Florence School District One Unit Plan: Applied Genetics

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1 Florence School District One Unit Plan: Applied Genetics Lesson 22 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.6 Predict inherited traits by using the principles of Mendelian genetics (including segregation, independent assortment, and dominance) Understand and summarize the principles of Mendelian Genetics During the process of gamete formation (meiosis), each gamete (reproductive cell) receives one of the two alleles that the parent carries for each trait. Understand that if the genes for two traits are not linked, then they will undergo independent assortment. Understand that organisms can be heterozygous for homozygous for each trait. Understand that the Principle of Dominance states that some alleles are dominant whereas others are recessive. Understand that genotype (genetic makeup) of an organism reveals the type of alleles that an organism has inherited for a particular trait. The genotype for a particular trait is usually represented by a letter, the capital letter representing the dominant gene and the lower-case letter representing the recessive gene. Understand that a Punnett square can be used to predict the gene combinations in the offspring that result from different parental allele combinations that are independently assorted. Understand that the phenotype (physical characteristics) of an organism is a description of the way that a trait is expressed in the organism. Understand and predict the ratio of offspring for a two generation two-trait, non-linked crossing using a Punett square. Understand that the second cross involves two of the F 1 generation offspring. Understand that the F 2 Generation offspring should have phenotypes approximately the 9:3:3:1 ratio. Be able to look at the genotype and the phenotype of F 1 generation offspring in a two-trait cross and decide if the two traits are linked or if the two traits are independently assorted. Florence School District B-4: Students will demonstrate an understanding of the molecula Focus Question: How are traits passed on to and expressed in organisms generation after generation? Bell ringer: List five characteristics that are passed on in families. Name one characteristic that is inherited but that may also be influenced by behavior or environment. Briefly describe the work of Gregor Mendel Define, describe, and give examples of genotype, phenotype, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, F 1 generation, F 2 Generation,Law of Segregation, Law of Independent Assortment Describe how to set up and carryout a monohybrid cross using a Punett square. Show the video Biologix: Introduction to Classical Genetics and Monohydrid Crosses (30:00 minutes) available as SC Streamline. Activities: Students will complete: Bikini Bottom Genetics available at Students will complete: Simple Genetics Practice Problems Students will complete Fundamentals of Genetics worksheet available at Monster Mish-Mash Activity available at District Website

2 Lesson 23 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.6 Predict inherited traits by using the principles of Mendelian genetics (including segregation, independent assortment, and dominance) Understand and summarize the principles of Mendelian Genetics During the process of gamete formation (meiosis), each gamete (reproductive cell) receives one of the two alleles that the parent carries for each trait. Understand that if the genes for two traits are not linked, then they will undergo independent assortment. Understand that organisms can be heterozygous for homozygous for each trait. Understand that the Principle of Dominance states that some alleles are dominant whereas others are recessive. Understand that genotype (genetic makeup) of an organism reveals the type of alleles that an organism has inherited for a particular trait. The genotype for a particular trait is usually represented by a letter, the capital letter representing the dominant gene and the lower-case letter representing the recessive gene. Understand that a Punnett square can be used to predict the gene combinations in the offspring that result from different parental allele combinations that are independently assorted. Understand that the phenotype (physical characteristics) of an organism is a description of the way that a trait is expressed in the organism. Understand and predict the ratio of offspring for a two generation two-trait, non-linked crossing using a Punett square. Understand that the second cross involves two of the F 1 generation offspring. Understand that the F 2 Generation offspring should have phenotypes approximately the 9:3:3:1 ratio. Be able to look at the genotype and the phenotype of F 1 generation offspring in a two-trait cross and decide if the two traits are linked or if the two traits are independently assorted. Focus Question: How are traits passed on to and expressed in organisms generation after generation? Bell ringer: Quiz: SpongeBob Genetics Quiz: available at Describe how to set up and conduct a di-hybrid cross using a Punett square to predict the possible genotypic and phenotypic ratios for non-linked traits. Students will complete worksheet Genetic Crosses that Involve 2 Traits available at Students will complete: Simple Genetics Practice Problems: Students will complete worksheet: Bikini Bottom-Dihybrid Practice available at Punnett Square available at District website.

