1 Decent Work Country Programme of the Republic of Tajikistan
2 Introduction 2 This Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) is based on the national priorities agreed and formulated in the course of consultations between the tripartite constituents of the Republic of Tajikistan (the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Tajikistan and the Union of the Employers of the Republic of Tajikistan), with the active involvement of the Decent Work Technical Support Team and the ILO Country Office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The new Programme takes into account the outcomes of the previous DWCP for , as well as the conclusions and recommendations made during the DWCP review conducted together with ILO constituents in July-September The DWCP for has been developed in the context of implementation of the legislative frameworks in the field of labour market, employment and social protection, and is aimed at the sustainable socio-economic development of the country, on the basis of labour relations regulation in line with international labour standards, stimulation of productive employment, insurance of social protection of population and further promotion of social dialogue. The implementation of this Programme will contribute to the attainment of the goals set in the long-term National Development Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan until 2015 based on the Millennium Development Goals, the Labour Market Strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan till 2020 and the mid-term Strategy of the Improvement of Population Living Standards for , the Programme on Occupational Safety and Health of the Republic of Tajikistan for and other state programmes. The Programme is also based on the key priorities of the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) and expected to make a specific contribution to achieve its outcomes 1. The Programme will seek policy dialogue with the Development Coordination Council (DCC) 2, to exchange mutually interesting information on various issues and up-coming activities. The Programme relies on the Decent Work Country Analysis in Tajikistan conducted by the ILO in June-August 2013, as well as on the recommendations proposed during the DWCP review and development workshop in September The Programme identifies the priority areas of cooperation with the ILO for , the relevant outcomes, indicators and implementation strategies, as well as coordination, monitoring and assessment issues. I. Socio-economic development and world of work issues Economic situation After the economic collapse in the 1990s and the unprecedented reduction of GDP by 75%, in the annual GDP growth rate reached 8%. As a result, real GDP per capita almost doubled. 3 1 In particular, Outcome 1: Wider coverage of poverty reduction and economic development programmes with specific focus on the rural population, women, and other disadvantaged groups; and Outcome 2: Building the capacity of the national and local authorities to undertake democratic reforms based on international standards and regulations, as well as most of the Outcomes of Priority 4. High-Quality Basic Services. 2 DCC was created in 2006 to coordinate the work on development issues, mainly through information exchange. DCC members are the key donor organizations, including UN agencies and some international non-governmental organizations. 3 Based on the United Nations System of National Accounts. In 2011, GDP per capita in constant prices was 89% higher than in For the same period, this indicator in current U.S. dollars grew from 139 to 935.
3 3 Due to the significant increase in cash transfers from migrant workers (equivalent to 47% of GDP in 2012) 4, the per capita income of the population was growing at even higher rates. For January- December 2013, real income of the population increased by 16.5% as compared to the same period of The growth of the national economy for the last decade was mainly associated with the development of such sectors as trade, construction, transportation, and communications. The agriculture is still underperforming. The efforts to reconstruct and develop new processing industries have failed to bring about the desired results. At the current stage, the economic balance is largely dependent on export of cheap labour. Unfortunately, cash transfers from migrant workers are substantially used for financing consumer demands rather than for stimulating national production, boosting small and medium businesses and creating new jobs. In order to ensure the sustainable and pervasive development of the decent work conditions throughout the Republic over the forthcoming years, it is necessary to switch to the new growth model which relies on powerful value-added chains and inter-industry relations in the national economy rather than on export of labour force. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the poverty rate was very high and reached 81% in In 2003, almost three-quarters of the population lived in poverty, while in 2014 the poverty rate declined to 38.3% of Tajik households. The decline in extreme poverty rate is even more impressive from 42% to 14% of all households in Cash transfers from migrant workers play a major role in poverty reduction. As identified from the survey performed by ILO in 2009, cash transfers were the only source of income for 31% of households and covered 60% of the total income for another 31%. 5 Such a situation is subject to severe risks since it makes households dependent on wages of family members working abroad without income security. Labour market and employment During , the population of Tajikistan grew by 29.4% to 8.2 million people, or by 42% as compared with the time when the independence was declared in The share of children under 14 years of age in the total population dramatically decreased from 43% in 1989 to 36% in 2011, while the share of aged population has remained low 4%. This resulted in a significant decline of dependency ratio (measured as a number of children and aged persons per person of working age) from 0.86 to Therefore, the working-age population (aged 15 64) is growing at higher rates than the total population. In 2011, it reached 61% of the total population of the country. 6 Such a situation, on the one hand, exerts an increasing pressure on the economy in terms of creating new productive jobs, but, on the other hand, it may stimulate consumption, savings and investments provided that the employment level remains high. All these indicators need to be increased for maintaining high rates of economic growth. 4 Central Bank of the Republic of Tajikistan Cash transfers are recorded as a part of the national income but not included in the gross domestic product. 5 Based on ILO (2010a). 6 Based on weekly newspaper Demoskop Weekly No , June 17 30, 2013, Institute of Demographics of the National Research University Higher School of Economics
