u ss ATOKiC ETrnGY C O ~ a s S I O T J S b ISOTOPES DIVISION 1'. B. O r r 0R1\IL

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "u ss ATOKiC ETrnGY C O ~ a s S I O T J 3 4 4 S b 0548425 9 ISOTOPES DIVISION 1'. B. O r r 0R1\IL- -3271"

Transcription

1

2

3 0R1\IL ISOTOPES DIVISION 1'. B. O r r OAK RIDGE l'tational TJUOlUTORY Oak Ridge, Tennessee ogerated by UNiON C B I D E CORPOIUTION for t h e u ss ATOKiC ETrnGY C O ~ a s S I O T J S b

4

5 n A B S T ~... ~T T~~OUUCTION lwsuiim OF m TABORATORY worn UESCRZPTION OF WORK WITH FISSION PRODUCTS... TUBORATORY EXPERDENTS WI ITX STABLE2 ET;EtIENTS. Page I ~ROCEI)T CONCLUSIONS AND I ~ C O ~ ~ N D ~ I O N S ACrnOVT;DGrn~ T METHODS OF KNALYSIS... DISCUSSZON... 6

6

7 a c 4 Based on 8, h a l f - l i f e of years, a cal-cul-ated weight of g of L9n$/'703 i z i 9 g of fission-produced raree a r t h and- <americium oxides i m s s e p a r a t e d i n two rims by c a t i o n exchange (Dowex 501J-X4 r e s i n, 80 mesh), w i t h die&li.yylen?tria.minepentaacetic a c i d s o l u t i o n as t h e elmixi;. Prom.ethium, compu.ted as the element, was p r e s e n t Lo Yne e x t x n t of aboul 23.5 wt; $ i n?ne s'c,:x-t;ingmixture xnd was i n c r e a s e d t o 98 w t $ i n t h e firs-t; run and t o 99 w t $ Ln the second, w i t h y i e l d s of 58.2 w t $I and 61.8 w t $ r e s p e c t i v e l y. A decofitaxination f a c - t o r of 2.7 X l o 9 w a s r e a l i z e d i n t h e r e moval o americium from t h e product. This i s t h e highes-i;decontamination f a c t o r yeti achieved f o r t h i s s e p a r a t i o n, whichw i. 1 1 be used. a t ORNL. Procedures, 3 modified e l u t i o n cixve, methods of a a a l y s i s, losses, m a t e r i a l balaoces, and a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e equipment a r e gi-ven. In a d d i t i o n, a possibl-e col.ori:atetric a n a l y s i s scheme ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) i s given f o r deterxkuiag t h e p r o p o r t i o n s of neodymium and p r o n e t h i m in a ~01uLio1i. INTRODUCTION I n 1-959t h e I s o t o p e s D i v i s i o n of ORHL used a n i o n exchange procedure t o produce about 20 k i l o c u r i e s of c i, t r i c : a c i d a t ph 3 was t h e eluant.' and Nd.203, about 3%; h$4103r & m a activity. a p p m x L m t e l y 65% p w e ; 0.2 M - The b p u x ' i t i e s rermining were S ~ 0 3 about 5 to a$; and about 40 mc of Eu With i n t e r e s t s t i m u l a t e d i n t h e use o f Pap703 i n x-ray sources, work was s t a r t e d a t ORNL toward developing ne7w and more e f f i c i e n t i o n exchange processes for t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n of prometiziwn. Expei-hents were done with st;a?ule r a r e e a r t h s, using as f e e d approxirnat&ly equal m i x t u r e s of 14 rare earths and yttrium. The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of each rare e a r t h w a s about '7 w-t; This work l e d t o t h e p i l o t - p l a n t process d e s c r i b e d i n tliis r e p o r t. IR. S. P r e s s l y e t al., P u r i f i c a t i o n of K i l o c u r i e Q u a n t i t i e s of Ym'"' by I o n ~ e h a n g e, O R N L - ~ C(JULY ~ ~ ~5, XI). I - $*

8 2 The systems dcscribed.. belotvrhad thc followi.ng condiiions i n common: 1. The r e s i n volume of' t h e column was 1800 ml 'l'hc flow r a t e was about 1 l i L e r / h r * 'The r a c e - e a r t h loadlng was one-tnird of the r e s i n volume. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e e l u a n t s and t h e r e s i n s follows; a l l col- UjiJflS were operated a t 75"~.Imporiant observations are a l s o included: 1. One-half perc e n t diethyl.enetriaminepen-ta,ace t i c a c i d (DYPA} s o l u t i o n a-l p l 7.5; 1.2% cross-linked hydrogen-form Dowex r e s i n, 60 mesh. 2. One-half percent UTPA sol-ution a t ph 7.5; 4% cross-linked, hydrogenform Dowex 50W. A b c t t e r separatioii i m s obkiined w i t h t h e charge in r e s i n, apparently due t o l e s s r e s i n d l f f u s i o n One-half percent DTPA s o l u t i o n a t pli 5.5; form Dowex 5014, 60 mesh. 4. 4% cross-linked, hydrogen- One-half percent e t h y l r n e d i. ~ ~ i n e t e t r a a c e t iacc i d (bdta) solution a t I+$ cross-linked Dowex 50W r e s i n, 60 mesh, copper foim. ph '7.5; 5. C i t r i c acid. sol.ution, 0.2 l4, pii 2.9; 4$ cross-linked, hyds-ogen-form Dowex SOW r e s i n, 60 mesh. 6. percent c i t r i c a c j d s o l u t i o n a t pii 4-5; 476 cross-linked, in]d.i-ugen-form Dowex 50W r e s i n, 60 mesh. Accorilling t o resu.l.ts obtained from t h e use of systems 1-3, i t w a s determined t h a t E'TPA changes t h e ordinary order of e l u t i o n o f t h e r a r e earths. By u s e of c i L r i c acid., t h e y arc e l u t e d i n t h e reverse order of atomic number, lutetium corning o f f first; and y t t r i u m havia5 an apparent aloruic nurfl'ber of 65.5, e1ul;in.g between tci-bium and dysprosium. 'i'he f o l - lowing i s a l i s t of t h e e l u t i o n order f o r a DTPA system:. Lute tiwr? 1 Dysprosium 6 2. iiohxl1.m. 7. 'Terbium 3. Erbium 8. Europium 4. Thulium 9. Gadolinium 14. Cerium 5. YGLerbium S&rn3L"irn 15. Lanthanum II LO. 1.1c Yttri1m 12. Neodymiw 1..3, P r a e s e o ~. i i m F o r system 5, extrme1.y 5ood results were obiained a t t h e l i s h i end, with complzte breaks between Sm and Nd, P r and Ce, :e and ia. 'R. D. iiansen and. Stanley Chaberek,.Io Excharge Separation of Y-Ltrium fi:(x R a r e Earths w-i.lii U s... e t h y l e n e t r i ~ ~. n e p e n t a a c e t ", Acid lc._ I- D O C ~ n e i z a l. Co

