Chapter 1. Classifying Plants and Animals

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1 Chapter 1 Classifying Plants and Animals

2 Lesson 1

3 Cells A cell is the building block of life. It is the smallest unit of a living thing and can perform all life processes. All living things are made of cells. Some living things are made of one cell, most living things are many celled. Every part of you from your muscles to your blood is made of billions of cells. Cells have a certain role. Some cells help you get energy and some cells help protect you. Microscopes are needed to see cells.

4 Cells PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL

5 Cell Parts Cells that make up all animals have many similar parts. All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. A nucleus is the control center for the cell. It acts like a brain. The cell membrane is the cell s outer border. It controls what moves in and out of the cell. The cytoplasm contains all the things the cell needs to carry out its life processes.

6 How are plant and animal cells different? Plant cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and a nucleus. Plant cells have two parts that animal cells do not have. Plants have to make their own food. Chloroplasts are parts of a plant cell that trap the Sun s energy. Plants use this energy for food. Plant cells also have a cell wall. The cell wall is outside of the cell membrane. It helps to support and protect the cell.

7 Cells PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL

8 Videos on Cells The Living Cell

9 Cells Work Together Cells are like building blocks. They build an animal or plant. Cells work together. Different cells do different kinds of work. Groups of the same type of cells form a tissue. Groups of tissues that work together form organs. Groups of organs that work together form systems.

10 Lesson 2

11 How are living things grouped? There are over 1 MILLION different kinds of organisms. Scientists have to sort all living things into different groups. They look at its cells and parts the cells have. They think about where it lives and how it gets its food. All organisms in the same group have common characteristics.

12 How would you classify these animals?

13 Kingdoms The largest classification system is a kingdom. Some classification systems have six kingdoms. All animals- from ants to elephants are in the animal kingdom. All plants belong to another kingdom. Scientists also see how an organism gets its food in determining what kingdom it is in. Turn to p. 11

14 Kingdoms What kingdom group is many-celled organisms with tissue, organs, and systems. They do not make their own food and eat other plants and animals. What kingdom group is one-celled with a nucleus and other cell parts. They live in water and a moist environment? What kingdom group make their own food, have one cell, and have no separate nucleus?

15 Answers: Animal Kingdom Protists Kingdom Ancient Bacteria Kingdom

16 Getting More Specific Scientists divide kingdoms into smaller groups. They keep dividing into smaller and smaller groups. They use the organism s features to decide whether the organism belongs in the same group. Scientists use the smallest two groups to name organisms. The first part of an organism s scientific name is its genus. The second part of an organism s scientific name is its species.

17 Genus A genus is a group of closely related living things. This name is the first name of the scientific name. Black-footed cat Felis nigripes House cat Felis domesticus

18 Species A species is a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce offspring. The species name often describes and characteristic, such as where the organism lives or its color. The species name is the second part of the scientific name. Canis lupis 879BB9EA3A69&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

19 Lesson 3

20 How are plants classified? One way plants are classified is by how they transport water and nutrients. Vascular plants have tubes that connect the leaves, stems, and roots to transport water and nutrients. Examples of vascular plants are grass, celery, ferns, trees, and dandelions. Nonvascular plants do not have roots, stems, or leaves. They pass water and nutrients only from one cell to the cell next to it. Water does not travel very far or quickly. The plants are usually small. Examples of nonvascular plants are mosses, hornworts, and liverworts.

21 Vascular and Nonvascular Plants Vascular Plants Have tubes that carry water to the roots, stems, and leaves Nonvascular Plants Transports water from cell to cell. These plants don t have roots, stems, or regular looking leaves.

22 How are plants classified? The second way plants are classified is how they reproduce and make new plants. Plants with flowers or cones reproduce from seeds. Pine trees have seeds, but do not make flowers. Their pine cone makes seeds. Pine trees are called conifers. Some plants reproduce by producing tiny cells called spores. Spores can grow into new plants. Examples of plants with spores are ferns and mosses.

23 Plants with seeds and spores Seeds Spores A seed has many cells and has a young plant and stored food inside. Flowering plants and trees with cones reproduce with seeds. A spore has one cell. They need a moist, shady area to grow into a new plant. Spores look like brown dots. Moss and ferns are examples of plants with spores.

24 Lesson 4

25 How are animals classified? Scientists divide animals into two groups: those with backbones and animals without backbones. Animals with backbones are vertebrates. Animals without backbones are invertebrates.

26 Vertebrates Vertebrates are animals with backbones. You are a vertebrate. The five classes of vertebrates are fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

27 Invertebrates Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. Most of the animals in the world are invertebrates. Some invertebrates have a soft body like jellyfish and worms. Arthropods are invertebrates with jointed legs. They have a soft body covered by a hard exoskeleton. The exoskeleton acts like armor protecting the animal. Insects, spiders, and crabs are examples of arthropods.

28 Invertebrates ARTHROPODS Other Invertebrates

29 Lesson 5

30 Adaptations An ADAPTATION is a physical feature or behavior that helps an animal get food, protect itself, move, or reproduce. Every animal needs food, water, oxygen, and shelter to survive. Sometimes there are not enough resources to go around and animals with good adaptations have a better chance of getting the resources it needs and surviving.

31 Adaptations Birds have many adaptations to help them get what they need. They have feathers to help them fly. The shape of the beak helps them get the food that they need. Webbed feet help ducks move in the water. Cactus wrens can go without much water in the desert.

32 Adaptations Mammals have many adaptations to help them survive. Polar bears have thick coats of fur to keep them warm. Their sharp claws and teeth help them eat food. A giraffe has a long neck to reach leaves in trees. Humans have two eyes in front to tell how far away things are.

33 Adaptations that protect Some animals have adaptations that help them from being eaten by predators. Some animals can blend in to protect itself. They have colors, shapes, and patterns that can keep them hidden from predators.

34 Adaptations that protect Some animals have poison to protect them. The poison dart frog has enough poison to kill a person. The European green toad has a poison glad behind each eye. Some animals have a different way of moving to escape their predators. Birds wings allow them to fly away. Fins allow fish to swim away from a predator. Other animals can run at top speed longer than their enemies.

35 Animal Instincts Instincts are behaviors that are inherited. Ducklings just know to follow their mother. Migration is traveling in search of food or a place to reproduce. Most animals migrate for the winter. Canada geese migrate to Mexico to escape the cold winter. They can fly 60 miles an hour. Hibernation is a state of inactivity that occurs in some animals when outside temperatures are cold. Animals conserve energy by sleeping. They eat a lot before and store energy for while they are hibernating.

36 Parents Teach Offspring Animals have a lot of adaptations and instincts to survive. Parents also teach their offspring how to survive. Lion cubs learn to hunt from their parents. A herd of zebras learn to stay together and not be by themselves. A lion cub learns to pounce on prey by pouncing on its mother s tail.

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