3 Alleles, Principle of Dominance, Dominant, Recessive, Segregation, Genotype, Phenotype, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Independent Assortment, Linked Genes, F 1 generation, F 2 Generation, Crossing-over Alleles, Principle of Dominance, Dominant, Recessive, Segregation, Genotype, Phenotype, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Independent Assortment, Linked Genes, F 1 generation, F 2 Generation, Crossing-over / PowerPoint Chapter 9 Section 1&2 Pages Review Quiz Florence School District One Unit Plan: Applied Genetics Lesson 24 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.7 Summarize the chromosome theory of inheritance and relate that theory to Gregor Mendel s principle of genetics. Focus Question: How are linked traits passed on to and expressed in organisms generation after generation? Bell ringer: Hemophilia a blood disorder where clotting does not occur during an injury and the person can not stop bleeding and red-green color blindness where a person can not distinguish between the shades of the colors red and green occur more frequently in males than females. Give a possible explanation for this occurrence. Students will take Quiz on dihybrid cross Understand that the chromosome theory of inheritance is a basic principle in biology that states genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns which closely parallels predicted Mendelian patterns. Understand the relationship of DNA, genes, and chromosomes (see B-4.2) Understand that each of the Mendelian genetic principles can be understood by using the chromosomal theory of inheritance as a model. Understand that there are some genetic principles, such as gene linkage, that require more Show the video: Biologix: Sex-linked Inheritance (30:00 minutes) available at SC Streamline Compare and contrast autosomes and sex chromosomes Describe how sex-linked traits are transmitted and why they are more prevalent in males than females. Construct a punnett square to show the possible genotypes and phenotypes of for the transmission of a sexlinked trait. Describe how to construct and read a pedigree. Activities:

4 explanation than Mendelian principle can provide. Understand that Mendelian Genetics does not explain sex-linked traits. Students should understand the significance of sex-linked, genes that are carried on either the X or Y chromosome. Students should understand the significance of sex-influenced traits. Understand that a pedigree is a chart constructed to show an inheritance pattern within a family through multiple generations. Be able to trace the transmission of a genetic disease through a family using a pedigree. Students should also be able to infer which individuals are carriers, and make predictions about the offspring of future generations. Alleles, Principle of Dominance, Dominant, Recessive, Segregation, Genotype, Phenotype, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Independent Assortment, Linked Genes, F 1 generation, F 2 Generation, Crossing-over Students will constructing a pedigree at Investigating Inherited Traits: Available at District website. / PowerPoint Chapter 12 section 2 pp Review Florence School District One Unit Plan: Applied Genetics Lesson 25 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.6 Predict inherited traits by using the principles of Mendelian genetics (including segregation, independent assortment, and dominance) Focus Question: How are traits passed on to and expressed in organisms generation after generation? The students will conduct: The Genetics of Parenthood-Face Lab available at or ReeBop Genetics Lab: available at

5 Understand and summarize the principles of Mendelian Genetics During the process of gamete formation (meiosis), each gamete (reproductive cell) receives one of the two alleles that the parent carries for each trait. Understand that if the genes for two traits are not linked, then they will undergo independent assortment. Understand that organisms can be heterozygous for homozygous for each trait. Understand that the Principle of Dominance states that some alleles are dominant whereas others are recessive. Understand that genotype (genetic makeup) of an organism reveals the type of alleles that an organism has inherited for a particular trait. The genotype for a particular trait is usually represented by a letter, the capital letter representing the dominant gene and the lower-case letter representing the recessive gene. Understand that a Punnett square can be used to predict the gene combinations in the offspring that result from different parental allele combinations that are independently assorted. Understand that the phenotype (physical characteristics) of an organism is a description of the way that a trait is expressed in the organism. Understand and predict the ratio of offspring for a two generation two-trait, non-linked crossing using a Punett square. Understand that the second cross involves two of the F 1 generation offspring. Understand that the F 2 Generation offspring should have phenotypes approximately the 9:3:3:1 ratio. Be able to look at the genotype and the phenotype of F 1 generation offspring in a two-trait cross and decide if the two traits are linked or if the two traits are independently assorted. Review student using Holt Biology Virtual Investigations disc topic Heredity How Can Karyotype Analysis Detect Genetic Disorders? Available at District website. Alleles, Principle of Dominance, Dominant, Recessive, Segregation, Genotype, Phenotype, Homozygous, Heterozygous, Independent Assortment, Linked Genes, F 1 generation, F 2 Generation, Crossing-over / PowerPoint Pennies, paper, colored pencil or crayons Chapter 9section 2 pages Review Lab activities Florence School District One Unit Plan: Molecular Genetics Lesson 26 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day Focus Question: What is the structure of the DNA molecule and how is it formed?

