# Chapter 11~ The Basic Principles of Heredity

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 11~ The Basic Principles of Heredity

2 Mendelian genetics Character (heritable feature, i.e., fur color) Trait (variant for a character, i.e., brown) True-bred (all offspring of same variety) Hybridization (crossing of 2 different truebreds) P generation (parents) F1 generation (first filial generation)

3 Leading to the Law of Segregation Alternative versions of genes (alleles) account for variations in inherited characteristics For each character, an organism inherits 2 alleles, one from each parent If the two alleles differ, then one, the dominant allele, is fully expressed in the organism s appearance; the other, the recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism s appearance The alleles for each character segregate (separate) during gamete production (meiosis). Mendel s Law of Segregation

4 Genetic vocabulary. Punnett square: predicts the results of a genetic cross between individuals of known genotype Homozygous: pair of identical alleles for a character Heterozygous: two different alleles for a gene Phenotype: an organism s traits Genotype: an organism s genetic makeup Testcross: breeding of a recessive homozygote X dominate phenotype (but unknown genotype)

5 The Law of Independent Assortment Law of Segregation involves 1 character. What about 2 (or more) characters? Monohybrid cross vs. dihybrid cross The two pairs of alleles segregate independently of each other. Mendel s Law of Independent Assortment

6 Genetic Ratios Expressed as probabilities Probability expressed as fraction or decimal fraction favorable events divided by total events Range from 0 (impossible event) to 1 (certain event)

7 Rules of Probability

8 The Product Rule The probability of two independent events occurring together multiply the probabilities of each event occurring separately Therefore, the probability of obtaining heads two times in a row = ½ X ½ = ¼ or The probability of Bb X Bb parents having a bb child is ½ X ½ = ¼

9 The Sum Rule The probability of an outcome that can be obtained in more than one way add the separate probabilities Therefore, the probability of Bb X Bb obtaining a Bb child is ¼ + ¼ = ½

10 Monohybrid Cross

11 Dihybrid Cross

12 The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Genes have specific loci on chromosomes and chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment

13 Chromosomal Linkage Morgan Drosophilia melanogaster XX (female) vs. XY (male) Sex-linkage: genes located on a sex chromosome Linked genes: genes located on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together

14 Genetic recombination Crossing over Genes that DO NOT assort independently of each other Genetic maps The further apart 2 genes are, the higher the probability that a crossover will occur between them and therefore the higher the recombination frequency Linkage maps Genetic map based on recombination frequencies

15 Crossing-Over

17 Calculations of Recombination Frequency Number of parental-type offspring = = 1909 Number of recombinant-type offspring = = 391 Total number of offspring = = 2300 Recombinant frequency = 391/2300 = 17%

18 Human sex-linkage SRY gene: gene on Y chromosome that triggers the development of testes Fathers= pass X-linked alleles to all daughters only (but not to sons) Mothers= pass X-linked alleles to both sons & daughters Sex-Linked Disorders: Color-blindness; Duchenne muscular dystropy (MD); hemophilia X-inactivation: 2nd X chromosome in females condenses into a Barr body (e.g., tortoiseshell gene gene in cats)

20 Non-single gene genetics, I Incomplete dominance: appearance between the phenotypes of the 2 parents. Ex: snapdragons Codominance: two alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways. Ex: Tay-Sachs disease Multiple alleles: more than 2 possible alleles for a gene. Ex: human blood types

21 Non-single gene genetics, II Pleiotropy: genes with multiple phenotypic effect. Ex: sickle-cell anemia Epistasis: a gene at one locus (chromosomal location) affects the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus. Ex: mice coat color Polygenic Inheritance: an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character Ex: human skin pigmentation and height

22 Epistasis

23 Polygenic Inheritance

24 Chromosomal errors, I Nondisjunction: members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II Aneuploidy: chromosome number is abnormal Monosomy~ missing chromosome Trisomy~ extra chromosome (Down syndrome) Polyploidy~ extra sets of chromosomes

