F. = destroying AB A + B

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "F. = destroying AB A + B"

Transcription

1 Chapter 2 Chemistry I. Chemical concepts A. = H, O, C, Fe, Au B. = CO 2, C 6 H 12 O 6, H 2 O, NaCl C. what you start with D. what you end with E. = building A + B AB F. = destroying AB A + B G. Energy 1. potential energy a. energy b. batteries in unused flashlight c. legs sitting down 2. kinetic energy a. energy b. movement of ball bouncing c. leg muscles while running 3. chemical energy a. energy stored in b. adenosine triphosphate (or ATP) has lots of energy stored in its bonds 4. electrical energy a. movement of (+ or -) b. electrons in electricity c. ions in human body H. Elements 1. substances that can t be broken down 2. 4 most common elements in human body make up 96% of body mass a. (O) = 65% body mass b. (C) = 19% body mass c. (H) = 10% body mass d. (N) = 3% body mass

2 I. Atom 1. one unit of an - 2. parts of an atom a. = proton-positively charged particle in the nucleus b. = neutron - neutral particle in the nucleus c. = electron - negatively charged particle found around the nucleus 3. atomic number ( ) a. equal to number of proton = number of electrons b. positives and negatives are equal in an uncharged atom 4. mass number = atomic weight ( ) a. equal to nucleus = neutrons + protons b. example lithium = 3 Li N + P + = mass # 6.94 N + = N = N = J. Fill in the table Atomic # Mass # # electrons # protons # neutrons Fe Mg K O Cl K. 3 states of matter 1. atoms closest together 2. atoms arranged loosely 3. atoms furthest apart L. Molecule 1. Atoms bonded together ( ) M. Solution 1. mixtures of compounds (solid, liquid-seawater, or gas-air) 2. compound in greatest amount (usually liquid, usually water) 3. compound in smallest amount (can dissolve, ex. salt)

3 Chemical Bonds I. Electron Arrangement A. electron orbits = = 1. electrons are arranged in orbits (or shells or energy levels) around the nucleus 2. outer most electron shell ( ) has most potential energy and gives bonding characteristics to that atom 3. an atom s goal is to fill the outer shell and it does that by lending, borrowing, or sharing electrons II. Bond Types A. Ionic bonds 1. atoms lend or borrow electrons 2. ion-positive or negatively charged atom a. atom that gains electrons b. atom that loses electrons 3. most ionic compounds are salts 4. example = B. Covalent Bonds 1. sharing of electrons 3. strongest bond 4. single covalent bond - 5. double covalent bond - 6. triple covalent bond - 7. nonpolar molecules a. equal sharing of electrons b. examples = 8. polar molecules a. unequal sharing of electrons b. examples = C. Hydrogen bonds 1. attraction between polar molecules (water- ) 2. attraction between parts of a polar molecule (specific shape of protein molecule)

4 Chapter 2 - Biochemistry Biochemistry chemicals, molecules, and reactions in living thing Inorganic Organic Inorganic I. Water most abundant molecule in the human body (60% - 80%) Functions A. Heat 1. helps keep body at even temperature in sun, cold, etc 2. sweat when too hot, shiver when too cold B. Solvent 1. things in it C. Dissociation 1. water has polar ends ( ) 2. pulls ionic molecules apart Na + Cl - D. Transportation 1. 50% of is water 2. Water dissolves and helps carry nutrients, O 2 and CO 2 and metabolic wastes E. Lubrication & Cushioning 1. around organs, between joints, and around membranes F. Reactions 1. Hydrolysis water to break things down ex. saliva breaks down food 2. Dehydration Synthesis water to build large molecules ex. making a carbohydrate or protein

5 II. Salts Ionic compound Examples: Na 2 SO 4 KCl ( ) NaCl III. Acids and Bases A. Acids 1. Sour, reacts with metals 2. in formula 3. Proton donor, no e - left on ph scale example: HCl water H + + Cl - (acid) (cation) (anion) B. Base 1. Bitter, slippery 2. in formula 3. Proton accepter on ph scale water example: NaOH Na + + OH - (bases) (cation) (anion) Put acid and base together NaOH + HCl NaCl + H 2 O (base) (acid) (neutral) (neutral ph = 7)