9 d 3 h "he r e s u l t s of t h e work w i t h s t a b l e r a r e eal-ths inhicxled t h e f o l - l o w i n g: 1. Promethi-im of high puri.l;y could possribly be obtained f r o m low- c o n c e n t r a t i o n f e e d (less than 1.76 promethium) i n f x o passes, by t h e fol- loiring procedure : ( a ) One-half p e r c e n t UTPA solu-lion a t ph 5.5; 4% cross-linked, hydrogen-forin ow ex 5 0 r~e s i n ; co1umn temperature, 7 5 t o 80'~ By t h i s process, 3+i.trium w i l l b e e l u t e d between -tro.ukleson?e eu.e ropium and prornetnium. This add-ittonal element Ehoid.d pejlrnrit a l l t h e europium and mosi; of t h e s,.tmarium Lu be eliijged b e f o r e t h e promethium s t a r t s t o el_urte. A shaq s e p a r a t i o n of promethium and neod.ymim should also be mad.e. P (b) 2. A secon.d. pass Lhrough the c o l ~ ~ m ( a.f t e r. reconverting t o t h e hydrogen f o r m ), wit'n 0.2 M c i t r i c acid at pii 2.9 -to 3.0 and 45 c r o s s - l i n k e d Dowex 50M r e s i n a-i; 7 5 t o 80 C, should remove tne y t t r i u m and mos-l of t h e remaining scmmriurfland neodymium, From t h e renxxhder of -the 20 kil-ocixies of promethium produced II 1-959,? promethium of high p u r i t y should be ohtaified iil one pass tnrough an i o n exchaogc:. resin.,w i t h t h e DT'PA solutj-on. a t ph 5.5 and a temperature of 70 t o mot. Since t'ae or&er of e l u t i o n of yttrium and t h e o t h e r r a r e earths was changed i n t h e DTPA system, it i s hoped tinat t h e e l u t i o n o r d e r of Am2" i n t h e promethium feed sol.i.xt3.on w i l l. be changed a l s o. DESCRlPTION OF WOiX WITH FISSION PIiODUCTS D e s c r i p t i o n of Equipment. - With t h e exception of the preheaters and the c o n t a i n e r f o r the eluant, s o l u t i o n, all t h e equipment was i n s i d e a s h i e l d e d manipulator c e l l. Eluant Container. l i n e was used. -A Prelneater f o r Elua,nt l i t e r polyethylene b o t t l e w i t h bottom d r a i n -A g1a,ss t u b e (SO i n. long, w i t h a n i n s i d e diameter of 20 mi) was w e d w i t h a draw-off l i n e 26 i n. from t h e bottom. A 1 - l i t e r expansion f l a s k was l o c a t e d a t tine top, and a n i n l e t l i n z w a s Located a t t h e bottom. r i n g s and had tixi Tlie bottom h a l f of t h e t u b e w a s f i l l e d w i t h Raschig e l - e c t r i c a l h e a t i n g element wound on t h e 0iirtsi.de.

10 4 Vessel f o r Providing t h e Column Head. - A 500-mL round f l a s k with one t o a vacuum l i n e, a second t o t h e crude fin203 t h r e e o u t l e t s was used: dissol-ver f l a s k, and a t h i r d Lo t h e i o n exchange column. This f l a s k was used as a v e s s e l f o r t h e f e e d s o l u t i o n and as a vacuum t r a n s f e r v e s s e l from t h e d i s s o l v e r f l a s k. Ion Exchange Column. -A diameter of 1 5 rm was used. supported t h e r e s i n bed. jacketed c o l m i 4 f-i; 10% wi-ui a n i n s i d e A coarse, s l i i t e r e d - f i l t e r disk. a t t h e bottom I'he c o l m i has a capacity of 200 m l of hydrogen- form Dovex 5Od-X4. r e s i n, which was di-;--classlfied on an. 80-mesh screen. Flow r a t e of t h e e l u a n t w a s s e t a t about 200 r l / h r by use of a stop- cock on t h e column discharge. means of h o t water. The 'iempei-ature was held t o about 75 C by Dissolver Flask f o r t h e Cru.d.e Pm A 500-rd Erlenmeyer f l a s k. was used t o d i s s o l v e the crude oxide i n aqueous IiicI.. PROCEDURE A flow diagram f o r t h e process i s shown i n F i g. 1. Feed m a t e r i a l f o r t h e col-wnn w a s a p o r t i o n of t h e T%2O3 s e p a r a t e d at OFUL i n 1959 and was processed i n iwo runs. originally Analysis of t h e f e e d rm,terial i s shown below: ilpproxinmte Activi 'iy E Lcment pm '76 m e / d Am ~ About 6 rnc ~ c... X 10' ml_-' coimnts min"" Tihe rela'irivr r a r e - z a r t h and a ~ n e r i e i u ~ contents i f o r t h e iwo runs a r e sho>/ir ' ~ J c ~ o w : ---.I Fm203 b? 0 3 SmzO3, Ed203 Ru.n 1. ~. 22.6% g 22.6% 5.9$ g 5.9$ 71.2% g 4.00c Q Run %.. I g g g p