4 4 The other trend of the labour market is that the growth rate of the working-age population significantly exceeds the growth rate of labour force (economically active population). From 2001 to 2011, the working-age population increased by 1,257 thousand people (from 3,415 thousand to 4,672 thousand), while the internal labour force grew only by 396 thousand people (from 1,872 thousand to 2,267.6 thousand). This is highly associated with the fact that a significant share of the working-age population goes abroad looking for jobs and is excluded from the internal labour force. It means that the share of labour force involved in the domestic economic activity has been decreasing from 54.8% in 2001 to 49.2% in It should be noted that the government programmes implemented from 2009 to 2011 made it possible to stop the further decreasing the level of the labour force involved in the national economy, if not to reverse this trend. As stated in official reports, about 451 thousand new jobs were created for this period 7. This allowed one to provide the increasing work-age population with jobs and to maintain the level of internal labour force at about 49% of the total work-age population. The reduction of the internal labour force has a certain gender dimension. As related to men, it is mainly expressed in search for jobs abroad. However, even with adjustment for labour migration, the employment rate of men decreased from 72.7% in 2004 to 65.9% in The decrease in the economic activity of women is directly associated with the withdrawal from the labour market. By 2009, the total involvement of women in labour force fell to 39% as compared with 55% observed only five years ago. Still, a detailed analysis suggests that the withdrawal of women from the labour market may not have been as drastic as the statistics seem to suggest. In 2004 over 16% of all women in employment were engaged in agricultural work as collective farm members. Though the vast majority of women who previously worked in collective farms, have withdrawn into inactivity, some studies show that rural women on average still spend considerable time working at farms. A significant positive development has been a large increase in female wage employment in both absolute and relative terms. Wage employment accounted for 58.5% of all female domestic employment in 2009, up from 26.9 per cent in According to the Statistical Agency under President of the Republic of Tajikistan, the employment rate in 2012 reached 97.6% of the economically active population within the country with the registered unemployment rate of 2.4%. These figures have not changed as compared with They do not reflect, however, the real situation since the official statistics include only those unemployed who are registered in government employment agencies. According to the Labour Force Survey (LFS) of 2009, the total unemployment rate was 11.5%. The unemployment rate of men was higher than that of women (12.3% versus 10.5%) 10. Adjusted for part-time employment, the total employment rate is 16.9% of the economically active population: 17.4% in men and 12.7% in women. After 2009, LFSs based on the ILO methodology have not been carried out. Therefore, data on real employment rates are not available for this period. 7 Strategy for Improvement of Population Living Standards for (2013: 53). 8 The total employment rate of men is defined as a share of men employed abroad in the total number of working-age men of Tajikistan. 9 Decent Work Country Analysis. Tajikistan, ILO Information and Knowledge Management Unit, July Same as reference 8
5 5 The breakdown of unemployed by education shows that the portion of the population without vocational education is more susceptible to unemployment. About 75% of the total number of unemployed has not received any vocational education: 48.7% of them have complete secondary education; 18.4% basic general education and 7.4% primary education 11. Youth unemployment is an increasingly important challenge. As of January 01, 2012, the share of youth aged in the working-age population reached about 35.5% 12. If young people aged from 24 to 29 are included in this group, the share of youth in the total labour force grows to 53%. According to the LFS data, in 2009 unemployment rate of young persons (aged 15-24) reached 16.7% of the economically active population within the country (exclusive of migrant workers) 13. Over 30% of urban youth were not employed; unemployment of the rural youth was lower 13.3%. This is explained by the fact that the major part of the rural youth, as opposed to the urban one, goes abroad looking for job opportunities. Youth unemployment rate varies depending upon level of education. For example, according to the official data as of the end 2011, around 23.5% of all graduates were registered as unemployed, including 11% of graduates from higher educational institutions, 64% from secondary vocational schools, 50% from primary schools 14. A higher rate of youth unemployment is associated with lack of experience and with the fact that vocational education does not meet the real needs of the labour market. Labour migration is one of the most important components of the labour market and the