HISAR SCHOOL JUNIOR MODEL UNITED NATIONS 2016 SUSTAINING THE FUTURE. Security Council. Taking Measure Against Large-Scale Terrorist Attack

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1 HISAR SCHOOL JUNIOR MODEL UNITED NATIONS 2016 SUSTAINING THE FUTURE Security Council Taking Measure Against Large-Scale Terrorist Attack RESEARCH REPORT Recommended by: Simay İnci İpek

2 Forum: Security Council Issue: Taking measure against large-scale terrorist attack Student Officer: Simay İnci İpek Introduction United Nations has been trying to find a definition for the word Terrorism which would be agreed upon internationally for a long time. However, an international definition is still in search. Terrorism could be referred to as violent actions occurring in environments of oppression, extremism or human rights abuse; and terrorism results in violation of human rights and the rule of law. There have been many large-scale terrorist attacks in the past and the frequency of these attacks has been increased over the years with the establishment of new terrorist groups. In 2016, there have been multiple largescale terrorist attacks in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The Global Terrorism Index for 2015, states that there has been 80 percent increase in terrorism deaths since The Global Terrorism Index, 2015 Solutions are trying to be applied by the UN and the related non-governmental organizations, however the key to the solution of terrorism has not been found yet. Definition of Key Terms Suicide Bombing A terrorist attack where a terrorist carries a bomb on his body and explodes the bomb in public areas. This results in both the death of the terrorist and the people around him. Raid 1

3 An attack on a public place by armed men or armed vehicles to cause damage. Extremist A person who has extreme opinions and political aims. An extremist violates the law and human rights with the aim of achieving them. General Overview There are several terrorist groups that are active in different regions of the world. The terrorist groups that had or still have the largest impact on the world are Al-Qaeda, Taliban, Lashkar-E-Toiba, Tehrik-I- Taliban, Islamist State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL), and Boko Haram. These groups held large-scale terrorist attacks on different regions with different purposes. This research report will analyze the history and the aim of the groups Boko Haram, ISIL and Al-Qaeda. Al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda, The Base in English, was created in 1988 by Osama bin Laden and Muhammad Atef. The group was mostly active in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Sudan. Map of the regions that were under Al-Qaeda s control The leader of the terrorist group was Osama bin Laden and the aim of the group was to go against the governments that are not governed by the Islamic law. Al-Qaeda and The United States were severely opposing to each other because the terrorist group saw the USA as an infidel which means that it is not supporting the version of Islam that is interpreted by the group. Also USA was supporting the other infidel countries and institutions such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Israel and the UN organizations. Al- Qaeda has launched attacks on various military and civil groups. The attack, which got the greatest reaction, was the September 11 attacks on USA with approximately 3,000 killed and 6,000 injured people. After this attack, The US government launched the War on Terror. As a result, Osama bin Laden was killed and the terrorist group was taken under control. 2

4 An image taken from the 9/11 attack Boko Haram Boko Haram is established by Mohammed Yusuf, in the city of Maidguri, northern Nigeria in The aim of the group was to establish sharia government in Nigeria. Sharia is the legal system that depends on Islamic law and the terrorist group wanted to establish this governing system. The terrorist group goes against the Western style education and teachings since it believes that this education is illegal under sharia law. Boko Haram has been attacking the government of Nigeria and Christian targets. According to the researches made, more than 6,000 fatalities resulted from Boko Haram s attacks on civilians. Boko Haram is also launching attacks on the other countries in Africa and Asia such as Chad, Benin and Cameroon. As a result of these attacks, more than 2 million Nigerians were forced to leave their countries or homes and become refugees. Despite the insurgency groups and the attacks against the terrorists, Boko Haram remains to be one of the strongest terrorist groups today. Islamic State of Iraq and Levant Map of the regions under Boko Haram s control ISIL is regarded as one of the strongest and most violent terrorist groups. It was formed after the death of Osama bin Laden, in The group s name has evolved as its claimed regions have extended. Levant region was the last to be added to the group s target. Levant region refers to ta large area in the 3