11 ITER EXPANSION FLASK i MOP1 IPU I..?'<TORC E L L Ei l l 4 N T PREH EATER, 50in. X 20 mrrl ID COLLUMkl ELIJEMT (DTPA) FEED, U T E R VESSEL I WAY STOPCOCK HEAT1 RIG COI 1- I O, 200-mlVOCUMC TO 110-v VARlAC H 2 0 IN --HOT ION CHAMi3Eil DISSOLVER FLASK F i g. 1. Flowsheet f o r 1k?47 P u r i f i c a t i o n rrom AUI*";. The crude oxide was d i s s o l v e d i n a 500-ml Erlenmeyer fl.ask i n su fi- c i e n t IICL t o bring t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of H C l i n t.he f i n a l solution t o l e s s t h a n 0.1.N. I The a c i d c o n c e n t r a t i o n was kept low i n order to rainimzze the s p r e a d of the rare-earth band during adsorption on the r e s i n. A f t e r dissolution., the crude proaethiuin solution was t r a n s f e r r e d Lo tlie column-head. vessel- by vacu-lun and t h e n adsorbed ora the hydrogen-form Dowex 5GW-X4 r e s i n i n khe coli.mn a t f u l l column flow (abou.t 250 ml/hr). The c o l i m w a s tineil washed with abou% 250 irnl of ws-ler t o remove excess a c i d from the system. E l x t i o n was done w i t h 0.5$ DTPA, the p H having been a d - j u s t e d t u 5.0 w-ith NHc,OH. Flow rate.was set at 200 n f l / l i n r ~ The discharge l i n e of the c o l m was a small-bore Tygon t u b e whjch penetrated an i o n chanber, TwhiCIi, i n t u r n, was connected i n t o an el.ec'r,r.ometer-recor~~r system to i n d i c a t e

12 6 and record any a c t i v i t j - e s as they were e l u t e d. Collecbion of 100-ml f r a c - t i o n s w a s begun when t h e electrometer f i r s t i n d i c a t e d a r i s e i n radioac- (This w a s due t o E I J. ' ~ ~ - ~ ~ '.. ) tivity. Each 100-ml f r a c t i o n w a s analyzed Tor Am241, Tpni147, 'When t h e a n d. i;;u peak was reached, samples of Lhe f i r s t and l a s t f r a c t i o n s of 1;he peak were analyzed spectrographically, by use of a containmeilt technique developed at, OKNL by t h e s t a f f of t h e Analy'iical Chemistry Di- All frac-lions w i t h promethium p u r i t y above 99% were combined as one product. another product. F r a c t i o n s of approximately 80% p u r i t y were combined as Each 100-rl frac-llon w a s a c i d i f i e d w i t h l.5 m l of concentrated HCJ., t o brzak t h e DTPA com-piex and was t h e n passed t b r o w h d r y - c l a s s i f i e d 60- mesh Dowex 50N-X4 r e s i n i n a column 10 i n. long and 20 m i n insid.e aneter. dj- Whcn a l l f r a c t i o n s were thus adso?-bed, t h e coluinn was washed with 300 ml. of d.isti?.l.ed w a k r t o remove excess DTPA and. H C 1, The promethi.im band w a s s t r i p p c d from t h e resin with 1 l i t e r o f 6 11 I HC1; t h i s was followed by a 200-ml-water wash. T'ne PmC1..3 so?_if,ion was t h e n evaporated- t o dryriess on a hot p l a t e and fumed w i t h 50 ml. o f 70% HN03 and s m a l l amoimts of 820;? t o d e s t r o y fiiies from 'ihe r e s i n. 'The residue, P m ( N O 3 ) 3, was filmed twice %-it11 50 irzl of concentlated i i C 1 i.n order t o reconveri it to PmCJ.3. Then it was dil-uted t o 500 rial approximately 1 N HCI., in wii."ch form t h e product was ready f o r s a l e. c iii Ana-, l y s i s of the two products from run 2 i s given below: Percei11;age of Fm Percentage of Sm 99 < Percentage of Nd I'e Y C e n tage of S t a r t i n g Ma, t e r i.a1 Am2 4.1 ~ l ~ Content, Content < 1-6.l. 8 Nil Nil Nil Nil 1- Promethiuml[+-_? T h i s i s o t o p e was d e t e mimd by l i q u i d - sc i n t i l l a t i o n b e t a counting an.d. end-window f l o w 4 y p e p r o p o r t i o n a l counting. ~ ~~ 3J. A. Norris, 'ThP <b-al_ysisof Promethiimi-lA7, 26, 1961). AnaJ.ysis 01th~Cli ( A p r. p

13 of t h e f l n a l product was done by spectrographic a n a l y s i s, w i t h g r z q h i t e eleeti?od.es. The weighed s~mpl.ewas analyzed f o r sanariixn and neotipium, but n o t for prome-lhium; t h e promethiim was detenxined- by &i.:f%"erence s( - Y'his Promethium-146. i s o t o p e w a s iden:tified by using a milj.ticharuze1 spectrometer, w i - L h t h e 0.46-, a.nd 1.02-Mev 0.'74-,,~~SIZUL"Lrays being iden.- t i f i e d is1 order tv d e t e c t it. The arml.ysis w a s q u a l i t a t i v e. ticha,nnel g m a spectrometer. The 970-kev and Mev :EuL5' gamma, rays ~ u r o p i u t ~ ~ ~TIE. assay for were i d e n t i f i e d. Rmericiun Detem-iix~tionof E ~ Pw a~ s made - -by-~ using ~ a~ m a~ t h i s i s o t o p e ',as mde by means of alpha p r o p o r t i o n a l counting and a multichsnnel gla.rm spectrometer. 60-kev gmmd radiat,ion was i d e n t i f i e d. The DISCIJSSION The DTPA e l u t i o n and t h e use of Dowex 50W-X/* r e s i n (hydrogen form) exceed.ed. expectations f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f americium from prc~~nei't;lliwn. These experiments showed t h a t high-purity promethj.urn can be made a,nd t h a t l i t t l e o r no americium will reimin as a cont,aminarut, The arnericim was s e p a r a t e d from promethium by t h e change i n t h e o r d e r of e l u t i o n of mericium. In 3 system using 0.2 M - c i t r i c acid., the 8 m e r i c i m i s elu-ted. along w i t h t h e proinetixi.un. In.the DTPA system, wi- e r i c i m i s e l u t e d along w i t h t h e europium, which. charges t h e order of e i u - t i o u s o t h a t the americium no longer e l u t e s like el-emeilt 61 b u t Like element 63. A curve showing o d y t h e ord-er of el.ti.tion i s given i n F i g a 2. 'This graph shows only t h e a c t i v i t i e s present; s t a b l e neodpliwn- a.rxi s a a, rium are n o t sho~.rn. It i s hoped t h a t t i e c o s t of s e p a r a t i o n and p u r i f i c a t i o n can be reduc?d 3s a result of t h e s e experiments, s o t n a t large q u a n t i t i e s may be rmde s v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h on t h e chemistry of promethium as wel.l a s f o r t h e production of large-scale x-ray sources. t h a t adequate m-ount s of h i g h - p i x i t y FYn147 r e s e a r c h on t h e metal. h..rkrierracjre, i.-t; i s hoped rmj~tnus become avail.a''le for

