewis Dot Formulas and Molecular Shapes CHM 130 Lewis Dot Formulas and Molecular Shapes Introduction A chemical bond is an intramolecular (within the molecule) force holding two or more atoms together. Covalent chemical bonds are formed by valence

More information

Homework 07 - VSEPR & VB

Homework 07 - VSEPR & VB HW07 - VSEPR & VB This is a preview of the draft version of the quiz Started: Aug 8 at 4:51pm Quiz Instructions Homework 07 - VSEPR & VB Question 1 Consider the structural formula of phenol. The active

More information

is a trigonal pyramid. The molecule is of the AX3E type, and

is a trigonal pyramid. The molecule is of the AX3E type, and 60. (M) The AX n E m designations that are cited below are to be found in Table 11.1 of the text, along with a sketch and a picture of a model of each type of structure. (a) P 3 is a trigonal pyramid.

More information

Bond Polarity. Electronegativity

Bond Polarity. Electronegativity Bond Polarity covalent bonding between unlike atoms results in unequal sharing of the electrons one atom pulls the electrons in the bond closer to its side one end of the bond has larger electron density

More information

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

More information

Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSEPR Model

Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSEPR Model Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSEPR Model Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of (a) O 3, (b) SnCl 3. Analyze: We are given the molecular formulas of a molecule and a polyatomic ion,

More information

Covalent Bonding and Molecular Orbitals

Covalent Bonding and Molecular Orbitals Covalent Bonding and Molecular Orbitals Chemistry 35 Fall 2000 From Atoms to Molecules: The Covalent Bond So, what happens to e - in atomic orbitals when two atoms approach and form a covalent bond? Mathematically:

More information

COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7]

COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7] COVALENT BONDING [MH5; Chapter 7] Covalent bonds occur when electrons are equally shared between two atoms. The electrons are not always equally shared by both atoms; these bonds are said to be polar covalent.

More information

Effect of unshared pairs on molecular geometry

Effect of unshared pairs on molecular geometry Chapter 7 covalent bonding Introduction Lewis dot structures are misleading, for example, could easily represent that the electrons are in a fixed position between the 2 nuclei. The more correct designation

More information

CH 222 Chapter Seven Concept Guide

CH 222 Chapter Seven Concept Guide CH 222 Chapter Seven Concept Guide 1. Lewis Structures Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for cyanide ion, CN -. 1 C at 4 electrons = 4 electrons 1 N at 5 electrons = 5 electrons -1 charge = + 1 electron Total

More information

Chapter 10 The Shapes of Molecules

Chapter 10 The Shapes of Molecules Chapter 10 The Shapes of Molecules 10-1 The Shapes of Molecules 10.1 Depicting Molecules and Ions with Lewis Structures 10.2 Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory 10.3 Molecular Shape and

More information

Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories 1. or a molecule with the formula AB 2 the molecular shape is. (a). linear or trigonal planar (b). linear or bent (c). linear or T-shaped (d). T-shaped

More information

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory

EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory EXPERIMENT 17 : Lewis Dot Structure / VSEPR Theory Materials: Molecular Model Kit INTRODUCTION Although it has recently become possible to image molecules and even atoms using a high-resolution microscope,

More information

Chemistry 105, Chapter 7 Exercises

Chemistry 105, Chapter 7 Exercises hemistry 15, hapter 7 Exercises Types of Bonds 1. Using the periodic table classify the bonds in the following compounds as ionic or covalent. If covalent, classify the bond as polar or not. Mg2 4 i2 a(3)2

More information

Ex. 1) F F bond in F = 0 < % covalent, no transfer of electrons

Ex. 1) F F bond in F = 0 < % covalent, no transfer of electrons #52 Notes Unit 7: Bonding Ch. Bonding I. Bond Character Bonds are usually combinations of ionic and covalent character. The electronegativity difference is used to determine a bond s character. Electronegativity

More information

The Octet Rule Atoms tend to lose, gain, or share electrons until they have eight valence electrons. Chapter 3: Chemical Bonding

The Octet Rule Atoms tend to lose, gain, or share electrons until they have eight valence electrons. Chapter 3: Chemical Bonding Chapter 3: Chemical Bonding Compounds are formed from chemically bound atoms or ions The ctet Rule Atoms tend to lose, gain, or share electrons until they have eight valence electrons Bonding involves

