1 CHAPTER CANADA S PROTECTED AREAS THE FACTS SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Canada has set aside 9.9% of its lands in protected areas (8.6% in existing protected areas and.% in interim protected areas), a growth of approximately 9% since 000. Canada has set aside 0.% of its oceans in marine protected areas. The extent of protected areas in Canada varies considerably between different ecological regions of the country from the.6% of the Arctic Cordillera ecozone that is found within protected areas, to 7.% of the Boreal Shield ecozone, to 0.% of the Mixedwood Plain ecozone (Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Valley). 9% of lands within Canada s terrestrial protected areas are classifi ed within IUCN Management Categories I-IV, which largely prohibit industrial activities such as forestry, mining and hydro development. Canada ranks th out of 0 OECD countries in terms of the amount of lands in protected areas that largely prohibit industrial activities. Canada ranks 6 th out of 0 OECD countries in terms of the amount of lands set aside in all terrestrial protected areas. Canada ranks 70 th globally in percentage of oceans protected. Canada s various governments administer a diverse range of terrestrial protected areas wilderness areas, parks, wildlife areas although about half of the entire network is found in national, provincial, or territorial parks. Protected areas in Canada are managed for multiple values resource conservation, public education, preservation of culturally signifi cant sites, research, and wildlife and habitat conservation. ANALYSIS - EXTENT OF TERRESTRIAL PROTECTED AREAS - Canada has set aside 9.9% of its lands as protected areas. Canada s terrestrial protected areas network includes a total of 98. million hectares (ha).,66,89 ha (%) of these lands currently have interim protection. The federal government administers 9.% of lands in Canada s terrestrial protected areas and the provinces and territories 9.%. Provinces & Territories Canada (All Prov. & Ter.) Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland & Labrador Northwest Territories Nova Scotia Nunavut Ontario Prince Edward Island Quebec Saskatchewan Yukon Percent of Land within Protected Areas in Each Province and Territory.%.%.% 6.% 8.% 8.6% 9.% 9.% 9.9% 0.%.% Percent Protected IUCN Ia to IV IUCN V to VI Interim/Not Classified.%.%.% Includes interim protected areas, Aboriginal and privately owned protected areas, and unclassifi ed government administered protected areas. Interim protected areas receive effective legal or regulatory protection, temporarily or otherwise, while negotiations and legal issues are resolved. Note that these land withdrawals are subject to feasibility studies, consultations, and/or the negotiation of agreements. The various interim protected areas, or portions thereof, may or may not eventually be established as protected areas.
2 6 Summary of Terrestrial Protected Areas in Each Province and Territory¹ Province/Territory No. of Protected Areas Area Protected (ha) Interim Area Protected² (ha) Who Manages Canada's Terrestrial Protected Areas? Total Area Protected³ (ha) % of Land Protected Alberta 7 8,0, 0 8,0,. British Columbia 98,088,,,996,,. Manitoba,7,08,9,0,70,08 8. New Brunswick 06,09,000 7,09. Newfoundland & Labrador 6,88,7 0,88,7. Northwest Territories 9 9,89,8,6,896,8, 0. Nova Scotia 7,67 7,000 7, Nunavut 7,,0,870,000,,0. 6 Ontario 67 9,9,0 8,9 9,80, Prince Edward Island 8 6,0,89 7,9. Quebec,096 7,,0,87,00 9,9, Saskatchewan,608,7,77 60,98,99,60 9. Yukon,,779,8,9 6,9,98. Canada (All Prov. & Ter.) 8,7 8,97,,66,89 98,9, Includes protected areas administered federally, provincially and territorially, as well as Aboriginal or privately held conservation lands that are recognized by protected area agencies as being part of their network. Interim protected areas receive effective legal or regulatory protection, temporarily or otherwise, while negotiations and legal issues are resolved. Note that these land withdrawals are subject to feasibility studies, consultations, and/or the negotiation of agreements. The various interim protected areas, or portions thereof, may or may not eventually be established as protected areas. Note that these figures include a number of terrestrial protected areas that have a marine component totalling,899, ha. Total land of each jurisdiction based on 00 Natural Resources Canada statistics (includes both land and freshwater), or on figures provided by relevant provincial or territorial protected areas agencies. IUCN Categorizing is still under review; Categories V & VI have not been finalized. Note that MB does not currently recognize EC administered National Wildlife Areas (IUCN IV) as part of their protected areas network. Excluded are 68,97 ha of Agriculture Canada administered PFRA pastures. These lands will be reviewed in the near future for possible inclusion in MB s Protected Areas Initiative.The total lands that MB currently accounts for within its protected areas network is. million ha, or 8.