6 B-4.1 Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structures, nucleotides, and base pairs B-4.2 Summarize the relationship among DNA, genes, and chromosomes Understand that nucleic acids are molecules that serve as the blueprint for proteins and through the action of proteins, for all cellular activity. Recognize the names of the tow types of nucleic acids. Understand that both DNA and RNA are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides. Understand that the nucleotides that compose nucleic acids have three parts. Recognize the names of the 5 bases that are part of the nucleotides that are found in all nucleic acids. Recognize the names of the two sugars that are part of the nucleotides that make up nucleic acids. Understand that the basic structure of the two molecules is different. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of two strands of DNA chemically bond through the center of the helix, each base can bond to only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond with only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond are called complementary bases. Compare the structure of two types of nucleic acid. Understand that a chromosome is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell consisting essentially of one very long DNA molecule. Understand that nucleic acids composing the DNA molecule provide a blueprint for the synthesis of proteins. nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), nucleotides, double helix, complimentary bases, chromosome, gene Bell Ringer: DNA is often compared to a ladder or a spiral staircase. How is the structure of DNA similar to that of a ladder or spiral staircase? (The teacher will provide the students with a model of DNA double alpha helix or a image on the Smart Board) Describe the structure of a nucleotide. Identify the various types of nitrogenous base and what types of nucleic acids contain each. Describe the process of base pairing. Describe how the double alpha helix is held together by base pairing. Describe the structure of a chromosome and how it is composed primarily of DNA. The teacher will show Biology the of Life: DNA the Master Molecule of Life (15:00 minutes) available on SC streamline and Black Line Master worksheets are available for this program. The students will complete DNA Labeling worksheet available at / PowerPoint Chapter 10 Section 2 Pages Lab activities Florence School District One Unit Plan: Molecular Genetics

7 Lesson 27 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.1 Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structures, nucleotides, and base pairs B-4.2 Summarize the relationship among DNA, genes, and chromosomes Focus Question: What is the structure of the DNA molecule and how is it formed? The students will build a paper model of the DNA molecule: Origami DNA Instructions Origami DNA template Understand that nucleic acids are molecules that serve as the blueprint for proteins and through the action of proteins, for all cellular activity. Recognize the names of the tow types of nucleic acids. Understand that both DNA and RNA are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides. Understand that the nucleotides that compose nucleic acids have three parts. Recognize the names of the 5 bases that are part of the nucleotides that are found in all nucleic acids. Recognize the names of the two sugars that are part of the nucleotides that make up nucleic acids. Understand that the basic structure of the two molecules is different. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of two strands of DNA chemically bond through the center of the helix, each base can bond to only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond with only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond are called complementary bases. Compare the structure of two types of nucleic acid. Understand that a chromosome is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell consisting essentially of one very long DNA molecule. Understand that nucleic acids composing the DNA molecule provide a blueprint for the synthesis of proteins.

8 nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), nucleotides, double helix, complimentary bases, chromosome, gene / PowerPoint Construction paper, scissors, tape Chapter 10 Section 2 Pages Quiz DNA structure Lab activities Florence School District One Unit Plan: Molecular Genetics Lesson 28 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.1 Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structures, nucleotides, and base pairs B-4.3 Explain how DNA functions as the code of life and the blueprint for proteins. Understand that the process of DNA replication and the necessity of replication before cell division. Recognize the names of the tow types of nucleic acids. Understand that both DNA and RNA are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides. Understand that the nucleotides that compose nucleic acids have three parts. Recognize the names of the 5 bases that are part of the nucleotides that are found in all nucleic acids. Recognize the names of the two sugars that are part of the nucleotides that make up nucleic acids. Understand that the basic structure of the two molecules is different. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of two strands of DNA chemically bond through the center of the helix, each base can bond to only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond with only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond are called complementary bases. Compare the structure of two types of nucleic acid. Focus Question: How does DNA perpetuate itself generation after generation? Bell Ringer: Quiz DNA structure Show the students the video Biologix: DNA Replication (30:00 minutes) available at SC Streamline Describe the process of DNA replication, when it occurs in the cell cycle, and the direct results of this process. Describe the structure of RNA, types, and the functions of each type. The students will complete the following worksheet. DNA-The Double Helix available at:

9 genes, code of life / PowerPoint Chapter 10 Section 3 & 4 Pages Lab activities Quiz Florence School District One Unit Plan: Molecular Genetics Lesson 29 (Estimated time: 180 minutes) 2 days B-4.4 Summarize the basic process involved in protein synthesis (including transcription and translation) Focus Question: How are proteins formed from the information encoded in DNA? Bell Ringer: Chemical structures that are involved in physiological processes, such as hemoglobin in blood, insulin that regulates blood glucose levels, and enzymes that regulate body functions, are all made of proteins. Name some parts of the human body that contains proteins. Understand that the process of DNA replication and the necessity of replication before cell Understand that the nucleus of the cell contains the chromosomes that contain codes for thousands of proteins. Understand that when a particular protein is needed, the cell must synthesize or make the protein through the process of protein synthesis. Understand that DNA molecules (which contain the code) do not leave the nucleus of the cell but protein synthesis must occur in the ribosomes which are located outside of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. Therefore the code must be carried from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Understand that transcription is the process by which a portion of the molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA and explain and diagram the process. Understand that translation, which is the process of interpreting the genetic message and building the protein, begins when the mrna reaches the cytoplasm. Students should be able to summarize the process of translation. Describe the process of transcription. Describe the role of DNA and RNA in transcription. Describe the process of translation. Describe the roles of RNA, amino acids, and ribosomes during translation. Show the students the video: Language of Life: Understanding the Genetic Code (27:00 minutes) available at SC Streamline. Black Line Master worksheets are available. Students will complete: Skills Practice Lab: Modeling DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis on pages of their textbook. Students will complete worksheet DNA s Instruction for Insulin: available at Protein Synthesis ( Insect ) Available at District website.

10 genes, code of life / PowerPoint Chapter 10 Section 3 & 4 Pages Florence School District One Unit Plan: Molecular Genetics Lesson 30 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.1 Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structures, nucleotides, and base pairs B-4.2 Summarize the relationship among DNA, genes, and chromosomes B-4.8 Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Understand that nucleic acids are molecules that serve as the blueprint for proteins and through the action of proteins, for all cellular activity. Recognize the names of the tow types of nucleic acids. Understand that both DNA and RNA are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides. Understand that the nucleotides that compose nucleic acids have three parts. Recognize the names of the 5 bases that are part of the nucleotides that are found in all nucleic acids. Recognize the names of the two sugars that are part of the nucleotides that make up nucleic acids. Understand that the basic structure of the two molecules is different. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of two strands of DNA chemically bond through the center of the helix, each base can bond to only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond with only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond are called complementary bases. Compare the structure of two types of nucleic acid. Understand that a chromosome is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell consisting essentially of one very long DNA molecule. Understand that nucleic acids composing the DNA molecule provide a blueprint for the Focus Question: What are mutations, how do they occur, and what are the possible results of mutations? Bell Ringer: Teen Age Mutant Ninja Turtles are the result of exposure to a substance called the green ooze in the sewer system of the city. The X-men are also individuals who have mutated form of DNA. In real life most mutation do not result in super human powers or animals with super powers. List examples of the most common observable results of mutations in humans. Define mutation. Describe how mutations in DNA affect proteins. Describe environmental factors and how they contribute to mutations. State that mutations happen spontaneously. Show the students the DNA extraction Power Point at Students will complete the worksheet DNA extraction available at The students will extract DNA from fresh strawberries worksheet available at The students will complete a laboratory write up for the procedure using the format given at The teacher will review the topics of molecular genetics with the students using Holt Biology Virtual Investigations disc: DNA,RNA and Gene Expression.