25 Chromosomal errors, II Alterations of chromosomal structure: Deletion: removal of a chromosomal segment Duplication: repeats a chromosomal segment Inversion: segment reversal in a chromosome Translocation: movement of a chromosomal segment to another

26 Human disorders The family pedigree Recessive disorders: Cystic fibrosis Tay-Sachs Sickle-cell Dominant disorders: Huntington s Testing: amniocentesis chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

### Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

Name Period Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in the behavior of chromosomes 1. What is the chromosome theory of inheritance? The

### Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance

Bio 100 Patterns of Inheritance 1 Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Modern genetics began with Gregor Mendel s quantitative experiments with pea plants History of Heredity Blending theory of heredity -

### The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes.

1. Why is the white-eye phenotype always observed in males carrying the white-eye allele? a. Because the trait is dominant b. Because the trait is recessive c. Because the allele is located on the X chromosome

### Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6

Name: Multiple-choice section Choose the answer which best completes each of the following statements or answers the following questions and so make your tutor happy! 1. Which of the following conclusions

### Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

Complex Inheritance Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Other Types of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate

### Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Name Period Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know. Define: gene locus gamete male gamete female

### Exam #2 BSC Fall. NAME Key answers in bold

Exam #2 BSC 2011 2004 Fall NAME Key answers in bold _ FORM B Before you begin, please write your name and social security number on the computerized score sheet. Mark in the corresponding bubbles under

### Chapter 24 Genetics and Genomics

Chapter 24 Genetics and Genomics Genetics study of inheritance of characteristics Genome complete set of genetic instructions Genomics field in which the body is studied in terms of multiple, interacting

### CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012

Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A person who has a disorder caused

### Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

### Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection

Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection Carl Correns 1900 Chapter 13 First suggests central role for chromosomes Rediscovery of Mendel s work Walter Sutton 1902 Chromosomal theory

### Genetics II Answered Review Questions Explain the incomplete dominance inheritance pattern.

Genetics II Answered Review Questions 1. Explain the incomplete dominance inheritance pattern. Alleles can show different degrees of dominance and recessiveness in relation to each other. We refer to this

### Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Ch. 8 Cell Division Cells divide to produce new cells must pass genetic information to new cells - What process of DNA allows this? Two types

### Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

### GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses

GENETIC CROSSES Monohybrid Crosses Objectives Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype Explain the difference between homozygous and heterozygous Explain how probability is used to predict

### 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Objectives Describe Mendel s studies and conclusions about inheritance. Describe what happens during segregation. Lesson Summary The Experiments of Gregor Mendel The

### CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE

SECTION 12-1 REVIEW CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. sex chromosome, autosome 2. germ-cell mutation, somatic-cell

### The Mendelian Genetics of Corn

The Mendelian Genetics of Corn (Adapted from Mendelian Genetics for Corn by Carolina Biological Supply Company) Objectives: In this laboratory investigation, you will: a. Use corn to study genetic crosses.

### Foundations of Genetics. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display

Foundations of Genetics 8.1 Mendel and the Garden Pea The tendency for traits to be passed from parent to offspring is called heredity Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) The first person to systematically study

### Genetics Problem Set

AP Biology Name: Genetics Problem Set Independent Assortment Problems 1. One gene has alleles A and a. Another has alleles B and b. For each genotype listed, what type(s) of gametes will be produced? (Assume

### 6/2/2015. (Sperm could also be XY)

Chapter 6 Genetics and Inheritance Sometimes there is not one clear dominant allele In a heterozygous individual, both alleles are expressed Phenotype is a blend of both traits Lecture 2: Genetics and

### CIBI Midterm Examination III November 2005

Name: CIBI3031-070 Midterm Examination III November 2005 Multiple Choice In each blank, identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If a parent cell

### Not all traits are simply inherited by dominant and recessive alleles (Mendelian Genetics). In some traits, neither allele is dominant or many

Not all traits are simply inherited by dominant and recessive alleles (Mendelian Genetics). In some traits, neither allele is dominant or many alleles control the trait. Below are different ways in which

### Scientists use observable evidence to direct their questions about phenomena. For which question would the karyotype provide the most evidence?