% of the province. 6 Until such time as a PAS is developed, Nunavut differentiates between lands that have surface and sub-surface rights withdrawn (National Parks, National Wildlife Areas, and the Thelon Game Sanctuary, totalling 6.%), Territorial Park lands that include withdrawal of surface rights only (0.07%), and lands that include withdrawal of seasonal surface rights only, including Migratory Bird Sanctuaries, Territorial Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Territorial Critical Wildlife Areas (.7%). 7 ON totals include provincial parks, conservation reserves, wilderness areas and national parks. Excluded are,8 ha of National Wildlife Areas (NWAs) and Migratory Bird Sanctuaries (MBSs) that are located in ON and administered by Environment Canada. These NWAs and MBSs are, however, included in the totals calculated for Canada. 8 Includes the terrestrial portion of Environment Canada s 8 Migratory Bird Sanctuaries that are found in QC, but excludes the marine portion of these Sanctuaries (,078 ha). Provinces and Territories 9.%.% 0.% Federal (Parks Canada) 0.8% Federal (EC).% 0.8%.%, Federal (Parks Canada) 6 Sites, Total Area 0,66,88 ha Federal (Environment Canada) Sites, Total Area,9,9 ha Federal (Indian Affairs and Northern Development) Site, Total Area,7,0 ha Federal (Agriculture Canada) 6 Sites, Total Area 7,86 ha Provinces & Territories 7,7 Sites, Total Area 9,09,87 ha Aboriginal Sites, Total Area,7,769 ha Private Ownership 6 Sites, Total Area 6,6 ha Other Sites, Total Area,880 ha Total includes both existing protected areas and interim protected areas. National Parks and National Park Reserves and four areas that have been given interim protection formally by means of Order in Council, pursuant to legislation. Omitted from these totals is the 6 km Gatineau Park. This park is administered by the National Capital Comission, a federal agency that was not involved in this study. Aboriginal protected areas are set aside for conservation by an Aboriginal community through a land claim agreement or other legal instrument. They have no federal, provincial or territorial protected area designation, but are recognized as protected areas by government protected areas agencies. Private protected areas are privately administered conservation lands (other than those held by Aboriginal communities), formally recognized by a protected areas agency as being part of their protected areas network. Most of these lands are under management by private land trust organizations.
3 7 - EXTENT OF MARINE PROTECTED AREAS - Canada has set aside 0.% of its oceans as protected areas. Canada s marine protected areas network includes a total of,78,6 ha. Environment Canada administers 7.9% of Canada s marine protected areas, Parks Canada.%, Fisheries and Oceans Canada 7.7%, and provinces and territories %. Parks Canada reported its intent to establish an additional million ha of marine protected areas over the next two years. Summary of Marine Protected Areas in Canada Administrator Type of Marine Protected Area No. of Marine Areas Marine Area Protected (ha) % of Canada s MPAs Parks Canada National Marine Conservation Area,00.% Parks Canada National Park (Marine Portion) 98,000 Parks Canada & Quebec Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park,800 Environment Canada National Wildlife Area (Marine Portion),7 7.9% Environment Canada Migratory Bird Sanctuary (Marine Portion),7, Fisheries and Oceans Marine Protected Area,0 7.7% Newfoundland & Labrador Ecological Reserve (Marine Portion) 6,00 0.% Prince Edward Island Terrestrial Protected Area (Marine Portion) % Quebec Waterfowl Gathering Areas 9, 6.0% British Columbia Terrestrial Protected Area (Marine Portion) 8,0.% Total,78,6 - EXTENT OF PROTECTED AREAS IN CANADA S VARIOUS NATURAL REGIONS - The extent of protected areas in Canada varies considerably between different ecological regions of the country from the.6% of the Arctic Cordillera ecozone that is found within protected areas, to 7.% of the Boreal Shield ecozone, to 0.% of the Mixedwood Plain ecozone (Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Valley). Percent of Protected Areas in Canada s Ecozones Ecozone No. Ecozone Percent Protected Arctic Cordillera.8% Northern Arctic 7.% Southern Arctic.9% Taiga Plain.87% Taiga Shield.9% 6 Boreal Shield 7.7% 7 Atlantic Maritime.% 8 Mixed Wood Plain 0.% 9 Boreal Plain 8.% 0 Prairie.% Taiga Cordillera 0.6% Boreal Cordillera.9% Pacific Maritime.8% Montane Cordillera 6.9% Hudson Plain 0.