Personal Security in the Cloud The Basics. Dr. David A. Cook Stephen F. Austin State University 1

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1 The Basics Dr. Eugene W.P. Bingue U. S. Navy Dr. David A. Cook Stephen F. Austin State University 1

2 Caveat Emptor [Latin: Let the buyer beware.] Quidquid latine dictum sit, altum sonatur. [Latin: Whatever is said in Latin sounds profound.] Questions: How can we protect our sensitive and personal information in the cloud? How much has the philosophy of commercial best practice taken over from the basics of military science and doctrine? Commercial Best Practices are aimed at cost savings but do these practices endanger DOD-specific goals such as security? The goal of this talk is to discuss how to intelligently use best practices in the DOD. This presentation will provide with ideas, tools and methods to help protect your assets in the cloud. It might even help you sleep better at night. 2

3 CIA Triad 3

4 Source Unclassified IA Insecurities, Technical Security Solution Center,Diane Strohmer, 4

5 What you DO know Many (most?) vendors add a layer of encryption to their services. How good is it? Do you trust it? Do you EVER use cloud services at locations that are insecure? Coffee Shops? Airports? Are you accessing cloud services automatically and on the fly? You probably need to add an additional layer to protect your most sensitive data. 5

6 Any DOD use of the Cloud must be measured again the CIA triad! 6

7 The Cloud is a HUGE security gap! Cloud services are frequently transparent and automatic. Cloud access exacerbate security which is already problematic. 7

8 Securing Your Data at Rest in the Cloud 8

9 9

10 Basic Common Sense Harris interactive poll (commissioned by Dashlane) found: We make it EASY for hackers! Majority engage in activities that place personal online information at risk 69% reuse password more then one site 50% of these do not regularly change password 36% of these store Personal Information -such as credit cards or tax information - on websites for convenience 72% of all users are worried about data compromise, yet 64% of these same people also store Personal Information online. 10

11 The Basics Strong and unique passwords for every site Avoid storing passwords in your browser Employ a safe password manager Do not open important accounts on open WiFi Verify that links are to legitimate sites Be very wary of storing credit cards or personal data on websites Have backups in case of cloud failure Change passwords as soon as you suspect a security breach 11

12 How to Choose a Secure Password 1. Use length to your advantage 2. Form a "random" sequence of words and/or letters 3. Add numbers to the base-word to make it more secure 4. Use punctuation and symbols to "complicate" it further 5. Create complexity with upper and lowercase letters 6. Generate similar but altered passwords Example: LiveLongAndProsper, L1veaNDPr0s#p$ 12

13 Unfortunately, we re not going to change human nature. What can we do? Before we start one critical point. Some cloud providers MOVE the data to the cloud. Some COPY it. Know which type you are using. Prepare accordingly! The Buck stops with you! 13

14 File Sharing Cloud Services File sharing tools/services are easy to use, transparent, and provide some free services. Some currently-used popular services are: Dropbox, Google Drive Live Mesh, SkyDrive Box.net and the list goes on 14

15 The Basics Well, why don t I encrypt everything on my hard drive? Encrypting a hard drive can make it much more difficult if not impossible to recover data if something goes wrong with the hard drive. So, if you must encrypt, make sure you are covered with multiple backups. This is a Danger, Danger Will Robinson moment! 15

16 File & Folder Encryption Are there some publicly available tools I can use to encrypt just the critical files and folders I use? How good are they? T r u e C r y p t AxCrypt AES Crypt We are NOT selling any of these they are simply examples of publicly available free encryption programs available. We are NOT recommending any of these tools we are simply using these tools to demonstrate security services available. This is NOT an exhaustive list just three programs we are familiar with. 16

17 T r u e C r y p t Features: Creates a virtual encrypted disk within a file and mounts it as a disk. Encrypts an entire partition or storage device such as USB flash drive or hard drive. Encrypts a partition or drive where OS is installed (pre-boot authentication). Encryption is automatic, real-time (on-the-fly) and transparent. Parallelization and pipelining allow data to be read and written as fast as if the drive was not encrypted. Encryption can be hardware-accelerated on modern processors. Provides plausible deniability, in case an adversary forces you to reveal the password. Hidden volume (steganography) and hidden operating system. Runs on Windows, Mac, Linux. Vaults are transferable among OS. 17

18 Types of Encryption supported 18

19 Features AxCrypt Password Protect any number of files using strong encryption. Seamlessly integrates with Windows single and double clicks encrypt and decrypt Self-decrypting files are also supported, removing the need to install AxCrypt to decrypt. AES 128-bit encryption 19

20 101 AES Crypt Features: AES Crypt is a file encryption software available on several operating systems that uses the industry standard Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to easily and securely encrypt files. Supports: Windows, Mac, and Android (Crypt4All) AES 256-bit 20

21 I ve used RSA and PGP with 4,096 bit keys. Isn t a 256 bit key pretty small? NO AES is different adding a bit does not double the possible key-size, it squares it. Cracking is exponential in key size. NOTE: These are not from a product web site. This is from an article on AES key encryption. 21

22 Even with a supercomputer, it would take 1 billion billion years to crack the 128-bit AES key using brute force attack. This is more than the age of the universe (13.75 billion years). If one were to assume that a computing system existed that could recover a DES key in a second, it would still take that same machine approximately 149 trillion years to crack a 128-bit AES key. The following snippet is a snapshot of a technical paper titled "128- bit versus 256-bit AES encryption" to explain why AES is sufficient to meet future needs. 22

23 AES safe for the predictable future Unless new technology comes along (quantum computing?) Moore s law will not overcome AES encryption for billions of years. In the end, AES has never been cracked yet and is safe against any brute force attacks contrary to belief and arguments. 23

24 What is needed next? Several of the example services we have used as examples are free and open source. Some of the examples are for encrypting LARGE datasets (as an encrypted volume). This might not be suitable unless you have lots of small volumes. And some applications do not let the volume grow. Are we recommending anything? NO! What is needed is more research, and some standardization. Perhaps vision. Before we can recommend any integration of this technology into DOD, we highly recommend that code Verification and Validation be performed. 24

25 Overall Summary Human issues are the root cause of most security problems. Cloud Computing is just another way that we talk the talk, but don t walk the walk. Good basic security (common sense, good password practices, etc.) are the best defense. Policies and Procedures need to be updated to encompass Cloud Computing issues. 25

26 Two alternative approaches 26

27 Questions? 27

28 References on

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