More information

Lewis electron-dot structures

Lewis electron-dot structures CHAPTER 9 SUPPLEMENTAL Lewis electrondot structures shows how atoms are bonded by giving the location of bonded electron pairs and position of (nonbonding) lone pairs of electrons 1. Count the total number

More information

Attention BMC Students,

Attention BMC Students, Attention BMC Students, There will be no chemistry seminars on October 23 rd (Thursday) and October 24 th (Friday). For those who miss the seminar, an optional make-up seminar will be given on Oct. 27,

More information

Slide 1 of 44. Chapter 3. Bonding: General Concepts

Slide 1 of 44. Chapter 3. Bonding: General Concepts Slide 1 of 44 Chapter 3 Bonding: General Concepts Slide 2 of 44 Electrostatic Attractions and Repulsions Slide 3 of 44 Energy of Interaction AB A B A B A B Electronegativity Electronegativity (EN, expressed

More information

F F H N H H F F O S O

F F H N H H F F O S O hem 1A practice problems 4/5/16 (x-track) 1. Write the condensed electron configuration for each element from Be to. ow many valence electrons do they have? Repeat with each element from Si to l. Be: [e]2s

More information

Unit 8. Covalent Bonding

Unit 8. Covalent Bonding Unit 8 Covalent Bonding The Ionic Bond When sodium and chlorine atoms combine, the sodium atoms give their electrons to chlorine. Both ions now have stable noble gas electron configurations and the oppositely

More information

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure. Bonding: Ionic vs Covalent Two Extremes

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure. Bonding: Ionic vs Covalent Two Extremes Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure What are bonds? Why do bonds form? Valence Electrons: Number and distribution of valence e- determines reactivity Main Group Elements (s and p block): Transition

More information

Laboratory 20: Review of Lewis Dot Structures

Laboratory 20: Review of Lewis Dot Structures Introduction The purpose of the laboratory exercise is to review Lewis dot structures and expand on topics discussed in class. Additional topics covered are the general shapes and bond angles of different

More information

Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding. Introduction. Molecular and Ionic Compounds. Chapter 8 Topics. Ionic and Covalent. Ionic and Covalent

Chapter 8. Chemical Bonding. Introduction. Molecular and Ionic Compounds. Chapter 8 Topics. Ionic and Covalent. Ionic and Covalent Introduction Chapter 8 Chemical Bonding How and why to atoms come together (bond) to form compounds? Why do different compounds have such different properties? What do molecules look like in 3 dimensions?

More information

Section 1: Organic Structure and Bonding

Section 1: Organic Structure and Bonding Section 1: Organic Structure and Bonding What is Organic Chemistry? Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, also known as, are the simplest form of organic compounds. Examples: C C C C C C Atoms

More information

Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding

Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding Chapter 16 Covalent Bonding Reading Assignment C16! 1. Read C16 pp. 436-469 and while reading, continue building your science vocabulary table that includes all terms in bold face type and all terms you

More information

Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay

Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay 7 Chapter Covalent Bonding Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University The Covalent Bond 01 Covalent bonds are formed by sharing at least one pair of electrons.

More information

Chemical Bonds. a. Duet Rule: 2 electrons needed to satisfy valence shell. i. What follows this rule? Hydrogen and Helium

Chemical Bonds. a. Duet Rule: 2 electrons needed to satisfy valence shell. i. What follows this rule? Hydrogen and Helium Chemical Bonds 1. Important points about Lewis Dot: a. Duet Rule: 2 electrons needed to satisfy valence shell. i. What follows this rule? Hydrogen and Helium b. Octet Rule: 8 electrons needed to satisfy

More information

Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2

Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2 Chem 1A Dr. White Updated /5/1 1 Chemistry Workbook 2: Problems For Exam 2 Section 2-1: Covalent Bonding 1. On a potential energy diagram, the most stable state has the highest/lowest potential energy.

More information

: : Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems

: : Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems Solutions to Additional Bonding Problems 1 1. For the following examples, the valence electron count is placed in parentheses after the empirical formula and only the resonance structures that satisfy

More information

Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Geometry Theories Mr. Matthew Totaro AP Chemistry Legacy High School Shapes The shape of a molecule plays an important role in its reactivity. By noting the number of bonding and nonbonding electron pairs,

More information

Geometry of Covalent Compounds

Geometry of Covalent Compounds Geometry of Covalent Compounds Introduction: In order to utilize lab time and use the molecular model kits most effectively, we recommend completing as many of the Lewis Dot Structures as you can before

