The Axis Defeated. World War II. What Happened to Them? By April of 1945, Axis armies all around Europe surrendered.

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1 The Axis Defeated World War II Victory in Europe and the Pacific By March of 1945 the Allies had pushed the Germans west past the Rhine River into Western Germany. Soviet troops also pushed the Germans east, closing in on the capital city of Berlin. Thus, the Germans were facing intense pressure from multiple fronts. By April, Soviet and Allied troops met and shook hands. What Happened to Them? By April of 1945, Axis armies all around Europe surrendered. Guerrillas captured Mussolini and executed him. As Soviet troops made their way to Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker. V-E Day (Victory in Europe!) On May 8, 1945 after the surrender of the German army, the war in Europe was finally over. Why do you think the Allies were able to win the war in Europe? Reasons for an Allied Victory Germany had to fight on several fronts simultaneously, due to its location. Hitler took complete control of the military, and didn t trust his officers. He underestimated the power of the Soviet Union. The U.S. had a tremendous amount of production power, more than twice of all the Axis combined. Struggling to Win the Pacific Until mid 1942, the Japanese won an undefeated series of battles in the Pacific. They controlled much of SE Asia, including the Philippines.

2 The Bataan Death March Death March Continued In gaining control of the Philippines, the Japanese killed some 10,000 Filipinos and several hundred American Soldiers in what was called the Bataan Death March. 65 miles long in the heat. No food, water, shelter. If you fell you die, if you stumble you die, if you complain you die. For no apparent reason, you might just die. Turning the Tide in the Pacific After the Battles of Midway and Coral Sea, the Allies began taking the offensive. Led by General Douglass MacArthur the Allies landed at Guadalcanal and began to island hop To recapture some Japanese held islands, and skip over others. He then made his way back to the Philippines to recapture it. Admiral Nimitz led the U.S. Navy to blockade Japan. British troops pushed the Japanese into the jungles of Burma and Malaysia. Why We Nuked Em To Bomb or Not to Bomb? What are some reasons you can think of that would push the United States to drop the bomb on Japan? What would be an alternative to dropping the bomb on Japan? Rather Than Invasion While the Japanese Navy was basically gone, they still had an army of over 2 million men, all willing to fight to the death. To save American and Japanese lives in the long run, President Truman decided to drop the Atomic bombs on Japan. Do you think he was justified in doing so?

3 Hiroshima and Nagasaki The Effects of the Bomb On August 6 th 1945 Truman ordered the bomb to be dropped on Hiroshima. Killed 70,000 instantly Flattened 4 square miles 2 days later he dropped it on Nagasaki 40,000 more dead Many more died of radiation sickness Victory In Japan On August 10 th 1945, Emperor Hirohito forced his military to surrender to the Allies and the fighting was done. The official Peace Treaty that ended WWII was signed September 2, 1945 on board the American Battleship Missouri. Recapping What are 3 reasons the Allies were able to win the war in Europe? What was the Bataan Death March? How did it lead us to drop the A-Bomb on Japan? What strategies did General MacArthur use to defeat the Japanese in the Pacific? The War s Aftermath The End of WWII Picking up the Pieces While the Allies were victorious, the reality of the appalling costs of the war were sinking in. As many as 50 million people around the world were dead. 30 million alone in Europe, more than half were civilians. The Soviet Union suffered 20 million deaths on its own.

4 A Better Breakdown War Trials in Nuremburg The Allies had decided to put Nazi officers and other leaders on trial for crimes against humanity. Nearly 200 Germans and Austrians were tried, most of which found guilty, and a few of which were given the death penalty. Similar trials were held in Japan too. Such trials showed that even the military and political leaders were not above the law. Helping Out Afterwards, Preventing Another Similar Situation. The Allies believed that strengthening democracy was the best way to prevent this from happening again. They built new governments in occupied Germany and Japan that protected the rights of the citizens. In Japan, power was given to the people rather than the emperor. United Nations is Formed Over 50 nations joined together in San Francisco to develop a charter for the United Nations. Each member nation gets one vote in the General Assembly. The 5 victors of WWII make up the Security Council, which can override any decision made by the General Assembly. The 5 victors were the United States, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union (now Russia), and China. Differences between members of the Security Council (U.S. and Soviet Union) kept the UN from taking action on many occasions. The UN would work on keeping peace, solving world problems, and preventing disease. Differences Emerge During the war the Allies cooperated to defeat the Axis. However, differences in political ideology led to some splits in the Allies namely U.S., Britain, and France against the Soviet Union and China. These differences led right to the Cold War. The Cold War Begins Roosevelt and Churchill rejected Stalin s views on politics. During WWII, Stalin left behind communist governments in the areas he occupied while pushing towards Germany. By 1948 Eastern Europe was full of pro- Soviet governments. Stalin had 2 goals in mind. Spread Communism throughout Europe. Create a buffer zone of friendly governments to protect himself from Germany.

5 The Truman Doctrine Stalin began taking aggressive actions against nations not in Eastern Europe Greece and Turkey. President Harry S. Truman made the Truman Doctrine The United States will protect nations fighting against armed minorities or outside aggressors. This was aimed at limiting communism to nations already under Soviet Control. This would guide the United States for decades. The Marshall Plan To strengthen democratic governments, the United States offered a massive aid package called the Marshall Plan. Under the plan, the United States provided food and money to Europe to help rebuild. Billions of dollars helped Europe rebuild quickly. Stalin and Soviet Satellites refused to accept aid. Divided Germany France, Britain, U.S., and the Soviet Union all occupied Germany. Democracies in the West and Communism in the East. The Western Democracies wanted Germany to rebuild, so they united and extended the Marshall Plan The Soviets tightened their hold on East Germany. Stalin s anger towards the democracies caused him to shut off all access to Berlin. The Berlin Airlift To get food, fuel, and other goods to Berlin, the democracies had a round the clock airlift, each dropping off needed goods to the people of Berlin. The success of the airlift caused the soviets to end their blockade and open up access to Berlin again. Opposing Alliances NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Members United States United Kingdom France Canada Denmark Iceland Italy Norway Portugal Belgium Netherlands Luxemburg The Warsaw Pact Members 1955 Soviet Union Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungry Poland Romania Both Alliances were created to protect member nations incase one was attacked. How is this similar to what happened before WWI? Recapping Why did the Allies hold War Crimes Trials? How is the United Nations similar to the League of Nations? How do the political ideals of the Security Council lead to disagreements? What was the Truman Doctrine?

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