6 Organic Compounds I. The atom called carbon A. Central atom of all living things B. doesn t gain or lose e- C. Four valence electrons D. Bonds covalently with different strengths 1. = shares 2 total e- 2. = shares 4 total e- 3. = shares 6 total e- II. Carbohydrate A. saccharide B. close to the ratio C 1 H 2 O 1 C. Suffix ( ) D. Types 1. Monosaccharide a. Simple sugar b. Building blocks of all sugars Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 = C 5 H 10 O 5 = 2. Disaccharide a. Double sugar (2 monosaccharides) b. Too large to get into cells Example: table sugar = milk sugar = 3. Polysaccharide a. Chain of monosaccharides b. Too large to get into cells c. Storage molecule Example 1. made by plants (potato, grains) 2. made by animals - stored in muscle cells use - stored in liver cells breakdown 3. undigestable/form of fiber

7 III. Lipids A. Insoluble in water B. Look like letter E or F C. Functions 1. concentrated fuel for body 2. insulation 3. protection D. Types of lipids 1. Fats = oils a. triglycerides = 3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol b. E shaped molecule c. Forms of fats i. full of hydrogens, solid ii. (monounsaturated) not saturated with hydrogen, liquid iii. really not saturated with hydrogen, liquid 2. Phospholipids = 2 fatty acids + 1 glycerol, F shaped a. end is water hating or hydrophobic b. end is water liking or hydrophilic c. makes cell membranes 3. Steroids a. 4 ringed molecule b. most important type is cholesterol which builds cell membranes, vitamin D, sex hormones and bile salts

8 IV. Protein A. Made from 20 amino acids (a.a.) B. 20 letter alphabet or pearls of a necklace C. order and length important D. change in shape /could be permanent E. amino acids are held together by peptide bond ( ) F. Types of proteins according to function 1. Structural proteins a. fibrous, braided, rope-like, very strong b. example: build tissues, connect bones and muscles, build muscles 2. functional proteins a. example: G. Enzymes 1. Functional protein 2. function - act as a for chemical reactions 3. A catalyst that initiates, regulates, and speeds up the rate of chemical reactions 4. Suffix ( ) for enzyme name example: lactase (remember lactose) 5. Specific shaped enzyme binds with specific shaped reactant 6. Reactant = 7. Lock and key 8. Enzymes are not used up, but can be used over and over example: reactant ( ) enzyme product

9 V. Nucleic acids A. Types 1. = deoxyribonucleic acid 2. = ribonucleic acid B. Nucleotide 1. building blocks of DNA and RNA 2. a nucleotide contains a sugar, phosphate, and base C. Sugar 1. of DNA and RNA molecule (ladder) 2. attaches to phosphate and base D. Phosphate 1. of the DNA and RNA molecule (ladder) 2. found between 2 sugar molecules E. Base 1. they are of the DNA and RNA molecule (ladder) 2. bases bond the sides of molecule (ladder) together 3. order of the bases makes you unique 4. 4 different DNA bases a. G stands for Guanine b. C stands for Cytosine c. T stands for Thymine d. A stands for Adenine Big Picture Cell nucleus 46 chromosomes genes DNA untwist DNA unzip DNA separate Nucleotide

10 The Two Types of Nucleic Acids A. DNA functions 1. before cell division 2. contains instructions to build proteins 3. controls cells activity B. RNA 1. functions a. carry out DNA s orders to make proteins b. put amino acids in order 2. base pairs A stands for Adenine *U stands for Uracil G stands for Guanine C stands for Cytosine 3. types a. messager RNA looks like ½ of DNA - takes DNA s message out of nucleus b. transfer RNA looks like a 3 leafed clover - attached to amino acid Comparison DNA vs RNA DNA RNA 1. location nucleus nucleus, cytoplasm and ribosome 2. sugar deoxyribose ribose 3. bases AT CG AU CG 4. strands double stranded single stranded 5. types one two = mrna, trna 6. function instructions for proteins carries out DNA instructions