development of the country, in general. There are not any accurate statistics of how many migrants currently work outside the country. According to different data for 2012, their total number varies from 800 thousand to 1.5 million, which makes up from 16% to 31% of the whole working-age population, or from 27% to 40% of the total labour force. Russia 15 and Kazakhstan are still the major destination countries for migrant workers from Tajikistan. According to the Agency on Migration under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, the number of migrant workers who left the country every year was growing until 2011 when it reached 750 thousand persons. Over the subsequent years, the number of migrant workers was declining. The ratio between men and women among those who go abroad for earning has also been changing: if in 2006 women made up 9% of the total number of migrants, in 2012 their share grew to 11.6% 16. In general, labour migration is not organized and properly regulated. It often leads to situations when migrants are heavily exploited, and their human and basic rights at work are systematically denied. Many migrants are exposed to very high risks affecting their health and safety. The labour migration in Tajikistan is recognized as an integral part of the National Employment Policy Strategy. Since 2005, the Republic has been implementing various institutional measures for 11 Theory and Practice of the Labour Market Development in the Transition Economy, Research Institute of Labour and Social Protection of Population, Dushanbe, 2013, P Same as reference 8 13 Decent Work Country Analysis. Tajikistan, ILO Information and Knowledge Management Unit, July The Labour Market in the Republic of Tajikistan, Statistical Agency under President of the Republic of Tajikistan, In October 2013, the Protocol for the Protection of Tajik Migrant Workers in Russia was signed. Tajik citizens are eligible to obtain permits to work in RF up to 3 years. The work permit is the ground for extending the period of temporary stay in the country of destination without the obligation to leave it throughout the validity period of such a permit. 16 Based on weekly newsletter Demoskop Weekly No , on February 18 March 03, 2013, Institute of Demographics of the National Research University Higher School of Economy
6 6 regulating and developing labour migration. These measures are mainly aimed at reviewing and improving the legal framework, strengthening the migration monitoring system and developing vocational training of migrant workers. The labour market in Tajikistan is characterized not only by high level of migration and low employment rate, but also by continuous change in ratio between formal and informal employment in favour of the latter. One of the key factors responsible for the growth of informal employment is the increasing labour migration which is a challenging problem for transition to formal employment 17. Despite the growth of wage employment, informal employment is still prevailing in Tajikistan, both in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, accounting for 78% of the total domestic employment in This share is slightly higher in women than in men (80% versus 77%). In 2009, the informal sector accounted for 54% of all workers employed in non-agricultural sectors of the national economy. They include 72% of men and only 37% of women 18. The sampling surveys undertaken in the country show that the informal employment is concentrated among private small enterprises, mostly in trade, services, and construction. Social protection Taking into account the insignificant increase in employment in and the increase of GDP by 2.5 times, it can be concluded that the economic growth completely relied on the growth of the overall labour productivity, which grew by 59% from 2004 to In general, the rapid growth of labour productivity resulted in higher real wage: on average, it increased more than twice in and almost eight times as compared with It should be noted that such an impressive growth occurred against the miserable wage level at the beginning of the century. For the last three years, the growth trend of real wage has persisted: for January-December 2012, it grew by 17.7% as compared to the same period of In 2012, the average monthly nominal wage reached USD. It should be admitted that the increase in wages in Tajikistan does not make a positive impact on poverty alleviation and is mainly socially important. It does not take into account the cost of the consumer basket or income indexation. The wage system in Tajikistan is characterized by unjustified differentiation of wages. In the real economy, the highest wages are observed in the electric power industry, gas and water supply (380.0 USD), construction (436.2 USD), and mining industry (312.5 USD). Agricultural workers earn the lowest wages (57.3 USD), while jobs in the financial sector are best paid (527.6 USD). Despite the growth of real wages, the country is undergoing a significant decline in value of labour power. Devaluation of labour power has been caused by liberalization of prices against the background of the wage restraint which is implemented through maintaining a low level of minimum wage and using the consumption taxation mechanism. Such a trend aggravates the social situation in the country. By 2011, the calculation index, which is the basis for calculating all social transfers and benefits, has reached 40 somoni (12 USD). In line with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan No.1493 from 14 August 2013 On measures to improve the social protection of population, 17 Decent Work Country Analysis. Tajikistan, Information and Knowledge Management, ILO, July Ibid. 19 Statistical Agency under President of the Republic of Tajikistan, Macroeconomic Indicators, 2013 update