1. A karyotype shows the visual appearance of an individual s chromosomes. The karyotype below shows the chromosomes of a person with a genetic disorder. Scientists use observable evidence to direct their

### Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea

Name Period Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea If you have completed a first-year high school biology course, some of this chapter will serve as a review for the basic concepts of Mendelian genetics.

### c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele.

Level Genetics Review KEY Describe the 3 laws that Gregor Mendel established after working with pea plants. a. Law of Dominance: states that the effect of a recessive allele is not observed when a dominant

### CHAPTER : Beyond Mendelian Genetics

CHAPTER 12.2 12.6: Beyond Mendelian Genetics Incomplete Dominance 1. In radishes, the gene that controls color exhibits incomplete dominance. Pure-breeding red radishes crossed with pure-breeding white

### Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Multiple alleles: three or more alleles for a trait are found in the

### NAME PER DATE. We'll analyze inheritance for the case where each parent has one A allele and one a allele (i.e. both parents are Aa).

1 NAME PER DATE GENETICS REVIEW We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in appearance. Parents and children generally have similar eye color, hair texture, height and other characteristics

### Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: _ Date: _ Meiosis Quiz 1. (1 point) A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell? a. sex cell b. germ cell c. somatic cell d. haploid cell 2. (1 point) How many chromosomes are in a human

### TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment

TEST NAME: Genetics unit test TEST ID: 437885 GRADE:07 SUBJECT:Life and Physical Sciences TEST CATEGORY: School Assessment Genetics unit test Page 1 of 12 Student: Class: Date: 1. There are four blood

### Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in

### 7A The Origin of Modern Genetics

Life Science Chapter 7 Genetics of Organisms 7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Genetics the study of inheritance (the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles) Heredity: the

### Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007

Answers to Mendelian genetics questions BI164 Spring, 2007 1. The father has normal vision and must therefore be hemizygous for the normal vision allele. The mother must be a carrier and hence the source

### Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

### Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics Table of Contents Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Objectives Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain

### GENETICS PROBLEMS Genetics Problems Lab 17-1

GENETICS PROBLEMS Introduction: One of the facts of life involves the different types of offspring that can be produced as a result of sexual reproduction. Offspring may have traits of one parent, both

### Genetics. The connection between Gene expression and Genetics. Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein.

Genetics The connection between Gene expression and Genetics Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism (gene), which codes for a protein. The protein has a specific function which produces a trait.

### MODULE 11: MENDELIAN GENETICS 1

PEER-LED TEAM LEARNING INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY MODULE 11: MENDELIAN GENETICS 1 JOSEPH G. GRISWOLD, PH.D. (City College of New York, CUNY) I. Introduction In sexually reproducing animals, genetic information

### Biology 201 (Genetics) Exam #1 21 September 2004

Name KEY Biology 201 (Genetics) Exam #1 21 September 2004 Read the question carefully before answering. Think before you write. Be concise. You will have up to 85 minutes hour to take this exam. After

### Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes

Biology Chapter 7 Beyond Mendel Notes Phenotype: Genotype: What is Mendelian inheritance controlled by? Incomplete Dominance:. Example of Incomplete Dominance: Example Number 2 When green betta fish (B

### HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t)

GENETIC CROSSES In minks, a single gene controls coat color. The allele for a brown (B) coat is dominant to the allele for silver-blue (b) coats. 1. A homozygous brown mink was crossed with a silverblue

### Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3

Genetics 1 DEP 4053 Christine L. Ruva, Ph.D. Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION Genotype Phenotype Chromosomes: in the nucleus of the cell store and transmit

### Biology 160 Lab Module 12 Mendelian Genetics

BIOL& 160 Clark College 1 Biology 160 Lab Module 12 Mendelian Genetics Name Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this lab, you should be able to: 1. Understand character inheritance, allelic

### Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten

Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 6 Explain that a unit of hereditary information is called a gene, and genes

### 3. Mating two organisms produces a 3:1 ratio of the phenotype in progeny. The parental genotypes are

1. In dihybrid crosses, the ratio 9:3:3:1 indicates A. codominance. B. independent assortment. C. intermediate dominance. D. three alleles for each trait. 2. Mating of two organisms produces a 1:1 ratio

### I. Types of Genetic Disorders

I. Types of Genetic Disorders Sex-Linked Disorders Diseases caused by alleles on sex chromosomes Autosomal Dominant Diseases caused by dominant alleles Autosomal Recessive Diseases caused by recessive

### Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele.

Genetics Problems Name ANSWER KEY Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele. 1. What would be the genotype

### Name Period Date GENETICS

Name Period Date GENETICS I. GREGOR MENDEL founder of genetics (crossed pea plants to study heredity = passing on of traits) 1. GENES make up chromosomes a. 2 genes (ALLELES) for every trait (1 from each

### BASIC GENETICS VOCABULARY

Name: Date: Period: Genetics Problem Sets Introduction: How do organisms come to look and act the way they do? How are characteristics passed from generation to generation? Genetics, the study of inheritance,

### 011 Chapter 11. Student: 1. The location on a chromosome where a particular gene is located is known as the:

011 Chapter 11 Student: 1. The location on a chromosome where a particular gene is located is known as the: A. allele B. dihybrid C. locus D. diploid E. autosome 2. Which of the following is NOT a trait

### What are genetic disorders?

What are genetic disorders? A disease caused by abnormalities in an individual s genetic material (genome) There are four types of genetic disorders 1. Single-gene (also called Mendelian or monogenic)

### Problem Set 4 BILD10 / Winter 2014

1) The DNA in linear eukaryotic chromosomes is wrapped around proteins called, which keep the DNA from getting tangled and enable an orderly, tight, and efficient packing of the DNA inside the cell. A)

### Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems

Biology 211 Mendelian Genetics and Inheritance Problems Mendel discovered and described many of the basic rules of genetics after studying the pattern of how inheritable traits were passed from generation

Genetic Interactions and Linkage Lecture 3 Applied Animal and Plant Breeding GENE 251/351 School of Environment and Rural Science (Genetics) 1 Topics Relating Genotype to Phenotype Mendelian genetics and

### A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes.

1 Biology Chapter 10 Study Guide Trait A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. Genes Genes are located on chromosomes

### INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS

INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS By Dr. Susan Petro Based on a lab by Dr. Elaine Winshell Nicotiana tabacum Objectives To apply Mendel s Law of Segregation To use Punnett

### Lecture 4 Linkage and Recombination

Lecture 4 Linkage and Recombination CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Chapter 9 Notes at: tcd.ie/biology_teaching_centre/local/ junior-freshman/ by1101local This is an Irish family with an autosomal dominant disease mutation

### Two copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype.

SECTION 7.1 CHROMOSOMES AND PHENOTYPE Study Guide KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. VOCABULARY carrier sex-linked gene X chromosome inactivation

### Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses

Punnett Squares A Punnett square is a mathematical device used by geneticists to show combinations of gametes and to predict offspring ratios. There are a few fundamental concepts of Punnett squares that

### Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20

Name: Period: Date: Ch.12 Reading and Concept Review Packet /20 Term Chapter 12 Reading and Concept Review: page 308-333. Directions: Link the various terms into coherent sentence or two that connects

### Mendelian Genetics. I. Background

Mendelian Genetics Objectives 1. To understand the Principles of Segregation and Independent Assortment. 2. To understand how Mendel s principles can explain transmission of characters from one generation

### CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Section B: Sex Chromosomes 1. The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism 2. Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance 1. The chromosomal

### Mendelian inheritance and the

Mendelian inheritance and the most common genetic diseases Cornelia Schubert, MD, University of Goettingen, Dept. Human Genetics EUPRIM-Net course Genetics, Immunology and Breeding Mangement German Primate

### Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

### Lab. 9 Deviation of Mendel s first law Monohybrid part 2

Main topics: Lab. 9 Deviation of Mendel s first law Monohybrid part 2 Deviation of Mutation a. ABO type b. Fur color of rabbits Deviation of Sex a. Sex limited b. Sex influence c. Sex linkage Deviation

### Mendel suggested that flower colour was controlled by inherited factors. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following sentences.