11 . Adenosine Triphosphate = A. function 1. provide energy for cells to do work 2. examples = reproduce, grow, repair, waste, nutrients B. structure 1. = adenine and ribose 2. = 3 phosphate 3. resembles a RNA nucleotide C. forms 1. AMP = 2. ADP = 3. ATP = D. reversible equation ATP ADP + P + energy

Chemical Level of Organization

Chemical Level of Organization Chemical Level of Organization Matter and Energy Matter occupies space and has mass Energy is capacity to move mass Potential vs. kinetic Energy forms radiant-moving waves electrical-moving charged particles

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles

Chapter 2 Chemical Principles Chapter 2 Chemical Principles I. Chemistry. [Students should read this section on their own]. a. Chemistry is the study of the interactions between atoms and molecules. b. The atom is the smallest unit

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells

Chapter 2 The Molecules of Cells Chemistry is the science dealing with the properties & the transformations (chemical reactions) of all forms of matter Matter is any substance: solid, liquid, gas, plasma All matter is composed of elements

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES OF LIFE C A R B O H Y D R A T E S, L I P I D S, P R O T E I N S, A N D N U C L E I C A C I D S The Academic Support Center @ Daytona State College (Science 115, Page 1 of 29) Carbon

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following?

1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization. Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight)

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization. Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight) Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization Chemistry = the science of the structure of matter Matter takes up space and has mass (weight) It can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas The smallest stable

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids

the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids the nature and importance of biomacromolecules in the chemistry of the cell: synthesis of biomacromolecules through the condensation reaction lipids and their sub-units; the role of lipids in the plasma

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for?

Organic Compounds. Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Organic Compounds Essential Questions: What is Organic? What are the 4 major Organic Compounds? How are they made? What are they used for? Aristotle: Francesco Redi: What do we already know? Spontaneous

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

1) What is the name of the chart that describes the atomic elements in ascending order of mass.

1) What is the name of the chart that describes the atomic elements in ascending order of mass. SFCC: Winter 2011 Dr. Timm Name: 1) What is the name of the chart that describes the atomic elements in ascending order of mass. Periodic Table of elements 2) The atomic number describes the number of

More information

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes

Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Keystone Study Guide Module A: Cells and Cell Processes Topic 1: Biological Principles Cells and the Organization of Life Characteristics of Life all living things share the following characteristics:

More information

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids

Chapter 3: Biological Molecules. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38

1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 UNIT 1: Biochemistry 1.4: Carbohydrates and Lipids pg. 29 38 Carbohydrates Function, primary energy source for the cell, can also be a structural component of cells and organisms. Carbohydrates are the

More information

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry

Name Period. Biology Biochemistry Name Period Biology Biochemistry Date Assignment Points Earned Possible Points Chapter 2 Vocabulary 25 Unique Properties of Water Notes 5 Writing Prompts 1 & 2 7 Organic Molecules: Lipids / Carbohydrates

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING

WATER CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE POLARITY HYDROGEN BONDING CHAPTER 3 - BIOCHEMISTRY "THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE" WATER Compare the body of the jellyfish with our own bodies. The jellyfish will die if it is removed from its water environment, yet we can live in the

More information

Biology. Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules

Biology. Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules Biology Based on the principles of chemistry and physics All living organisms are a collection of atoms and molecules 1 Atoms Smallest functional units of matter that form all chemical substances Cannot

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids

I. Chapter 5 Summary. II. Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. III. Lipids I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH 2 O) n : 1. One C contains a carbonyl (C=O) rest contain - 2. Classification by functional group: aldoses & ketoses 3. Classification by number of C's: trioses,