7 7 raise public wages of civil servants and officials of budgetary institutions, and increase pensions and fellowships, from 1 September 2013, the minimum wage has been increased by 25%, amounting to 250 somoni (52 USD) per month. However, it is still very low and does not meet even the most basic human needs. Up to now, the national minimum consumer basket is calculated only for food products, although it should also include cost of necessary non-food products and services. 20. The general social protection system is officially established in Tajikistan. In the 1990s, most benefits, including pensions, were devaluated because of inflation, while the dramatic reduction in public revenues made it impossible to finance the social protection system as before. It is only in recent years that the economic growth and higher government revenue have allowed one to restructure this system and to make it more meaningful. In 2012, the social protection system accounted for about 36% of the total welfare expenditures. A major part of them is used for financing the pension system. In 2010, the Law "On Insurance and State Pensions" was adopted. It gives the possibility to create the funded system of pension insurance funds and to accumulate such funds in individual accounts of citizens. All working citizens are entitled to social security benefits 21 in case of temporary disability. Although the social insurance system aims at a broad coverage, including not only wage employed, but also self-employed, its actual coverage is far from universal. Many migrants working abroad are excluded from the social security system. Migrants and those households that are dependent on their income are not covered by social protection. They are highly subject to economic risks associated with health deterioration, occupational accidents, or unemployment, as well as economic privations in old age. Insufficient level of state social payments (pensions and allowances) has pushed the low-income and most vulnerable population to apply for different state benefits which, in its turn, requires additional public expenditures. In Tajikistan, the role of labour inspection is widely promoted in addressing occupational safety and health issues. The labour inspectorate has been transformed into an integrated Service of State Control in the Field of Labour, Employment and Social Protection of Population (Sluzhba). In 2009, a new OSH law was approved and the national OSH system was analysed. In the recent years one can observe an increased interest to OSH issues, they have become one of the national policy priorities. In December 2012, the National OSH Programme for was adopted. The personnel of Sluzhba and social partners have been exposed to extensive capacity building on OSH and risk managements system, targeting various high-risk sectors, like construction. One of the most important tasks in the field of safety and health remains further strengthening of the national OSH system, including improvement of legislation and modernization of labour inspection. Social dialogue Despite the existence of the consensus-building culture and traditions, social dialogue and tripartism are relatively new concepts in Tajikistan. They have emerged only after 2000, in the 20 Theory and Practice of the Labour Market Development in the Transition Economy, Research Institute of Labour and Social Protection of Population, Dushanbe, 2013, p I.e. those employed in the formal economy when an employer makes contributions to the Social Insurance Fund, and own-account workers making contributions to the Social Insurance Fund.
8 8 conditions of independence. It is fully recognized that social dialogue is essential for formulating the socio-economic policy, developing social solidarity, and creating sound labour relations. Social dialogue has made significant progress over the last ten years. Having existed in the Soviet period, trade unions have become genuine representative bodies of workers that express their interests and defend their bargaining position through collective actions. The Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Tajikistan (FITUT) was created in It includes 19 sectoral committees and 14 regional trade unions councils, uniting more than 10,000 primary organizations, with the total number of 1.2 million members. The Union of the Employers of the Republic of Tajikistan (UERT) was founded in At present, the UERT has 368 members, mostly in industry, construction, service sector and agriculture. In the process of social dialogue, the UERT representativeness is steadily increasing. On 1 April 2008, by the Order No. 173 On the Approval of Provisions of the Tripartite Commission for Regulation of Social and Labour Relations in the RT, the Tripartite Commission for the Regulation of Social and Labour Relations (RTC) was established as institutional mechanism for tripartite social dialog and relations. The RTC includes representatives of the Government, FITUT, and UERT. The RTC is a forum for tripartite consultations and concluding agreements, including discussion of draft laws and social partners' approaches to social policy and labour dispute resolution. In general, despite tangible progress and several positive initiatives, women remain underrepresented in bi-partite and tripartite social dialogue and constitute, in average, some 13% in national social dialogue institutions 22. Tajikistan has ratified the fundamental conventions the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87) and the Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98). The Labour Code of the Republic of Tajikistan (1997), the Law On Social Partnership and Collective Agreements (2006), as well as the laws on trade unions and employers constitute the national legal framework for regulating industrial relations and tripartite social dialogue. Therefore, the key challenges of social dialogue in Tajikistan are unequal, for historical reasons, organizational capacities of trade unions and employers' organizations, as well as low awareness of both workers and employers of the advantages of membership in representative organizations, and participation in national social dialogue institutions. The critical objective is still to develop institutional capabilities of social partners, which would contribute to increasing representativeness of their organizations. Fundamental principles and rights at work Tajikistan has ratified all eight Fundamental Conventions of the ILO that establish the fundamental principles and rights at work, two of four priority conventions in the field of labour administration the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) and the Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No. 122), as well as 39 technical conventions. The International Labour Standards have been also integrated into the national legal framework. 22 ILO Survey,