More information

LOCALIZED ELECTRON (LE) THEORY

LOCALIZED ELECTRON (LE) THEORY I. LEWIS STRUCTURES LOCALIZED ELECTRON (LE) THEORY A. Background. Lewis structures (named for G.N. Lewis) provide a two-dimensional picture of bonding in covalent compounds. They are based on the theory

More information

Shapes of Molecules and Bonding

Shapes of Molecules and Bonding Shapes of Molecules and onding Molecular geometry is governed by energy. Molecules receive such geometry as to minimize their potential energy. A striking example is DA. Lewis Dot Structures 1. VAL (total

More information

Molecular Structure covalent compounds valence bond theory molecular orbital theory overlap shared covalent bond electron pair bond

Molecular Structure covalent compounds valence bond theory molecular orbital theory overlap shared covalent bond electron pair bond Molecular Structure I. Valence Bond Theory A. General 1. We will consider the covalent compounds formed by the interactions of nonmetals. 2. They interact by sharing electrons between them. 3. Two theories,

More information

Chapter 8 Covalent bonding

Chapter 8 Covalent bonding Chapter 8 Covalent bonding A metal and a nonmetal transfer electrons An ionic bond Two metals just mix and don t react An alloy What do two nonmetals do? Neither one will give away an electron So they

More information

Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory

Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Chapter 10 Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Concept Check 10.1 An atom in a molecule is surrounded by four pairs of electrons, one lone pair and three bonding pairs. Describe how the four

More information

CHAPTER 9 BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 9 BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMICAL BONDING Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding Page 1 CHAPTER 9 BASIC CONCEPTS O CHEMICAL BONDING 91. How many valence electrons are expected for an element that is in group five of the periodic table? (a) three (b) five

More information

Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory

Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory Molecular Geometry and Chemical Bonding Theory The Valence -Shell Electron -Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model predicts the shapes of the molecules and ions by assuming that the valence shell electron pairs

More information

Vocabulary: VSEPR. 3 domains on central atom. 2 domains on central atom. 3 domains on central atom NOTE: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

Vocabulary: VSEPR. 3 domains on central atom. 2 domains on central atom. 3 domains on central atom NOTE: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Vocabulary: VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory domain = any electron pair, or any double or triple bond is considered one domain. lone pair = non-bonding pair = unshared pair = any electron

More information

Chemistry 132.E2. Structure and Shape of Molecules

Chemistry 132.E2. Structure and Shape of Molecules Chemistry 132.E2. Structure and Shape of Molecules Objectives To learn how to draw Lewis structures of molecules and ions. To use VSEPR to predict the shapes of molecules. To determine whether equivalent

More information

No Brain Too Small CHEMISTRY AS91390 Demonstrate understanding of thermochemical principles and the properties of particles and substances

No Brain Too Small CHEMISTRY AS91390 Demonstrate understanding of thermochemical principles and the properties of particles and substances COLLATED QUESTIONS Lewis structures and shapes (up to six electron pairs about the central atom for molecules and polyatomic ions, including those with multiple bonds), polarity of molecules. 2015: 3 Draw

More information

Defines spatial orientation/rotation around an axis Range = -l to l Total Number: 2l + 1

Defines spatial orientation/rotation around an axis Range = -l to l Total Number: 2l + 1 233 PLTL ctivity Sheet # 1 CHEM 115 Review General Information: Quantum Numbers Wave Function - Is characterized by four parameters, know as quantum numbers, which describes the probability of finding

More information

Chemical Bonding Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapters 10 and 11. Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapters 10 and 11. Chemical Bonding. Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonding Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapters 10 and 11 Aims: To look at bonding and possible shapes of molecules We will mainly do this through Lewis structures To look at ionic and covalent

More information

Section 8.3 Molecular Structures

Section 8.3 Molecular Structures Section 8.3 Molecular Structures List the basic steps used to draw Lewis structures. Explain why resonance occurs, and identify resonance structures. Identify three exceptions to the octet rule, and name

More information

CHEM 101 Fall 10 Make-Up Exam (a)

CHEM 101 Fall 10 Make-Up Exam (a) CHEM 101 Fall 10 Make-Up Exam (a) On the answer sheet (scantron) write your name, student ID number, and recitation section number. Choose the best (most correct) answer for each question and enter it

More information

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties

11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms. Chapter Outline. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties. Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 11 Chemical Bonds The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter Outline 11.1 11.2 Lewis Structures of Atoms 11.3 The Ionic Bond Transfer of Electrons from One Atom to Another 11.4 Predicting Formulas of

More information

VSEPR Model. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model. Predicting Molecular Geometry

VSEPR Model. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model. Predicting Molecular Geometry VSEPR Model The structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing electron pair repulsions. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model The valence-shell electron pair repulsion

More information

C has 4 valence electrons, O has six electrons. The total number of electrons is 4 + 2(6) = 16.