5 eastern Mediterranean including Egypt and Syria. The aim of the group is to rule all the Muslims in the world under the Islamic law. Statistics of BBC According to the director of US National Counterterrorism Center, ISIL has control over a region in the size of the UK. One of the main reasons of the strength of the groups is that it has more than 32,000 fighters only in Iraq and Syria. ISIL has launched many attacks on civilians and military groups around the MENA region and in Europe. The jihadist members are attacking to non-muslims and the Muslims who do not support their ideals. Major Parties Involved and Their Views North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) NATO is an establishment, which aims to reach safety of freedom and security of its 28 members. Since terrorism threatens the security of these countries and the international stability, NATO values counterterrorism works. NATO works on increasing awareness of terrorism, and improving their capabilities and technology to tackle terrorism. United Nations The aim of the establishment of UN is to establish peace in the world. Therefore UN prepared multiple counter-terrorism strategies and conferences with the hope of finding solutions and agreements among the countries. Timeline of Events 1 January 1942 Establishment of UN 4

6 December, 1978 Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan 1988 Creation of Al-Qaeda September 11, 2001 The September 11 attack 2002 Creation of Boko Haram March 20, 2003 Invasion of Iraq 2006 Creation of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria 2014 Name of the group changed to ISIL April 14-15, 2014 Boko Haram kidnapped schoolgirls in Nigeria Treaties and Events United Nations has established several treaties regarding counter-terrorism acts. Since 1963, UN established 19 different legal instruments to find solutions to terrorist acts. These instruments were developed with International Atomic Energy Agency and were shared with all member states. These treaties included the Treaty of Civil Aviation, of the Protection of International Staff, treaty regarding Taking of Hostages, the Nuclear Material, the Maritime Navigation, Explosive Materials, Terrorist Bombings, Financing of Terrorism, Nuclear Terrorism and so on. UN s Representation of Counter-Terrorism Evaluation of Previous Attempts to Resolve the Issue UN s involvement in the issue has been the most efficient solution made in the past. There are still UN meetings taken place in order to solve the large-scale terrorist attacks. Countries such as the United States of America was involved in counter actions taken against Al-Qaeda and ISIL. They are still trying to defeat ISIL by airstrikes and military aids to the countries in MENA region. The countries that are attacked by terrorist groups are also fighting the terrorist in military and political ways. Possible Solutions Despite the efforts of UN, NGOs and the related countries, terrorist attacks are happening very frequently today. One way of solving this problem could be increasing the military action against these terrorist groups. Help from the European countries could be considered however it is important to keep in mind that this would be a very destructive but maybe an efficient way to end the conflict once and for 5

7 all. Another approach could be negotiating with these terrorist groups. It might be efficient for UN and the related countries to come together and try to find ways to negotiate with these groups in order to end the attacks. Another aspect, which is very important for the consequences of these terrorist attacks is the civilians. There are many people who lost their homes and loved ones due to terrorist attacks. Psychological and medical help should be provided to the civilians along with the provision of food and shelter. Member States should work collaboratively with the NGOs to provide aid to the victims of the terrorist attacks. It is important to keep in mind that refugees are also in need of help from other nations to survive. United Nations should both take measures against large-scale terrorist attacks and try to help the civilians affected by them. 6

8 Bibliography "Inside the Terror Network." Frontline. PBS, n.d. Web. < Digital image. Veterans Today. VT Radio, n.d. Web. < Uhrmacher, Kevin, and Mary Beth Sheridan. "The Brutal Toll of Boko Haram s Attacks on Civilians." The Washington Post. N.p., 3 Apr Web. Gillespie, Nick. "Terrorism Today: Boko Haram Bigger Than ISIS; Most Western Deaths Have Nothing to Do With Islam; & More." Weblog post.reason. N.p., 17 Nov Web. "What Is 'Islamic State'?" BBC News. BBC, 2 Dec Web. "UNITED NATIONS ACTION TO COUNTER TERRORISM." United Nations. N.p., n.d. Web. < "Countering Terrorism." NATO. NATO, 3 Dec Web. 7

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