11 synthesis of proteins. Understand that a mutation is the alteration of the sequence of DNA nucleotides of a chromosome. Understand that mutations can be the result of exposure to a physical or chemical agent, a mutagen. Describe how the following mutations can occur and the potential affect of each on the cell, the organism, and future generations. nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), nucleotides, double helix, complimentary bases, chromosome, gene, mutation, mutagen, spontaneous mutation, genetic disorder, hereditary disease / PowerPoint Blender, DNA source, salt, detergent, graduate cylinder, strainer, meat tenderizer, ethanol, test tubes, glass stirring rods Chapter 10 Section 1 Pages Chapter 14 Section 1 Pages DNA, RNA, and Protein Mutations Lab activities Florence School District One Unit Plan: Molecular Genetics Lesson 31 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day B-4.1 Compare DNA and RNA in terms of structures, nucleotides, and base pairs B-4.2 Summarize the relationship among DNA, genes, and chromosomes B-4.8 Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Understand that nucleic acids are molecules that serve as the blueprint for proteins and through the action of proteins, for all cellular activity. Recognize the names of the tow types of nucleic acids. Understand that both DNA and RNA are polymers composed of monomers called nucleotides. Understand that the nucleotides that compose nucleic acids have three parts. Recognize the names of the 5 bases that are part of the nucleotides that are found in all Focus Question: What is the structure of nucleic acids? How does DNA replicate? How are proteins formed from the information encoded in DNA? The teacher will review the topics of molecular genetics with the students using Holt Biology Virtual Investigations disc: DNA,RNA, and Gene Expression. The students will review for chapter test using Holt Biology Virtual Investigations disc: DNA, RNA and Gene Expression. and Jeopardy! Review: Nucleic Acids available at

12 nucleic acids. Recognize the names of the two sugars that are part of the nucleotides that make up nucleic acids. Understand that the basic structure of the two molecules is different. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of two strands of DNA chemically bond through the center of the helix, each base can bond to only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond with only one type of base. Understand that when the nitrogenous bases of RNA chemically bond to a strand of DNA, each RNA base can bond are called complementary bases. Compare the structure of two types of nucleic acid. Understand that a chromosome is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell consisting essentially of one very long DNA molecule. Understand that nucleic acids composing the DNA molecule provide a blueprint for the synthesis of proteins. Understand that a mutation is the alteration of the sequence of DNA nucleotides of a chromosome. Understand that mutations can be the result of exposure to a physical or chemical agent, a mutagen. Describe how the following mutations can occur and the potential affect of each on the cell, the organism, and future generations. nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), nucleotides, double helix, complimentary bases, chromosome, gene, mutation, mutagen, spontaneous mutation, genetic disorder, hereditary disease / PowerPoint Blender, DNA source, salt, detergent, graduate cylinder, strainer, meat tenderizer, ethanol, test tubes, glass stirring rods Chapter 10 Section Pages DNA, RNA, and Protein Mutations Lab activities Florence School District One Unit Plan: DNA Technology Lesson 32 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day Focus Question: What is bioengineering? List and describe methods and pros and cons associated with this industry?

13 B-4.9 Exemplify ways that introduce new genetics characteristics into an organism or a population by applying the principles of modern genetics. Describe how man human control the physical characteristics of organisms by manipulating their genetic composition (DNA). List and describe some of the major forms of genetic bioengineering and technologies available today. Show the video: The Clone Age, first section (22 minutes) available at SC Streamline Understand that there are many ways that allow the characteristics of offspring to be manipulated rather than left to chance, including: selective breeding hybridization mutations cloning genetic engineering Describe how each of the methods listed above results in offspring with genotypes resulting in specific characteristics. selective breeding, inbreeding, hybridization, mutagenesis, genetic engineering, restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing, electrophoresis, DNA fingerprinting, gene mapping / PowerPoint Chapter 13 Sections Pages Quiz ( Use quiz from One Stop Teacher Planner, section quizzes) Lab activities Florence School District One Unit Plan: DNA Technology Lesson 33 (Estimated time: 90 minutes) 1day Focus Question: What is bioengineering? List and describe methods and pros and cons associated with this industry?

14 B-4.9 Exemplify ways that introduce new genetics characteristics into an organism or a population by applying the principles of modern genetics. Give Quiz on sections previously covered. Show students: Holt Biology Virtual Investigations: Gene Technologies available on disc. Understand that there are many ways that allow the characteristics of offspring to be manipulated rather than left to chance, including: selective breeding hybridization mutations cloning genetic engineering Describe how each of the methods listed above results in offspring with genotypes resulting in specific characteristics. selective breeding, inbreeding, hybridization, mutagenesis, genetic engineering, restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing, electrophoresis, DNA fingerprinting, gene mapping / PowerPoint Chapter 13 Pages Quiz

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