9 9 The Labour Code of the Republic of Tajikistan establishes the comprehensive legal framework by setting forth the rights and obligations of employers and workers and providing the framework for occupational safety and health. It regulates forms of employment contracts and termination of employment. The Labour Code also establishes the mechanism for regulating labour disputes and setting wage level through collective bargaining and agreements. Nowadays, the new Labour Code is being developed and expected to be completed towards the end of The Law of the RT No. 517 from 19 May 2009 On Occupational Safety and Health provides a detailed legal base and more modern approach to OSH. Although the national law prohibits employment of children below 15 years of age (except for some types of light work that do not harm children s health and do not hinder education), child labour still remains a common problem. In 2009, 180,000 children below 15 years of age, accounting for 34.4% of all children, were involved in child labour. In cities, children most commonly work as waiters, house and office cleaners, assistants in shops, car washers, or conductors. 23 Taking into account that the majority of population of Tajikistan lives in rural areas and is involved in agriculture sector, most of working children are found in rural areas too. II. Key results and lessons learnt from implementation of the previous Programme and priorities for In the summer of 2013, the review of implementation of the previous DWCP was organized. The review has shown that all key DWCP outcomes have been achieved. The joint actions of the constituents and the ILO were aimed at providing broader decent job opportunities, strengthening the role of social dialogue, more efficient labour administration, improving working conditions. In general, the Programme has been recognized to meet the national priorities, as well as interests and needs of constituents. Among the most important outcomes achieved in , the following ones should be noted: The Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention, 1976 (No. 144) ratified in 2013, which is a great achievement resulted from the consistent and coordinated efforts of the Tajik constituents and the ILO; the Home Work Convention, 1996 (No. 177) ratified in 2012; The National OSH Programme for developed and approved by the government (Order No. 684 of December 03, 2012); labour inspectorates and social partners trained on introduction of OSH management system (ILO-OSH 2001) The roadmap for the further development of the State Employment Agency developed, aimed at strengthening the capacity to provide better services The existing vocational education and training system for adults reviewed; measures for improving this system developed 23 Based on the Research Institute of Labour and Social Protection of Population (2013: P ).
10 10 The capacity of social partners on collective bargaining, wages, informal employment, protection of migrant workers' rights, gender-specific aspects of social protection and maternity protection strengthened through the relevant trainings The existing remuneration system in different sectors of the economy reviewed; recommendations for improving the system developed The HIV/AIDS Workplace Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan developed and signed A package of measures designed and implemented in the framework of the National Action Plan for Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour; Child Labour Hazardous List developed The Decent Work Country Analysis conducted, providing the ILO constituents and other national stakeholders with a quality analysis and information on situation and progress in the field of decent work at the national level, as well as on the key problems and challenges the country faces on the way to achievement of the decent work objectives. The study will help assessing national policies and identifying alternative ways of developing them. The lessons learnt from the Programme implementation in mainly revealed the following issues: strengthening the capacity of constituents to organize, implement and partly finance some components of the Programme; involvement of employers' associations from real sectors of the economy (electric power industry, construction, mining industry) in implementation of the Programme; the necessity of developing measures to reduce unemployment; improvement of the national labour statistics system; more efficient involvement of scientific and expert community; the need to prepare guidance and training materials in the state language; more active use of information channels of the ILO, international agencies and mass media for wider dissemination of the results of DWCP implementation. Country Programme Priorities In the course of the workshop for development of the new DWCP in September 2013 and the subsequent consultations with constituents for identifying the key areas of collaboration for the next years, it was proposed to keep the priorities of the previous Programme since they still remain relevant and important for achieving the objectives of economic and social development of Tajikistan. So, the following DWCP priorities have been agreed upon: Strengthening capacities of tripartite constituents to address priority labour issues through social dialogue Promoting decent employment opportunities for men and women including returning labour migrants Improving working conditions and ensuring state social guarantees (instead of: enhancing the coverage of social protection).