C has 4 valence electrons, O has six electrons. The total number of electrons is 4 + 2(6) = 16. 129 Lewis Structures G. N. Lewis hypothesized that electron pair bonds between unlike elements in the second (and sometimes the third) row occurred in a way that electrons were shared such that each element

More information

2. What is the difference between a polar bond and a nonpolar bond? (p. 162)

2. What is the difference between a polar bond and a nonpolar bond? (p. 162) Chemistry CP Name: Review Sheet Bonding (Chapter 6) After studying chapter 6, you should be able to: Infer the number of valence electrons in an atom of a main-group element, and then construct its Lewis

More information

CHEM 2323 Unit 1 General Chemistry Review

CHEM 2323 Unit 1 General Chemistry Review EM 2323 Unit 1 General hemistry Review I. Atoms A. The Structure of the Atom B. Electron onfigurations. Lewis Dot Structures II. Bonding A. Electronegativity B. Ionic Bonds. ovalent Bonds D. Bond Polarity

More information

EXPERIMENT 14: COMPARISONS OF THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES AND IONS USING MODELS

EXPERIMENT 14: COMPARISONS OF THE SHAPES OF MOLECULES AND IONS USING MODELS EXPERIMENT 14: CMPARISNS F TE SAPES F MLECULES AND INS USING MDELS PURPSE Models of various molecules and ions will be constructed and their shapes and geometries will be compared. BACKGRUND LEWIS STRUCTURES

More information

7.1 The Covalent Bond. 7.2 Strengths of Covalent Bonds

7.1 The Covalent Bond. 7.2 Strengths of Covalent Bonds Chapter 7: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure (7.1-7.7, 7.9, 7.11, 7.12) Chapter Goals: Be Able to: Predict which compounds are ionic and which are molecular. Use the periodic table to predict which

More information

Covalent Bonding Nomenclature Lewis structure Resonance VSEPR theory Molecular Polarity. Edward Wen, PhD

Covalent Bonding Nomenclature Lewis structure Resonance VSEPR theory Molecular Polarity. Edward Wen, PhD Covalent Bonding Nomenclature Lewis structure Resonance VSEPR theory Molecular Polarity Edward Wen, PhD Binary Covalent Compounds: Two Nonmetals (such as CO 2 ) 1. Name first element in formula first use

More information

Molecular Geometry Part 2. David A. Katz Pima Community College Tucson, AZ

Molecular Geometry Part 2. David A. Katz Pima Community College Tucson, AZ Concepts of Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry Part 2 David A. Katz Pima Community College Tucson, AZ Molecular Shapes The shape of a molecule plays an important role in its reactivity. By noting

More information

7. Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions. Describe the electronpair

7. Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following molecules or ions. Describe the electronpair C 222 Practice Problem Set #1 This is a practice problem set and not the actual graded problem set that you will turn in for credit. Answers to each problem can be found at the end of this assignment.

More information

Bonding & Molecular Shape

Bonding & Molecular Shape Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\00bondingtrans.doc Is It Ionic or Covalent? Usually a combination of both Ionic Bonding the transfer of

More information

COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7]

COVALENT BONDING. [MH5; Chapter 7] COVALENT BONDING [MH5; Chapter 7] Covalent bonds occur when electrons are equally shared between two atoms. The electrons are not always equally shared by both atoms; these bonds are said to be polar covalent.

More information

Molecular Geometry. Bond length: the distance between two atoms held together by a chemical bond

Molecular Geometry. Bond length: the distance between two atoms held together by a chemical bond Molecular Geometry Bond length: the distance between two atoms held together by a chemical bond Bond length decreases as the number of bonds between two atoms increases. Single bond is the longest. Triple

More information

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules 5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those

More information

Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSPER Model Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of (a) O 3, (b) SnCl 3.

Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSPER Model Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of (a) O 3, (b) SnCl 3. Sample Exercise 9.1 Using the VSPER Model Use the VSEPR model to predict the molecular geometry of (a) O 3, (b) SnCl 3. Solution Analyze We are given the molecular formulas of a molecule and a polyatomic

More information