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

- 2 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE

- 2 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE Lecture Outline - Chapter 2 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE I. Basic Chemistry A. A basic knowledge of chemistry is essential to understanding anatomy and physiology B. All of the functions of the body are

More information

BIOMOLECULES. reflect

BIOMOLECULES. reflect reflect A child s building blocks are relatively simple structures. When they come together, however, they can form magnifi cent structures. The elaborate city scene to the right is made of small, simple

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82)

Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids (Biologie Woche 1 und 2; Pages 81 and 82) Lipids Features Have oily, greasy or waxy consistency Relatively insoluble in water Protein and carbohydrates may be converted into lipids by enzymes an

More information

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding

More information

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each.

List the 3 main types of subatomic particles and indicate the mass and electrical charge of each. Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells Chapter 2 Introduction: Who Tends This Garden? Chemicals are the stuff that make up our bodies and those of other organisms They make up the physical environment as well The ordering

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Atoms can form ionic or covalent bonds with one another. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are weak bonds between molecules.

Atoms can form ionic or covalent bonds with one another. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions are weak bonds between molecules. BENG 100 Frontiers of Biomedical Engineering Professor Mark Saltzman Chapter 2 SUMMARY This chapter reviewed biochemical concepts that are important in understanding the interaction between molecules with

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

3120-1 - Page 1. Name:

3120-1 - Page 1. Name: Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,

More information

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF MOMBASA Faculty of ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL SCIENCES FACULTY OF APPLIED AND HEALTH SCIENCES BMLS 13M MID ENTRY ABT 4202 : BIOCHEMISTRY II INSTRUCTIONS: END

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Chemistry of Life. Course Anatomy & Physiology. Rationale It is very important to understand the basic principles of body chemistry.

Chemistry of Life. Course Anatomy & Physiology. Rationale It is very important to understand the basic principles of body chemistry. Chemistry of Life Course Anatomy & Physiology Unit II Chemical Processes Essential Question What is matter? TEKS 130.203 (c)(1)(a-f), (2) (A-C), (3) (A-C), (4) (A-B) Prior Student Learning Basic Hierarchy

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids

Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids VEA Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates, Lipids & Nucleic Acids Grades 10 - College 25mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright, B. Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by VEA Pty Ltd

More information

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen

Carbohydrates: Sugars and starches they serve as energy and food source compounds Made of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Cell Processes (chemistry and respiration) Organic compounds they always contain carbon 4 types that you need to know: Lipids (fats, oils and waxes), Carbohydrates, Proteins and nucleic acids Inorganic

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

NAME: BLOCK: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms NAME: BLK: Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives (cont.) Chapter 6: Metabolism - Energy & Enzymes 1. Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D.

Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives (cont.) Chapter 6: Metabolism - Energy & Enzymes 1. Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Biology, 10e Sylvia S. Mader Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Learning Objectives Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat State and apply two energy laws to energy transformations.

More information

Lesson Overview. The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter

Lesson Overview. The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter Lesson Overview 2.1 2.1? 2.1.1 Identify the three subatomic Particles found in atoms. 2.1.2 Explain how all the isotopes of an element are similar and how they are different. 2.1.3 Explain how compounds

More information

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Carbohydrates Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used

More information

CHAPTER 4: CELLULAR METABOLISM. 2. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy, and give examples of each.

CHAPTER 4: CELLULAR METABOLISM. 2. Distinguish between kinetic and potential energy, and give examples of each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Compare and contrast the major divisions of metabolism, in terms of a general descriptive sentence, additional descriptive terms, how energy is involved, whether bonds or formed or broken,

More information

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Carbon The element of life! All living things contain the element carbon. Organic means it contains carbon The reason for this is because of carbon s ability

More information

Cells, DNA, Cell Division, Mitosis, Meiosis...Practice

Cells, DNA, Cell Division, Mitosis, Meiosis...Practice Name: Class: _ Date: _ Cells, DNA, Cell Division, Mitosis, Meiosis...Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Normal human body cells contain