11 III. Key outcomes, indicators and strategies 11 Priority 1. Strengthening capacities of tripartite constituents to address priority labour issues through social dialogue Outcome 1.1: National mechanisms for tripartite and bipartite social dialogue improved, including through increased capacities of employers and workers to engage effectively in social dialogue at all levels Joint efforts of the national constituents will be aimed at strengthening the institutional capacities and the role of trade unions and employers organizations in policy consultations and decision-making on labour issues, by improving the efficiency of the Tripartite Commission for the Regulation of Social and Labour Relations in the RT. The ILO will provide support through technical consultations and relevant training of tripartite constituents, to increase their capacities on national social dialogue, improve its mechanism and functioning procedures, and effectively apply the recently ratified Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention (No. 144), as well as the provisions of the Labour Administration Convention (No.150). Special measures will be developed by constituents to strengthen the RTC secretariat and establish procedures for its regular meetings. The ILO will also provide advice to the working group set up to revise the Labour Code. The ILO will provide support to the EOs in developing new or better services to its members and advocating the interest of their members via policy work. This will help to make membership in these organizations more attractive for employers and increase the UERT`s representativeness and authority to act as spokesperson of the Tajik employers. Activities will focus on helping EOs in developing reliable mechanisms for identifying members` needs and changes in this respect; analyzing the market for services and potential competition; and assessing their own capacities to offer services, and design measures to improve these capacities. The ILO will continue providing support to trade unions (FITUT) to strengthen their capacities in promoting and implementing the DW agenda in the country, with a special focus on informal workers. Training will be provided for FITU on workers rights and international labor standards, further modernization of trade unions, strengthening TU s representation and promoting collective agreements in informal economy and collective bargaining on wages. The ILO will continue supporting the workers education and information network to ensure its proper functioning. The ILO will also provide technical and methodological support in revising the Labour Code of the Republic of Tajikistan. Employers (UERT) and workers (FITUT) involved on a regular basis in discussing and decision-making on the world of work issues via the RTC Effective working of the RTC: operation of the RTC secretariat; number of meetings per year; increase of women representation in RTC Labour Code revised in accordance with international labour standards Number of new and/or improved services developed and introduced by EOs for its members
12 12 Number of new collective agreements signed and new members of trade unions organized, including in the informal sector; at least 35% of new members are women. Outcome 1.2: Strengthened capacities of tripartite constituents to reform wage systems and wage policies through social dialogue In the framework of the previous Programme, the ILO assisted the tripartite constituents by developing a baseline study on wages in different sectors of economy and providing recommendations and training of tripartite constituents on wage issues. Further support will be provided in developing a study on wage policy mapping in Tajikistan, with specific focus on the following areas: minimum wages, collective bargaining on wages and wage statistics. A working group on wages will be established by the national stakeholders, recommendations for supporting the formulation of comprehensive wage policies will be developed. The constituents will deepen the understanding of the basic principles of wage determination through training on wage policies and collective bargaining on wages. The ILO will facilitate the knowledge sharing on wage-related issues by introducing international experience on wage policy formulation. A mechanism of monitoring and collection of wage data disaggregated by sex integrated in the general labour market information system Tripartite constituents regularly involved in discussing wage policies reforms, through the established working group ILO recommendations reflected in the formulation of a new comprehensive wage policy Number of national wage experts (disaggregated by sex) from the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment of Population, UERT and FITUT that demonstrate an improved knowledge of wage issues as a result of the ILO training. Outcome 1.3 Increased capacities of the government and social partners to implement the National Action Plan on the elimination of the worst forms of child labour The ILO IPEC strategy is to support the implementation of the first National Action Plan on the elimination of the worst forms of child labour in Tajikistan through the following areas of interventions: (i) increasing the knowledge base on child labour issues through the first National Child Labour Survey; (ii) exploring the linkages between child labour and youth employment; (iii) fostering South-South Cooperation in the region. Capacity building will be provided for national institutions that have major responsibilities for the implementation of the National Action Plan on child labour, to ensure effective leveraging and transfer of knowledge, skills and tools. Further support will be given to implementation of the Child Labour Monitoring system. The ILO/IPEC will facilitate knowledge-sharing on child labour issues and documentation of good practices.
13 13 The results of the National Child Labour Survey reflected in constituents recommendations for implementation of the NAP on child labour Gender-responsive strategies to combat child labour and promote youth employment implemented and integrated in national policy development framework Number of good practices on child labour identified by national constituents and documented for further replication. Outcome 1.4: Formalization in selected sectors of informal economy promoted by constituents ILO activities will focus on improving awareness among the tripartite constituents on the need to promote registered employment and drivers of formalization, targeting micro- and small enterprises in selected economic sectors and categories of workers in informal employment conditions. This will be done by organizing a series of seminars and round-tables at national and regional level, where some of the aims will be to increase representation among informal TU workers through expansion or establishment of new TUs in the informal sector. Policy advice, technical cooperation and capacitybuilding will promote formalization through enterprise, employment, labour and social policies, in close cooperation with the social partners, which will be supported in promoting legislation and regulations that encourage formalization in selected sectors of informal economy. The ILO will provide support to strengthen the capacity of organizations of employers and of workers to reach out to business and workers in the selected informal sectors, in order to promote effective transitions to formality. Number of women and men staff of targeted institutions who demonstrate an improved knowledge and skills on the issues of formalization Number/% of constituents organizations that have established and trained a focal point on formalization Number of gender-responsive political initiatives and/or practical measures taken by constituents, aiming to facilitate the transition to formality in selected informal sectors. Priority 2: Promoting decent employment opportunities for men and women including returning labour migrants Outcome 2.1: National legal and policy frameworks improved in the field of employment promotion The ILO Employment Policy Convention (C122) is ratified in Tajikistan and every two years an employment promotion programme is adopted to promote employment, reduce unemployment and support disadvantaged groups in their search for employment. The State Labour Market Development Strategy till 2020 was adopted, as well as a Job Creation Programme for However a regular assessment of the policies effectiveness has to be introduced and the ILO assistance could have as its