% Ecozones and Ecoregions Part of Canada s Ecosystem Framework A land-based ecological classifi cation system has been developed to help Canadians understand the ecological diversity of the country. Across the country, there are 77 ecoregions, which nest into broad ecozones. Each of these unique ecological units is based on physiography and soils, and their expression with respect to vegetation under the infl uence of Canada s diverse climatic regimes. Developed in the 980s, the system has been used as a common tool to assess and report nationally on the state of Canada s environment and forests as well as by many jurisdictions as the basis of their representative protected area systems planning. A complementary system has been developed for Canada s marine ecosystems.
5 9 - CANADA S DIVERSITY OF PROTECTED AREAS - Canadian jurisdictions administer a diverse range of protected areas, with about half of the land in all terrestrial networks found in national, provincial, or territorial parks. Most protected areas agencies use a range of protected area types, including pristine wilderness areas, parks that provide for both conservation and public enjoyment, and wildlife areas that protect valuable habitat for specifi c wildlife species. 9% of lands within Canada s terrestrial protected areas are classifi ed within IUCN Management Categories I-IV, which largely prohibit industrial activities such as forestry, mining and hydro development. Many jurisdictions are just beginning to evaluate lands which might fall into Category V and VI protected areas. In many cases these areas may be owned and managed outside of traditional park and protected area agencies. For example, a number of jurisdictions are beginning to assess the extent to which privately administered conservation lands within their province or territory meet the IUCN protected areas classifi cations. Management Classification of Canada s Terrestrial Protected Areas (IUCN Categories), IUCN Category IUCN Protected Area Managed for No. of Protected Areas Total Area Protected (ha) Ia Science or wilderness protection 70,, Ib Wilderness protection 0,,87 II Ecosystem protection & recreation,9 0,,877 III Conservation of specifi c natural features 79,0,6 IV Conservation through management intervention,7 998,07 V Landscape/seascape conservation or recreation 7 8, VI Sustainable use of natural resources,8,78,698 Unclassified 7,997,6 Total 7, 8,96,0 Does not include interim protected areas, as the majority of these lands have not yet been classifi ed. It similarly does not include protected areas established by Aboriginal communities or private organizations. This IUCN data should be viewed as preliminary and subject to change, as jurisdictions compare their rankings to others in Canada and begin a discussion to arrive at a more common understanding on how to apply the CCEA s Application of IUCN Management Categories A Guidebook for Canadian Protected Areas Agencies (February 00). Classifying Canada s Protected Areas Globally and within Canada, protected areas are classifi ed according to a series of six management categories, depending upon their management objective. These categories, developed by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), are summarized as follows: Category Ia - Protected area managed mainly for science or wilderness protection Category Ib - Protected area managed mainly for wilderness protection Category II - Protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation Category III - Protected area managed mainly for conservation of specifi c natural features Category IV - Protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention Category V - Protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation or recreation Category VI - Protected area managed mainly for the sustainable use of natural resources Over the last year, protected areas agencies have begun to review and reassess the IUCN categories of their various protected areas using a guidance document prepared by the Canadian Council on Ecological Areas, in order to help ensure national consistency in the classification of Canada s protected areas. This is a work in progress; protected areas agencies continue to work with the CCEA to further refine and ensure consistency in the evaluation and reporting of these categories for Canada s protected areas. The Canadian Council on Ecological Areas advises that in classifying Canadian protected areas according to IUCN classifi cations, industrial activities such as mining, forestry and hydro-development be regarded as incompatible with the objectives of protected areas in categories I-IV, but that in some cases these activities may be grandfathered until leases expire. Source CCEA, The Application of IUCN Management Categories A Guidebook for Canadian Protected Areas Agencies (February 00).