14 ~ 8 UNCLASSIFIED ORNL-LR-DWG i i P_147 I ml FRACT ONS Fig. 2. Curve Showing Only the Order of El-ution of and Fm'-"/. The fol1ovin.g table shows Vile mterhl. balance for run 2. Cu.ri e s Percentage yrnl47 staiiing material Product, 99% pure 552. h Prociuct, 75% pure fiL47 ia 3m fractions Pm147 in Ed fractions Losses ?io d5fficully was encountered with radiation-induced decomposition of the DTPA during processing. Bowever, some high-activiiy Pm''+7 frac- tions were hcld for about two weeks before conversion to the chloride,

15 9 and a t.the end of t h i s p e r i o d a p i & p r e c i p i t a t e w8s found. It w a s w r y s o l u b l e in small. <mounts of I-ICl, i n d i c a t i n g that i t w a s n o t a UTPA precipitatee A J - t h o m it was not i n v e s t i g a t e d, the p r e c i p i t a t e may h a v e been a bi3sic s a l t of prorrietbium. T h e procedure f o r s e p a r a t i n g &?47 by use of M1PA elwmt and Dcmex 50d-X4- r e s i n (hydrogen form) resulted i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of 99%pure.Pm147. from T h i s process gxve t h e b e s t s e p a r a t i o n to d a t e. During t h e work it was noticed t h a t i n d a y l i g h t t h e purir'ied neo- dymium and promethiwn sol.utfons were lavender-pink from a, mercury-vapor L m p,. Ilowev~er,i n t h e.light; the neodymium soliulion w a s dark blue, w h i l e t h e promethiwn so1irl;ion r e t a i n e d i t s Lavend-er-pink colore This i n f o m a - t i o n may be useful t o -those who need t o q u a l i - b a t i v e l y analyze solukions. tha-t c o n t a i n t h e s e elements. N o work p was charge resic-. done t o determine t h e r a d i a t i o n s t a b i l i t y 09 %he i o n ex- The a u t h o r expresses h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o 11. A. Parker arid 3. A. Norcis, of the A n a l y t i c a l Chemistry Division, f o r t h e aimlyt3c:aj work. a

16

17 UC-l+ ImEm-liL DISTRIBWL IOW OH31, Chemistry TID4500 ( l / t h e d. ) 1. C. E. L a s o n 83. E. 11. k r e e 2. Biology Library 84. R. E. Bigger:; 3-4. Central Research Library 85. C. E eldman 5. Heactor Division TAbrary 86. Donald Jacobs ,ahoratory Records Department, 87. W. J. Idaxtin 41. Ldboratory Records, ORNL R.C 88. F. L. Moore 4 2. ORNL - Y-12 Techrlical Lri.braZy 13. S. A. Rey-ml..ds Doclummt Reference Section 50. C. U. Su-sano 43. P a t e n t OTi ice (M. J. Skjmier) 91. J. C. V h i t e 44. Laboratory S h i f t Supervisor 92. E. E. Ketcheri 45+A. M. Weinberg E. Lamb 46. J. A. Swartout 95. Boyd Weavqr (Y,12) 47. J. P. Murray (K-25) 96. P. M. Tan-tz 4 8. ii. G. JOT~ZLII(Y-1%) 5 7.$1. J. Martin 4 9. E. H. Taylor 98. G. E. Creek 50. S. C. Lind. 99. B. J. P4assey 51. A. H. S n e l l E. MeHenry 52. A. BolLaender P. R. O r r 53. G. :E. Boyd 112. C. Ta, O t t i ~. g e ~ v 54.. K. Z. Morga;n 113. G. W. Parker 5 5. B. H. Kete1.1.e 114. H. A. Parker 56. A. 13. B r o s i E. E, P i e r c e 5 7. J. A. Morris (Y-12) 11.G. J. C. Posey 5 8. J. IE. Frye, Jr R. S. PressLy 59. J. A. Lane 118. S. J. liinshaw P. S. Baker 119. R. A. Robinson E. E. Beauchamp 120. H. T. R u s s e l l /4. T. A. Dutl-er 121. R. 14. Schaicii 75. F. N. Case F. V. Williams 76. B. F. Early 123. E, 1. Wya;tt E. Ramsey 124. E. G. Af fel J. H. G i l l e t t e 125, K. W. Hoff. 82. J. A. Jones EXTEmAI, DISTRIBUTION 126. Division of Research a n d IIeveI-opment, AEC, OR John I r v i n e, MTT Given d i s t r i b u t i o n a:; shown i n TID-4500 ( 1 7 t h ed. ) und.err Chemi st 1-y c a t e gory

For personal use only

For personal use only EXCELLENT RESULTS FROM EARLY METALLURGICAL TEST WORK ON YANGIBANA SAMPLES Hastings Rare Metals Limited ASX Code: HAS Level 25, 31 Market Street Sydney NSW 2000 PO Box Q128 Queen Victoria Building NSW 1225

More information

Warm Up: Using your periodic table, answer the following quetsions

Warm Up: Using your periodic table, answer the following quetsions Warm Up: Using your periodic table, answer the following quetsions 1. Element 21's state 2. Number of metalloids 3. Number of liquids 4. Element 4 is a metal/nonmetal/metalloid. 5. Order from least to

More information

ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND

ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND #3. Acid - Base Titrations 27 EXPERIMENT 3. ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND Carbonate Equilibria In this experiment a solution of hydrochloric

More information

Experiment 5 Preparation of Cyclohexene

Experiment 5 Preparation of Cyclohexene Experiment 5 Preparation of yclohexene In this experiment we will prepare cyclohexene from cyclohexanol using an acid catalyzed dehydration reaction. We will use the cyclohexanol that we purified in our

More information

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder

SUCRALOSE. White to off-white, practically odourless crystalline powder SUCRALOSE Prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications revised at the 63rd JECFA (2004). An ADI of 0-15 mg/kg bw was established at the 37th JECFA

More information

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test

HS 1003 Part 2 HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test HS 1003 Heavy Metals Test 1. Purpose This test method is used to analyse the heavy metal content in an aliquot portion of stabilised hot acetic acid extract by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Note:

More information

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle Cautions Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are toxic and oxidizers and may burn your skin. Nitrogen dioxide gas produced is hazardous if inhaled. Sodium hydroxide is toxic and corrosive and will cause burns

More information

The Bleach Strength Test A Chemical Test Method to Determine the Strength of Sodium Hypochlorite

The Bleach Strength Test A Chemical Test Method to Determine the Strength of Sodium Hypochlorite The Bleach Strength Test A Chemical Test Method to Determine the Strength of Sodium Hypochlorite Background The liquid sodium hypochlorite made by the Continuous Bleach Manufacturing Plant or by other

More information

A Low-cost Rare Earth Elements Recovery Technology

A Low-cost Rare Earth Elements Recovery Technology Physical Sciences Inc. VG13-060 A Low-cost Rare Earth Elements Recovery Technology Prakash B. Joshi Andover, MA Presented at: World of Coal Ash Conference 2013 Lexington, KY 22 April 2013 20 New England

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

The Relationship between ph and Deionized Water

The Relationship between ph and Deionized Water The Relationship between ph and Deionized Water The basics of ph The topic of ph and water has been well documented over the years; however, there is still much confusion about its significance in high

More information

9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot

9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot 9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot In this experiment, you will titrate a sample of pure potassium hydrogen phthalate (Table 10-4) with standard NaOH. A Gran plot will be used to

More information

Distillation of Alcohol

Distillation of Alcohol CHEM 121L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.6 Distillation of Alcohol To learn about the separation of substances. To learn about the separation technique of distillation. To learn how to characterize

More information

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1)

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1) NOTICE: This is a DRAFT of a TAPPI Standard in ballot. Although available for public viewing, it is still under TAPPI s copyright and may not be reproduced or distributed without permission of TAPPI. This

More information

Start of introducing ICP MS method for analyzing water samples for Strontium. November 27, 2014 Tokyo Electric Power Company

Start of introducing ICP MS method for analyzing water samples for Strontium. November 27, 2014 Tokyo Electric Power Company Start of introducing ICP MS method for analyzing water samples for Strontium November 27, 2014 Tokyo Electric Power Company 1. Current Strontium analysis and introduction of various methods Strontium analysis

More information

OXIDATION-REDUCTION TITRATIONS-Permanganometry

OXIDATION-REDUCTION TITRATIONS-Permanganometry Experiment No. Date OXIDATION-REDUCTION TITRATIONS-Permanganometry INTRODUCTION Potassium permanganate, KMnO 4, is probably the most widely used of all volumetric oxidizing agents. It is a powerful oxidant

More information

oxidize 4-Cholesten-3-one

oxidize 4-Cholesten-3-one Isolation of Cholesterol from Egg Yolk Preparation: Bring a hard-boiled egg yolk to lab! Cholesterol (1) is a major component of cell membranes. An egg yolk contains about 200 milligrams of cholesterol,

More information

AOAC Official Method 934.01. Moisture in Animal Feed

AOAC Official Method 934.01. Moisture in Animal Feed Loss on Drying at 95-100 C -Final Action AOAC Official Method 934.01 Moisture in Animal Feed Dry amount of sample containing 2 g dry material to constant weight at 95-100 C under pressure

More information

Instructions and Sequence for Using the Atom Board

Instructions and Sequence for Using the Atom Board Instructions and Sequence for Using the Atom Board Bohr s atomic model is a representation of protons, neutrons, and electrons and their relationships within an atom. Because these particles are so small

More information

105 Adopted: 27.07.95

105 Adopted: 27.07.95 105 Adopted: 27.07.95 OECD GUIDELINE FOR THE TESTING OF CHEMICALS Adopted by the Council on 27 th July 1995 Water Solubility INTRODUCTION 1. This guideline is a revised version of the original Guideline

More information

Standard Operating Procedure for the Determination of Total and Total Dissolved Solids CCAL 13A.2

Standard Operating Procedure for the Determination of Total and Total Dissolved Solids CCAL 13A.2 Standard Operating Procedure for the Determination of Total and Total Dissolved Solids CCAL 13A.2 Cooperative Chemical Analytical Laboratory College of Forestry Oregon State University 321 Richardson Hall

More information

Dissolved and precipitated oxalate

Dissolved and precipitated oxalate Accepted 2005 Process liquors from bleach plants Dissolved and precipitated oxalate Using Ion Chromatography 0 Introduction In bleach plants of pulp mills with a high degree of system closure, there is

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Higher Tier Chemistry 2H SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

Rare Earths - a Bottleneck for future Wind Turbine Technologies?

Rare Earths - a Bottleneck for future Wind Turbine Technologies? Rare Earths - a Bottleneck for future Wind Turbine Technologies? Dr. Matthias Buchert Oeko-Institut e.v., Germany WIND TURBINE SUPPLY CHAIN & LOGISTICS Berlin, 29 th August 2011 Rare Earth Elements LREE:

More information

Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS. July 2014

Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS. July 2014 Analyzing Small Molecules by EI and GC-MS July 2014 Samples Appropriate for GC-MS Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds Rule of thumb,

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

Sample Preparation. Consider the aqueous samples from Lake Nakuru, and discuss the following questions.

Sample Preparation. Consider the aqueous samples from Lake Nakuru, and discuss the following questions. Sample Preparation Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to address questions related to the sample preparation portion of EPA method 525-2 for measurement of organochlorine pesticides by GC-MS. Learning

More information

NEWS RELEASE April 14, 2009 No. 09-04

NEWS RELEASE April 14, 2009 No. 09-04 130 Adelaide St. W., Suite 1901, Toronto, ON M5H 3P5 Tel: (416) 364-4938 Fax: (416 ) 364-5162 office@avalonraremetals.com NEWS RELEASE April 14, 2009 No. 09-04 Avalon announces latest Thor Lake drilling

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

More information

China s Rare-Earth Industry

China s Rare-Earth Industry China s Rare-Earth Industry By Pui-Kwan Tse Open File Report 2011 1042 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey U.S. Department of the Interior KEN SALAZAR, Secretary U.S. Geological Survey

More information

EXPERIMENT 2 THE HYDROLYSIS OF t-butyl CHLORIDE. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride.