14 14 ground a review of application both of the Law on the Employment of Population and of other measures to promote employment. Based on the results of the review new types of measures for employment promotion could be proposed, with specific focus on disadvantaged groups. A gender-responsive review of application of the policy measures and the Law on the Employment of Population conducted by the ILO and validated by constituents Number of the employment promotion measures proposed by the government. Outcome 2.2: National LMI and analysis system improved The ILO strategy is to support establishing an LMI system partly on a regional basis - that will better inform on the implementation of labour market policies and programmes through accurate, timely and up-to-date labour market information in Tajikistan. The system should be operated and maintained by specially trained LMI Unit staff of the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment of Population, specialists of the Agency of Statistics under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, as well as the PES staff. The ILO will provide support and guidance to the setting-up of a Technical Advisory Group, consisting of relevant actors that produce and utilise labour market information. Training will be organized for the staff of the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment of Population, PES, Agency of Statistics on compiling, assembling, analysing and disseminating labour market information. The existing labour statistics concepts and definitions and data collection tools will be reviewed in line with international standards, in view of appropriate employment and labour market policy formulation. Upon the request of the constituents, the ILO will also support implementation of a pilot labour force survey, in line with ILO standards. Information in the system is updated not less than twice a year Number of staff of targeted national institutions that demonstrate and apply new competencies as a result of the ILO training (disaggregated by sex) Number of labour market indicators reviewed in line with international standards. Outcome 2.3: Decent employment opportunities for youth increased through skills development and entrepreneurial training The ILO strategy will be based on the strengthening the capacity of policy-makers and practitioners to design and implement evidence-based and gender sensitive policies and programmes on youth employment, and on delivering results through the establishment of partnerships and strategic alliances on youth employment. The involvement of public institutions, the social partners and other actors will help create synergies and replicate effective delivery models. This will be achieved through establishing
15 15 a regional platform for cooperation and knowledge sharing based on peer reviews on youth employment and participation of the ILO tripartite constituents in Tajikistan in this network. The activities carried out in the framework of this network will be aiming to strengthen national capacities of policy makers to analyze the youth labour market as well as design and evaluate employment policies and strategies for youth employment, taking into account specific gender concerns of your women and men; manage knowledge development initiatives and tools development; and mobilize political support in favour of evidence-based and cost-effective youth employment interventions. The ILO will also support the efforts aimed at improvement of the link of education and training to decent work, and matching the provision of skills to the needs of the labour market, focusing on demand-driven training, which is relevant and of good quality. Number of programmes and measures for young job seekers designed with the technical support of the ILO Number of young men and women (disaggregated) who got access to decent work opportunities with support of the measures developed with the support of the ILO. Priority 3: Improving working conditions and enhancing the coverage of social protection Outcome 3.1: The OSH national programmes and systems are further improved and labour inspection is modernized Productive and competitive enterprises are essential for decent work, ensuring safety, security and well-being of workers and respect of their rights. Enterprises, which are able to survive, expand and grow, are able to create and sustain jobs. Decent work, in turn, is a prerequisite for enterprises to sustain and continuously improve their productivity and competitiveness in order to remain viable. Enterprises, which place a high priority on the safety and well-being of workers, respect their rights and engage them fully in the production process, are much better positioned to take on the challenges of global markets, increasing competition, and ever more demanding customers. The ILO will continue providing a systematic approach to improve a national OSH system, by advocating the creation of an OSH tripartite body, the implementation of the National OSH programme for and the update of the national OSH profile. The activities will also contribute to the application of the ratified Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81), and Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155), as well as promoting the Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129), the Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184), and the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187). The relevant national legislation will be reviewed in line with international labour standards and the labour inspection (Sluzhba) will be modernized accordingly. The ILO will provide capacity-building for the LI staff, including on management of labour inspection activities and
16 16 the system of investigation, recording and reporting of occupational accidents. A special attention will be given to strengthening the role of social dialogue in addressing OSH and LI issues. National OSH profile is updated Number/% of LI staff and OSH specialists from social partners institutions trained and demonstrate an improved knowledge and skills on OSH issues Number of legislative and institutional changes introduced in the fields of OSH and labour inspection Progress noted in the application of the ILO Convention No.81. Outcome 3.2: Social security schemes improved through introduction of minimum social guarantees (SPF) The 101 st ILC in 2012 adopted Recommendation concerning national floors of social protection (Recommendation no 202 (2012)). At the national level, promotion of R202 is followed by implementation of national SPF through national dialogue. Tajikistan was selected as the first country in Central Asia to initiate the SPF at national level and tripartite constituents are the core national stakeholders for initiating the national SPF process. Capacity building for enabling tripartite constituents to design, implement, monitor and evaluate national SPF will be facilitated through knowledge sharing and technical consultations. In Tajikistan, national discussion on the SPF started with introduction and promotion of R202 and subsequent SPF training. At the same time, national dialogue was extended to international agencies (both UN and international financial institutions) and started to be included in the agendas at the Development Coordination Council (DCC). The first important step is to include the SPF in the national development framework, including the forthcoming Strategy of the Development of Social Protection and the Strategy of the Improvement of Population Living Standards for Secondly, the SPF rapid assessment analysis will be prepared to enhance national dialogue on social protection and eventually to lead the national stakeholders to engage into more technically focused discussions. The ILO will facilitate knowledgesharing on social protection by introducing good international practices on the SPF implementation. Technical advice on social security schemes under the SPF coverage will be provided for supporting the implementation of national SPF. Principles of SPF included in the national development framework National stakeholders involved in discussing social protection reforms, through the established SPF working group Relevant international practices on SPF used for implementing the national SPF A mid-term Strategy of the Development of Social Protection developed by constituents.