More information

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication

Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation

More information

Molecules General. Inorganic Molecules. can only have chemical reactions (metabolism) if the chemicals are dissolved in some liquid (=solvent)

Molecules General. Inorganic Molecules. can only have chemical reactions (metabolism) if the chemicals are dissolved in some liquid (=solvent) Molecules General Inorganic Molecules ~2/3 rd s of body consists of inorganic molecules general characteristics: small molecules: only a few atoms & bonds little or no carbon atoms usually dissolve easily

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS

WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS COURSE READINESS ASSESSMENT FOR PHYSIOLOGY WATER, ph, ACIDS, BASES, AND BUFFERS Sections in this module I. Water is a polar molecule II. Properties of water III. ph IV. Acids and bases V. Buffers I. Water

More information

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules?

Activity 4/5.1 How Can You Identify Organic Macromolecules? Answers? Activity 4/5.1 ow an You Identify rganic Macromolecules? efer to the figure (Some Simple hemistry) on the next page when doing this activity. Part A. Answer the questions. Then use your answers

More information

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Brief History 1 1869 - Miescher Isolated nuclein from soiled bandages 1902 - Garrod Studied rare genetic disorder: Alkaptonuria; concluded that specific gene is associated

More information

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio.

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio. NAME: DATE: Biological Macromolecule Poster Project HOUR: BIOLOGY You and your table mates will be researching and creating an informational poster on one of four biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,

More information

Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology Harvey Lodish Arnold Berk Paul Matsudaira Chris A. Kaiser Monty Krieger Matthew P. Scott Lawrence Zipursky James Darnell Molecular Cell Biology Fifth Edition Chapter 2: Chemical Foundations Copyright 2004

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain.

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter 5 1 The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley

More information

9/11/2011. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter? Atoms THINK ABOUT IT. Atoms. Atoms. 2.1 The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview.

9/11/2011. Lesson Overview. 2.1 The Nature of Matter? Atoms THINK ABOUT IT. Atoms. Atoms. 2.1 The Nature of Matter. Lesson Overview. 2.1? 2.1 2.1.1 Identify the three subatomic Particles found in atoms. 2.1.2 Explain how all the isotopes of an element are similar and how they are different. 2.1.3 Explain how compounds are different

More information

Molecular Modeling Activity for Cell Energy Time required: one 50-minute period

Molecular Modeling Activity for Cell Energy Time required: one 50-minute period Mega Molecules, LLC!!!!! Name: Hands-On Science with Molecular Models!! Date:!!!!!!!! Hour: Introduction Molecular Modeling Activity for Cell Energy Time required: one 50-minute period Energy within a

More information

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes

II. DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Located in the nucleus of the cell Codes for your genes HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=

More information

Basic chemistry for A level Biology

Basic chemistry for A level Biology Basic chemistry for A level Biology Make a list of the missing words from the text please. Chose from this list; MISSING WORDS Neutrons, arrangement, carbon-14, charge, weak, alkaline, covalently, number,

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

Guided Reading Activities

Guided Reading Activities Name Period Chapter 2: The Chemical Basis of Life Guided Reading Activities Big idea: Elements, atom, and compounds Answer the following questions as you read modules 2.1 2.4: 1. Match the following terms

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

Preliminary MFM Quiz

Preliminary MFM Quiz Preliminary MFM Quiz 1. The major carrier of chemical energy in all cells is: A) adenosine monophosphate B) adenosine diphosphate C) adenosine trisphosphate D) guanosine trisphosphate E) carbamoyl phosphate

More information

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO

Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification. John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO Introduction to Oil Chemistry and Transesterification John Bush Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO john.a.bush@gmail.com Atoms and Elements Elements are the fundamental substances that compose matter

More information

Cell Processes. Chapter Review

Cell Processes. Chapter Review Name Date Class Chapter Review Cell Processes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description. active transport energy enzyme inorganic compound

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information