6 0 Percentage of Canada's Terrestial Protected Areas in Each IUCN Management Category 0.%.%.6% 7.8%.% VI II.7% Ia.8% Ib 6.% Ia - Science or wilderness protection Ib - Wilderness protection II - Ecosystem protection & recreation III - Conservation of specific natural features IV - Conservation through management intervention V - Landscape/seascape conservation or recreation VI - Sustainable use of natural resources Unclassified - CANADA S GROWING PROTECTED AREAS NETWORKS - Canada s protected areas networks have grown by roughly 9% since 000. Approximately 6 million ha of land have been added to Canada s protected areas networks since 000. From 000 to 00, the growth rate of Canada s protected areas network has been.9% per year, while from 99 to 000 the growth rate was.9% per year. Canadian Protected Area Growth, IUCN Ia to VI Millions IUCN V to VI IUCN Ia to IV Cumulative Protected Area (ha) Year Does not include interim protected areas identifi ed in this report. Data used for calculating growth in protected areas across Canada is derived from the Canadian Conservation Areas Database.
7 - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE - Canada ranks th out of 0 OECD countries in terms of the amount of lands in protected areas that largely prohibit industrial activities. Canada ranks 6 th out of 0 OECD countries in terms of the amount of lands set aside in all terrestrial protected areas. Canada ranks 70 th globally in percentage of oceans protected. Canada manages.% of the world s terrestrial protected areas, and.% of the world s MPAs. Among OECD countries, Canada ranks 6 th out of 0 in terms of the amount of lands we protect (9.9%), behind Denmark (7.%), New Zealand (9.6%), and the United States (.9%), but ahead of Mexico (9.%) and Sweden (8%). However, Canada ranks th out of 0 in terms of the amount of lands in IUCN Categories I-IV protected areas, which largely prohibit industrial activities such as forestry, mining, and hydro development. Canada ranks 70 th globally in percentage of oceans protected behind Australia (8%), Greenland (%), Italy (%), the United States (.%), UK (.7%), and Mexico (.%), but ahead of New Zealand (0.6%) and Spain (0.%). While many countries around the world have fully assessed and currently report on the full suite of IUCN protected areas categories, in Canada many jurisdictions are just beginning to evaluate lands which might fall into Category V and VI protected areas. Ongoing progress by Canada in this respect will help us to more accurately assess and report on the full extent of our protected areas networks on a national and international scale. 0 Terrestrial Protected Areas - Comparison of % of Land Protected by OECD Countries 0 Marine Protected Areas - Global Comparison of % of Marine Waters Protected % of Land Protected OECD Average.6 Australia Canada Denmark Mexico Germany IUCN Ia to IV IUCN V to VI Sweden New Zealand Switzerland U.S.A. % Marine Waters Protected Canada Australia Italy Greenland Spain New Zealand Mexico U.S.A. United Kingdom Source: IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas and the United Nations Environment Program 006 World Database on Protected Areas. A considerable amount of the Marine Protected Areas data used in this publication / database / map was derived from MPA Global, a global database of MPAs developed by Louisa Wood, Sea Around Us Project, University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre, as part of her (currently) ongoing PhD thesis, and in collaboration with WWF and UNEP-WCMC (006). MPA Global was originally developed from the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), maintained by UNEP-WCMC, and much of the data in MPA Global have been used to update the WPDA. Please refer to and for additional information on these MPAs. Any further use or publication of these data must include this acknowledgment. Source: OECD Environmental Data Compendium 00 Edition, p.. Note that because comparisons are made using 00 data, the percentage of land protected for Canada is slightly less than what is reported elsewhere in this chapter.
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