Q. The diagrams show one of Mendel s experiments. He bred pea plants. Mendel suggested that flower colour was controlled by inherited factors. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the following

### AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics

AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Mendelism and Genotype Genotype must be considered an integrated whole of all the genes because genes often work together

### Bio 102 Practice Problems Chromosomes, Karyotyping and Sex Linkage

Bio 102 Practice Problems Chromosomes, Karyotyping and Sex Linkage Multiple choice: Unless otherwise directed, circle the one best answer: 1. A sex-linked trait is a trait: A. That can be inherited only

### 4. In a molecule of DNA, if there is 21% adenine (A), how much thymine (T) is present? How much cytosine (C) is present?

Name Biology I Test Review DNA, Protein Synthesis and Genetics This review should only be used as a supplement to your notes, activities, and previous quizzes. For additional review and questions it may

### Congenital and Genetic Disorders. Review of Genetic Control. Human Karyotype BIO 375. Pathophysiology

Congenital and Genetic Disorders BIO 375 Pathophysiology Review of Genetic Control Genetic information for each cell is stored on chromosomes: Each body cell contains 2 sets (diploid) of chromosomes; one

### 4.6 Dihybrid Crosses. offspring produced from such a cross are heterozygous for both the yellow and round genotypes. YYRR. YR YR yr.

(a) Indicate the genotypes and phenotypes of the F generation from the mating of a heterozygous Himalayan rabbit with an albino rabbit. (b) The mating of a full-coloured rabbit with a light-grey rabbit

### Some word roots useful for Lab exercise 2 and 3:

Some word roots useful for Lab exercise 2 and 3: a- = not or without (asexual: type of reproduction not involving fertilization) ana- = up, throughout, again (anaphase: the mitotic stage in which the chromatids

### 14-1 Notes. Human Heredity

14-1 Notes Human Heredity Human Chromosomes Biologists can make a karyotype by cutting chromosomes out of photographs. There are 46 total chromosomes in a human body cell 23 from a haploid sperm 23 from

### BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

### Asexual Reproduction is reproduction that requires only one parent and produces genetically identical offspring.

4.2: Sexual Reproduction pg. 169 Asexual Reproduction is reproduction that requires only one parent and produces genetically identical offspring. Sexual Reproduction is reproduction that requires two parents

### Genetics test questions

Class: Date: Genetics test questions Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Pea plants were particularly well suited for use in

### Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: Dominance occurs when one allele completely exerts its phenotypic effects over another allele. Incomplete dominance

Conceptual Questions C1. Answer: Dominance occurs when one allele completely exerts its phenotypic effects over another allele. Incomplete dominance is a situation in which two alleles in the heterozygote

### Lecture 32: Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities and Nondisjunction. Meiosis I Meiosis II Centromere-linked markers

Lecture 32: Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities and Nondisjunction Meiosis I Meiosis II Centromere-linked markers Female Male 46,XX 46,XY Human chromosomal abnormalities may be numerical or structural.