EXPERIMENT 2 THE HYDROLYSIS OF t-butyl CHLORIDE. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride. PRINCIPLES: Once the Rate Law for a reaction has been experimentally established the next step is its explanation in terms

More information

XIX. Chemistry, High School

XIX. Chemistry, High School XIX. Chemistry, High School High School Chemistry Test The spring 05 high school Chemistry test was based on learning standards in the Chemistry content strand of the Massachusetts Science and Technology/Engineering

More information

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets

Colorimetric Determination of Iron in Vitamin Tablets Cautions: 6 M hydrochloric acid is corrosive. Purpose: To colorimetrically determine the mass of iron present in commercial vitamin tablets using a prepared calibration curve. Introduction: Iron is considered

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Foundation Tier Chemistry 2F SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0

hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Foundation Tier Chemistry 2F SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version 1.0 hij GCSE Additional Science Chemistry 2 Foundation Tier Chemistry 2F SPECIMEN MARK SCHEME Version.0 Copyright 20 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA)

More information

DEIONIZATION IN A "NUT SHELL"

DEIONIZATION IN A NUT SHELL Deionized Water (DI) DEIONIZATION IN A "NUT SHELL" City water is passed through dark amber colored, caviar sized plastic beads called cation ion exchange resin. The cation resin is in the hydrogen form

More information

Application of a New Immobilization H/D Exchange Protocol: A Calmodulin Study

Application of a New Immobilization H/D Exchange Protocol: A Calmodulin Study Application of a New Immobilization H/D Exchange Protocol: A Calmodulin Study Jiang Zhao; Mei Zhu; Daryl E. Gilblin; Michael L. Gross Washington University Center for Biomrdical and Bioorganic Mass Spectrometry:

More information

NORDIC VOLCANOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 78 05 UNIVERSITY OF ICELANO XRF-SPECTROSCOPY. February '.1 9 7 0

NORDIC VOLCANOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 78 05 UNIVERSITY OF ICELANO XRF-SPECTROSCOPY. February '.1 9 7 0 NORDIC VOLCANOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 78 05 UNIVERSITY OF ICELANO THE ANALYSIS OF RUBIDIUM IN LOW POTASSIUM THOLEIITES BY XRF-SPECTROSCOPY b v February '.1 9 7 0 - 1 - INTRODUCTION The low Rb concentration of

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires, Their Self-Assembly and Application in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Huajun Feng, a Yanmei Yang, a Yumeng You, b Gongping

More information

AG 501-X8 and Bio-Rex MSZ 501(D) Mixed Bed Resin Instruction Manual. Bio-Rad Laboratories, 2000 Alfred Nobel Dr., Hercules CA 94547 LIT205 Rev B

AG 501-X8 and Bio-Rex MSZ 501(D) Mixed Bed Resin Instruction Manual. Bio-Rad Laboratories, 2000 Alfred Nobel Dr., Hercules CA 94547 LIT205 Rev B AG 501-X8 and Bio-Rex MSZ 501(D) Mixed Bed Resin Instruction Manual Bio-Rad Laboratories, 2000 Alfred Nobel Dr., Hercules CA 94547 LIT205 Rev B Introduction Mixed bed resins are used for deionizing water

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride

The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride CHEM 122L General Chemistry Laboratory Revision 2.0 The Synthesis of trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(iii) Chloride To learn about Coordination Compounds and Complex Ions. To learn about Isomerism.

More information

Isolation of Caffeine from Tea

Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Introduction A number of interesting, biologically active compounds have been isolated from plants. Isolating some of these natural products, as they are called, can require

More information

Chapter 21 Appendix: Periodic Table of the Elements

Chapter 21 Appendix: Periodic Table of the Elements This is Appendix: Periodic Table of the Elements, appendix 1 from the book Introduction to Chemistry: General, Organic, and Biological (index.html) (v. 1.0). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons

More information

Determination of an Empirical Formula and % Composition

Determination of an Empirical Formula and % Composition Chem 110 Lab Clark College Determination of an Empirical Formula and % Composition Percent composition will be discussed in your text, lecture and in lab. This concept is often used to determine how many

More information

Expt. 4: ANALYSIS FOR SODIUM CARBONATE

Expt. 4: ANALYSIS FOR SODIUM CARBONATE Expt. 4: ANALYSIS FOR SODIUM CARBONATE Introduction In this experiment, a solution of hydrochloric acid is prepared, standardized against pure sodium carbonate, and used to determine the percentage of

More information

Sample Pretreatment by Digestion

Sample Pretreatment by Digestion Section 4 Sample Pretreatment by Digestion Several procedures require sample digestion before determining total metal content. Digestion uses acid and heat to break organo-metallic bonds and free ions

More information

AP FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS ACIDS/BASES

AP FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS ACIDS/BASES AP FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS ACIDS/BASES 199 D A chemical reaction occurs when 100. milliliters of 0.200molar HCl is added dropwise to 100. milliliters of 0.100molar Na 3 P0 solution. (a) Write the two net

More information

Radium-226, dissolved Radon emanation method (R-1141-76) Parameter and code: Radium-226, dissolved (pci/l): 09511

Radium-226, dissolved Radon emanation method (R-1141-76) Parameter and code: Radium-226, dissolved (pci/l): 09511 Radium-226, dissolved Radon emanation method (R-1141-76) Parameter and code: Radium-226, dissolved (pci/l): 09511 1. Application The method is applicable to any water sample. 2. Summary of method The method

More information

CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006

CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006 Name CHEM 103 Spring 2006 Final Exam 5 June 2006 Multiple Choice (5 points each) Write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question in the blank provided 1. An aqueous

More information

Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques

Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit title: Chemical Laboratory Techniques Unit code: H/601/0355 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 Aim This unit gives learners the opportunity to practise and become proficient in a range of practical skills

More information

Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Capsules

Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Capsules . nal Revision Bulletin Official October 1, 2011 Tamsulosin 1 standard solution, and shake well. Centrifuge at 1500 rpm for 10 min, and use the supernatant, passing it if Tamsulosin Hydrochloride Capsules

More information

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes.

PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. 1 PERIODIC TABLE OF GROUPS OF ELEMENTS Elements can be classified using two different schemes. Metal Nonmetal Scheme (based on physical properties) Metals - most elements are metals - elements on left

More information

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Introduction The classic method of determining calcium and other suitable cations is titration with a standardized solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic

More information

Electron, Proton, and Neutron Table

Electron, Proton, and Neutron Table Electron, Proton, and Neutron Table + Occurence harge Mass (g) Relative Mass Electron found outside of nucleus -1 9.109 10-28 1 Proton found in all nuclei +1 1.673 10-24 1,836 Neutron found in almost all

More information

PET Recycling. Nicholas Robusto Maggie Ifarraguerri Nathaniel Lawton Isabel Hefner

PET Recycling. Nicholas Robusto Maggie Ifarraguerri Nathaniel Lawton Isabel Hefner PET Recycling Nicholas Robusto Maggie Ifarraguerri Nathaniel Lawton Isabel Hefner OBJECTIVES Hydrolyze a sample of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) obtained from used soda bottles, and synthesize a dimer

More information

USE OF NAPHTHOL BLUE BLACK-MODIFIED AMBERLITE IRA-400 ANION-EXCHANGE RESIN FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METAL IONS

USE OF NAPHTHOL BLUE BLACK-MODIFIED AMBERLITE IRA-400 ANION-EXCHANGE RESIN FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METAL IONS ACTA CHROMATOGRAPHICA, NO. 18, 2007 USE OF NAPHTHOL BLUE BLACK-MODIFIED AMBERLITE IRA-400 ANION-EXCHANGE RESIN FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METAL IONS S. A. Nabi *, Mu. Naushad, and S. A. Ganai Analytical Research

More information

ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS

ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS 1 ATOMIC ABSORTION SPECTROSCOPY: rev. 4/2011 ANALYSIS OF COPPER IN FOOD AND VITAMINS Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Model 200 Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) has for many years

More information

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

More information

Radiation Protection s Benefits in the Production of Iodine-131

Radiation Protection s Benefits in the Production of Iodine-131 Radiation Protection s Benefits in the Production of Iodine-131 Daniel M. Cestau *, Ariel N. Novello, Cecilia Bravo, Pablo Cristini, Marcelo Bronca, Eduardo Carranza, Ricardo Bavaro, Julián Cestau and

More information

HYDROLYSIS OF URANIUM CARBIDES BETWEEN 25O, AND loooc. I. URANIUM MONOCARBIDE*

HYDROLYSIS OF URANIUM CARBIDES BETWEEN 25O, AND loooc. I. URANIUM MONOCARBIDE* ORNL OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION ORNL- TM-3 COPY NO. -./ DATE - October 22, 1961 HYDROLYSIS OF URANIUM CARBIDES BETWEEN 25O,

More information

Acid Base Titrations

Acid Base Titrations Acid Base Titrations Introduction A common question chemists have to answer is how much of something is present in a sample or a product. If the product contains an acid or base, this question is usually

More information

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction Introduction Most ordinary chemical reactions can be classified as one of five basic types. The first type of reaction occurs when two or more

More information

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

More information

Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3

Rev 2016-09-23. Experiment 3 Experiment 3 PREPARATION OF A STANDARD SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, DETERMINATION OF PURITY OF IMPURE KHP AND STANDARDIZATION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID 2 lab periods Reading: Chapter 1 (pg 22-24), Chapter 8,

More information

ß-CYCLODEXTRIN SYNONYMS

ß-CYCLODEXTRIN SYNONYMS ß-CYCLODEXTRIN Prepared at the 44th JECFA (1995), published in FNP 52 Add 3 (1995) superseding specifications prepared at the 41st JECFA (1993), published in FNP 52 Add 2 (1993). Metals and arsenic specifications

More information

AN EXPERIMENT IN ALCHEMY: COPPER TO SILVER TO GOLD 2005, 2000, 1996 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved

AN EXPERIMENT IN ALCHEMY: COPPER TO SILVER TO GOLD 2005, 2000, 1996 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved AN EXPERIMENT IN ALCHEMY: COPPER TO SILVER TO GOLD 2005, 2000, 1996 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved INTRODUCTION One of the goals of the ancient alchemists was to convert base metals into gold. Although

More information

Experiment 5: Phase diagram for a three-component system (Dated: April 12, 2010)

Experiment 5: Phase diagram for a three-component system (Dated: April 12, 2010) Experiment 5: Phase diagram for a three-component system (Dated: April 12, 2010) I. INTRODUCTION It is sometimes necessary to know the mutual solubilities of liquids in a two-phase system. For example,

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD KEY CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER AND PERCENT YIELD Objective To gain familiarity with basic laboratory procedures, some chemistry of a typical transition element, and the concept of percent yield. Apparatus

More information

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 ABSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO WATER

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 ABSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO WATER UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA DULUTH DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING ChE 3211-4211 ABSORPTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO WATER OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to determine the equilibrium line,

More information

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

High sensitivity assays using online SPE-LC-MS/MS -How low can you go? Mohammed Abrar Unilabs York Bioanalytical solutions, York, UK

High sensitivity assays using online SPE-LC-MS/MS -How low can you go? Mohammed Abrar Unilabs York Bioanalytical solutions, York, UK High sensitivity assays using online SPE-LC-MS/MS -How low can you go? Mohammed Abrar Unilabs York Bioanalytical solutions, York, UK Background Unilabs YBS are a bioanalytical CRO based in York (Uk) Copenhagen

More information

Teacher Demo: Turning Water into Wine into Milk into Beer

Teacher Demo: Turning Water into Wine into Milk into Beer SNC2D/2P Chemical Reactions/Chemical Reactions and their Practical Applications Teacher Demo: Turning Water into Wine into Milk into Beer Topics evidence of chemical change types of chemical reactions

More information

Coordination Compounds with Copper (II) Prelab (Week 2)

Coordination Compounds with Copper (II) Prelab (Week 2) Coordination Compounds with Copper (II) Prelab (Week 2) Name Total /10 SHOW ALL WORK NO WORK = NO CREDIT 1. What is the purpose of this experiment? 2. Write the generic chemical formula for the coordination

More information

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

More information

An Investigation into the Structure, Properties and Synthesis of 3-nitrobenzoic Acid. Jane Smith

An Investigation into the Structure, Properties and Synthesis of 3-nitrobenzoic Acid. Jane Smith An Investigation into the Structure, Properties and Synthesis of 3-nitrobenzoic Acid. Jane Smith Chemistry 101 Laboratory, Section 43 Instructor: Marie Curie January 2, 2003 Abstract This paper describes

More information

H 2 SO 4 heat + H 3 O +

H 2 SO 4 heat + H 3 O + Dehydration of Cyclohexanol DISCUSSION OF TE EXPERIMENT In this experiment, cyclohexanol is dehydrated by aqueous sulfuric acid to produce cyclohexene as the sole product, and carbocation rearrangement

More information

Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography.

Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography. Purification of reaction mixtures using flash chromatography. This technical note details the use of ISOLUTE Flash chromatography columns for the purification of reaction mixtures. What is flash chromatography?

More information

Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

More information

UNITED STATES CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION DIRECTORATE FOR LABORATORY SCIENCES DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY 5 RESEARCH PLACE ROCKVILLE, MD 20850

UNITED STATES CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION DIRECTORATE FOR LABORATORY SCIENCES DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY 5 RESEARCH PLACE ROCKVILLE, MD 20850 UNITED STATES CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION DIRECTORATE FOR LABORATORY SCIENCES DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY 5 RESEARCH PLACE ROCKVILLE, MD 20850 Test Method: CPSC-CH-E1001-08.2 Standard Operating Procedure

More information

Phosphorus, colorimetry, phosphomolybdate, automated-segmented flow

Phosphorus, colorimetry, phosphomolybdate, automated-segmented flow Phosphorus, colorimetry, phosphomolybdate, automated-segmented flow Parameter and code: Phosphorus, total-in-bottom-material, dry weight, I-6600-88 (mg/kg as P): 00668 1. Application This method is used

More information

Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container.

Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container. TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

More information

ph: Measurement and Uses

ph: Measurement and Uses ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic

More information

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my!

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either

More information

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Learning Goals: Students will understand how to produce biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil. Students will understand the effect of an exothermic

More information

8.9 - Flash Column Chromatography Guide

8.9 - Flash Column Chromatography Guide 8.9 - Flash Column Chromatography Guide Overview: Flash column chromatography is a quick and (usually) easy way to separate complex mixtures of compounds. We will be performing relatively large scale separations

More information

Engineered Media for Removal of Fission Products from Aqueous Streams 14580. Abigail Holmquist, UOP - A Honeywell Company

Engineered Media for Removal of Fission Products from Aqueous Streams 14580. Abigail Holmquist, UOP - A Honeywell Company Engineered Media for Removal of Fission Products from Aqueous Streams 14580 Abigail Holmquist, UOP - A Honeywell Company ABSTRACT Nuclear fission products from fuel have the potential to be released into

More information

Candidate Number. Other Names

Candidate Number. Other Names Centre Number Surname Notice to Candidate. The work you submit for assessment must be your own. If you copy from someone else or allow another candidate to copy from you or if you cheat in any other way,

More information

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Manual to experiment nr 10 Instructor: Dr Tomasz S. Pawłowski 1 Goal of the experiment The goal of the experiment is introduction of

More information

AVOGADRO EXAM 2011 - Answers

AVOGADRO EXAM 2011 - Answers VGR XM 2011 - nswers 1 Iodine-131 is a radioactive isotope used to treat hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland) and thyroid cancer. ow many protons, neutrons and electrons are there in a single

More information

RESOURCE Q, 1 ml and 6 ml RESOURCE S, 1 ml and 6 ml

RESOURCE Q, 1 ml and 6 ml RESOURCE S, 1 ml and 6 ml GE Healthcare Life Sciences Instructions 71-7146-00 AI Ion Exchange Columns RESOURCE Q, 1 ml and 6 ml RESOURCE S, 1 ml and 6 ml Introduction RESOURCE Q and S are pre-packed columns for separating biomolecules

More information

Stage 1 Desired Results

Stage 1 Desired Results Lesson Title: Phosphate Testing Contract Discipline Focus: Chemistry Grade level: 11-12 Length of lesson: 1.5 class periods Content Standard(s): Stage 1 Desired Results Understanding (s)/goals Students

More information

Factors Affecting Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

Factors Affecting Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Factors Affecting Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate John A. Wojtowicz Chemcon Laboratory tests with clear solutions showed that precipitation of calcium carbonate does not occur in the ph range 7.5 to

More information

SOLUBILITY, IONIC STRENGTH AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS

SOLUBILITY, IONIC STRENGTH AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS SOLUBILITY, IONIC STRENGTH AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS References: 1. See `References to Experiments' for text references.. W. C. Wise and C. W. Davies, J. Chem. Soc., 73 (1938), "The Conductivity of Calcium

More information

WATER CHEMISTRY AND POOL WATER BALANCE

WATER CHEMISTRY AND POOL WATER BALANCE C R6 H A PT E WATER CHEMISTRY AND POOL WATER BALANCE LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completely studying this chapter, you should be able to: Understand and list the parameters upon which water balance is based.

More information

Chemistry 119: Experiment 7. Potentiometric Titration of Ascorbic Acid in Vitamin C Tablets

Chemistry 119: Experiment 7. Potentiometric Titration of Ascorbic Acid in Vitamin C Tablets Chemistry 119: Experiment 7 Potentiometric Titration of Ascorbic Acid in Vitamin C Tablets Vitamin C is another name for ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6, see below ), a weak acid that can be determined by titration

More information

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study Describing Matter This section describes the kinds of properties used to describe matter. It also defines elements and contrasts compounds and mixtures. Use Target Reading Skills Write a definition of

More information

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment

Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Experiment 12- Classification of Matter Experiment Matter can be classified into two groups: mixtures and pure substances. Mixtures are the most common form of matter and consist of mixtures of pure substances.

More information

FOR TEACHERS ONLY. The University of the State of New York REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION PHYSICAL SETTING/CHEMISTRY

FOR TEACHERS ONLY. The University of the State of New York REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION PHYSICAL SETTING/CHEMISTRY FOR TEACHERS ONLY PS CH The University of the State of New York REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION PHYSICAL SETTING/CHEMISTRY Wednesday, January 29, 2003 9:15 a.m. to 12:15 p.m., only SCORING KEY AND RATING

More information

Worksheet 4. (b) Compute the equilibrium constant corresponding to the equation you wrote.

Worksheet 4. (b) Compute the equilibrium constant corresponding to the equation you wrote. 1. At 298 K, F 3 SSF (g) decomposes partially to SF 2 (g). At equilibrium, the partial pressure of SF 2 (g) is 1.1 10-4 atm and the partial pressure of F 3 SSF is 0.0484 atm. (a) Write a balanced equilibrium

More information