Phonemic Awareness and Phonics: Assignments and Activities

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1 Phonemic Awareness and Phonics: Assignments and Activities Assignments and Activities Title 1: New Sounds and Review Learning Outcome 1: Explain the use of strategies for reading and writing and their connection to phonics instruction. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics, vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Standard 4: Creating a Literate Environment create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, use of instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments. Standard Element 4.1: As a result, candidates use students interests, reading abilities, and backgrounds as foundations for the reading and writing program. assist the teacher and reading specialist in gathering information on students interests and cultural and linguistic backgrounds. can use appropriate technology to collect this information. collect information about children s interests, reading abilities, and backgrounds and use this information when planning instruction. select materials and help students select materials that match their reading levels, interests, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds. can use technology to gather and to use this information in instructional planning. can articulate the research base that grounds their practice. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a teacher leads a small group in letter and sound identification practice. As you watch the video, notice how children are helped to make

2 connections between specific sounds (phonemes) and the graphic symbols (letters) that represent these sounds. Video Asset: New Sounds and Review URL:http://abavtooldev.pearsoncmg.com/myeducationlab/simpleviewer.php?projectID=literatur e&clipid=lit_04_242.flv Question 1 Text: What letters are being practiced in this activity? What connections are there between these letters? Question 1 Hint: Note the letters on the whiteboard that the teacher is practicing. Question 1 Feedback: The teacher is using a variety of consonants (p, c, v, h, b, t, n), all with different vocal formations to avoid sound alike confusion. The only vowel sound being practiced is the short a. Question 2 Text: Predict what might be the next step that the teacher will take after practicing with these consonants and the short a. Question 2 Hint: Think about letter combinations that can be made and words formed from these letters. Question 2 Feedback: The teacher will most likely work on rhyming words and word formation using these letter combinations. These are all words that could be represented in pictures, used with rhymes, and assessed with letter swapping. Question 3 Text: Explain why the use of a small group is beneficial for assessment. Question 3 Hint: Think about how the teacher uses drill, repetition, and then individual turns. Question 3 Feedback: The teacher is able to check on all students responses by using a small group for this instruction. The students are able to practice by listening to others and are then able to demonstrate their mastery through the individual turns. Question 4 Text: What effect does teacher modeling have on the practicing of phonemes and letters? Question 4 Hint: Watch the teacher carefully as she leads instruction. Question 4 Feedback: The teacher is modeling the letter formation with both visual and auditory cues. She demonstrates the correct sound of the letter. The pattern of the drill becomes important for memory as the skills are practiced. Activities and Applications Title 2: Strategies for Phonics and Writing Instruction Learning Outcome 1: Explain the use of strategies for reading and writing and their connection to phonics instruction. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics,

3 vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Standard 4: Creating a Literate Environment create a literate environment that fosters reading and writing by integrating foundational knowledge, use of instructional practices, approaches and methods, curriculum materials, and the appropriate use of assessments. Standard Element 4.1: As a result, candidates use students interests, reading abilities, and backgrounds as foundations for the reading and writing program. assist the teacher and reading specialist in gathering information on students interests and cultural and linguistic backgrounds. can use appropriate technology to collect this information. collect information about children s interests, reading abilities, and backgrounds and use this information when planning instruction. select materials and help students select materials that match their reading levels, interests, and cultural and linguistic backgrounds. can use technology to gather and to use this information in instructional planning. can articulate the research base that grounds their practice. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a kindergarten teacher leads her class through an interactive writing activity. She discusses the reading and writing skills her students are learning throughout this activity. As you watch the video, think about the students application of newly learned concepts. Video Asset: An Interactive Writing Activity URL: ds&clipid=rmet_001_353.flv Question 1 Text: Define interactive writing. Question 1 Hint: Think about the reasons for using interactive writing. Question 1 Feedback: Interactive writing is a collaborative activity between the teacher and students. Interacting writing may take place in a whole class or small-group setting. The