### 5 GENETIC LINKAGE AND MAPPING

5 GENETIC LINKAGE AND MAPPING 5.1 Genetic Linkage So far, we have considered traits that are affected by one or two genes, and if there are two genes, we have assumed that they assort independently. However,

### 7.013 Problem Set 1 Solutions

MIT Department of Biology 7.013: Introductory Biology - Spring 2004 Instructors: Professor Hazel Sive, Professor Tyler Jacks, Dr. Claudette Gardel NAME TA Section # 7.013 Problem Set 1 Solutions FRIDAY

### 17. A testcross A.is used to determine if an organism that is displaying a recessive trait is heterozygous or homozygous for that trait. B.

ch04 Student: 1. Which of the following does not inactivate an X chromosome? A. Mammals B. Drosophila C. C. elegans D. Humans 2. Who originally identified a highly condensed structure in the interphase

### Figure S1 Clicker questions and their associated learning objectives and Bloom s level

Figure S1 Clicker questions and their associated learning objectives and Bloom s level Mitosis and Meiosis questions Q1: Which of the following events does not occur during mitosis? A.Breakdown of the

### C12. One of the parents may carry a balanced translocation between chromosomes 5 and 7. The phenotypically abnormal offspring has inherited an

C1. Duplications and deficiencies involve a change in the total amount of genetic material. Duplication: a repeat of some genetic material Deficiency: a shortage of some genetic material Inversion: a segment

### Ch. 15: Chromosomal Abnormalities

Ch 15: Chromosomal Abnormalities Abnormalities in Chromosomal Number Abnormalities in Chromosomal Structure: Rearrangements Fragile Sites Define: nondisjunction polyploidy aneupoidy trisomy monosomy Abnormalities

### Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide.

Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a

### Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity

### LESSON #1.8: SEX-LINKED TRAITS, PEDIGREE CHARTS, MULTIPLE ALLELES

LESSON #1.8: SEX-LINKED TRAITS, PEDIGREE CHARTS, MULTIPLE ALLELES PART A: SEX-LINKED TRAITS Sex-linked traits are controlled by genes located on the sex chromosomes. A recessive trait located on the X

### Population Genetics (Outline)

Population Genetics (Outline) Definition of terms of population genetics: population, species, gene, pool, gene flow Calculation of genotypic of homozygous dominant, recessive, or heterozygous individuals,

### What about two traits? Dihybrid Crosses

What about two traits? Dihybrid Crosses! Consider two traits for pea: Color: Y (yellow) and y (green) Shape: R (round) and r (wrinkled)! Each dihybrid plant produces 4 gamete types of equal frequency.

### GENETICS PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Mr. Lastowski Biology I Honors GENETICS PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. Using the results of his experiments with pea plant crosses, what did Gregor Mendel discover? the laws of dominance, segregation, and independent

### Solutions to Genetics Problems

Solutions to Genetics Problems This chapter is much more than a solution set for the genetics problems. ere you will find details concerning the assumptions made, the approaches taken, the predictions

### MANDELIAN GENETICS. Crosses that deviate from Mandelian inherintance

MANDELIAN GENETICS Crosses that deviate from Mandelian inherintance Explain codominant alleles. TO THE STUDENTS Calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratio (1:2:1). Explain incomplete dominant alleles.

### Exam 1. CSS/Hort 430. 2008 All questions worth 2 points

Exam 1. CSS/Hort 430. 2008 All questions worth 2 points 1. A general definition of plants is they are eukaryotic, multi-cellular organisms and are usually photosynthetic. In this definition, eukaryotic

### Influence of Sex on Genetics. Chapter Six

Influence of Sex on Genetics Chapter Six Humans 23 Autosomes Chromosomal abnormalities very severe Often fatal All have at least one X Deletion of X chromosome is fatal Males = heterogametic sex XY Females

### Genetics: Punnett Squares Practice Packet: Ness PAP Biology

100 Points Name: Date: Period: Genetics: Punnett Squares Practice Packet: Ness PAP Biology Most genetic traits have a stronger, dominant allele and a weaker, recessive allele. In an individual with a heterozygous

### INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE

DOMINANCE INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE Pattern of gene expression in which the phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between those of the parents. Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant

### Alleles, Phenotype & Genetic interaction

Alleles, Phenotype & Genetic interaction Problem Set #2 (not for credit): (thanks to Steve Jackson for some of these problems) 1. For each of the terms in the left column, choose the best matching phrase