17 Outcome 3.3: Protection of the labour rights of migrant workers is improved. 17 Tajikistan has ratified both the Migration for Employment Convention (Revised), 1949 (No. 97) and the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143), as well as the United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and their Families, In the context of the recent integration of the Migration Service in the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment of the Population, the ILO will support the capacity building of the Migration Service to give full effect to these instruments, with a view, in particular, to prevent recruitment for migration in abusive or exploitative conditions. This will include improved services to potential migrants, including full information on their rights and obligations in countries of employment. The application of the relevant provisions of the Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181) will be considered. Number of staff, disaggregated by sex, of the Migration Service that demonstrate an improved knowledge and skills as a result of the ILO training Number of introduced gender-responsive measures and tools, aimed at raised awareness of potential migrants on their rights and obligations Preparatory work started for ratification of Convention No IV. Implementation, monitoring and evaluation The Decent Work Country Programme was developed with direct involvement of ILO tripartite constituents in Tajikistan. Key priorities of the Programme, outcomes, indicators and implementation strategies were developed and agreed upon in process of technical consultations with experts of the ILO Decent Work Technical Support and Country Office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia (DWT/CO) in Moscow. The DWCP will be implemented in Tajikistan by tripartite constituents jointly with the ILO DWT/CO in Moscow and supported by the ILO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, ILO Headquarters technical units in Geneva, and the International Training Centre in Turin as appropriate. To achieve a strategic partnership and reach the key outcomes of the Programme, cooperation with UN agencies in Tajikistan and other international organisations will be continued. The ILO National Coordinator in Tajikistan will ensure the overall coordination and better coherence of national and international efforts aimed at efficient implementation of DWCP. Pursuant to the established procedures, a tripartite advisory group composed of the experienced specialists nominated by the Ministry of Labour, Migration and Employment of Population of the Republic of Tajikistan, Union of the Employers of the Republic of Tajikistan, Federation of Independent Trade Unions and the ILO will be set up to ensure successful implementation of the Programme. Following gender equality principles, the ILO encourages the constituents to ensure a gender-balanced composition of a tripartite advisory group. The ILO will provide support to DWCP implementation depending on availability of technical expertise, financial and human resources. Some specific deliverables under the DWCP will be supported by the Finnish-funded technical cooperation project "From the Crisis towards Decent and
18 18 Safe Jobs - Phase II", , funded by the Finnish Government; G20 Training Strategy project, , funded by the Government of the Russian Federation; and the project on Combating child labour in Central Asia - commitment becomes action, , funded by the German Government. Local resource mobilization for DWCP implementation is a shared responsibility of the ILO and the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan. Based on the envisaged outcomes and available resources, the tripartite constituents and ILO DWT/CO will develop DWCP Implementation Plan, which will be revised and/or adjusted by a tripartite advisory group, if necessary, to ensure maximum efficiency of the Programme. Internal review of the progress will be done on an annual basis by a tripartite advisory group. Any changes and amendments to the Programme are made in line with the legislative procedures, and should be included in a separate Protocol, agreed upon by all the parties to the Programme. The Protocol should be considered as an integral part of the DWCP. The Programme will take effect upon completion of internal official procedures by the Republic of Tajikistan. The DWCP document will be published in the state language, as well as Russian and English on the constituents websites and the website of the ILO Decent Work Technical Support and Country Office for Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
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