4 students determine a topic with the teacher s guidance. The students are involved with the teacher in the composing, scribing, and reading of a piece of writing. The activity may be used to support print conventions, phonemic awareness, and grammar. Question 2 Text: Based on the video, what concepts do some students already understand? Question 2 Hint: What can students do with little guidance? Question 2 Feedback: Students have made the sound/letter connection in the words they are scribing by demonstrating writing of the proper letter for the sound being made. They understand that a sentence starts with a capital letter and that there must be space between each word. Some students have grasped the concept of the silent [e] on the ends of some words, although it is not clear that they have made the connection to the long vowel sound or a vcv pattern. Question 3 Text: What is the difference between conventional and invented spelling? Question 3 Hint: Think about the stages of spelling. Question 3 Feedback: Invented spelling occurs at the early stages of spelling. Invented spelling may be based on a student s own system of representing words with a group of letters or symbols and has progressive levels of sound/letter/word association for scribing. Students may use several letters to represent entire words and usually leave out some letters. Students are gradually taught the conventions of spelling, sound/letter combinations, and irregular spelling patterns to replace the invented spellings. Question 4 Text: How does the teacher use interactive writing this technique for formative assessment? Question 4 Hint: Think about the whole class instruction and the use of the slates. Question 4 Feedback The teacher is able to monitor the students progress through quick spotchecks using the individual slates. Students are verbalizing sounds, sounding out words, and writing words. The teacher is able to do informal assessment and make mental notes of which students may need additional help. This strategy has many advantages over doing worksheets. Assignments and Activities Title 3: Phonemic Awareness Routine Learning Outcome 2: Describe strategies for effective phonics instruction. Standard 2: Instructional Strategies and Curriculum Materials use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, methods, and curriculum materials to support reading and writing instruction. Standard Element 2.2: As a result, candidates use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, and methods, including technology-based practices, for learners at differing stages of development and from differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

5 use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, and methods, including technology-based practices. make selections that are guided by an evidence-based rationale and accommodate the developmental, cultural, and linguistic differences of their students. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a kindergarten teacher describes the routine that she uses each day as part of her phonemic awareness activities. As you watch the video, notice the predictable steps and structure used in planning instruction for the phonemic awareness routine. Video Asset: Phonemic Awareness Routine URL:http://abavtooldev.pearsoncmg.com/myeducationlab/simpleviewer.php?projectID=literacy &clipid=phonemic_awareness_routine.flv Question 1 Text: List some of the morning activities that the teacher does each day to create routine and promote growth. Question 1 Hint: Watch the video at the beginning for the teacher s description of her morning routine. Question 1 Feedback: Each morning the students practice phonics through morning announcements, calendar, and practicing sight words. Question 2 Text: List the activities that the teacher includes in the students day that have an emphasis on literacy. Question 2 Hint: The teacher mentions some of the activities that will be covered during the day when speaking to the class. Question 2 Feedback: Literacy is the focus in the morning song, announcements, calendar, sight words, word families, centers, letter sounds and blending, reading centers, big book, and practice with spelling through a variety of kinesthetic means. Question 3 Text: List the types of kinesthetic phonics activities that the teacher has included in the students routine. Question 3 Hint: Watch as the students are standing and practicing spelling with the teacher. Question 3 Feedback: The students have learned tapping, sweeping, finger spelling, and zoo phonics. They are instructed to try each of these types and then are given the opportunity to choose their favorite method. Question 4 Text: Explain why the kinesthetic activities are important for emergent readers. Question 4 Hint: Think about learning styles and multiple intelligences. Question 4 Feedback: The movement to sound connections helps to cement the sound to the letter. Actually doing the letter helps with memory. Brain research supports the need for kinesthetic activities as does research into learning styles and multiple intelligences.

6 Activities and Applications Title 4: Strategies for Teaching Phonics Learning Outcome 2: Describe strategies for effective phonics instruction. Standard 2: Instructional Strategies and Curriculum Materials use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, methods, and curriculum materials to support reading and writing instruction. Standard Element 2.2: As a result, candidates use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, and methods, including technology-based practices, for learners at differing stages of development and from differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds. use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, and methods, including technology-based practices. make selections that are guided by an evidence-based rationale and accommodate the developmental, cultural, and linguistic differences of their students. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, the first-grade teacher Kate Marshall is working with small groups to teach long and short vowels, diphthongs, and digraphs to her students. As you watch the video, think about how Ms. Marshall provides practice in context. Video Asset: Teaching Phonics URL: ds&clipid=rmet_002_374.flv Question 1 Text: Define digraphs and diphthongs and explain why students may have difficulty with these letter combinations. Question 1 Hint: Think about learning to recognize the letter groups and their sounds. Question 1 Feedback. Digraphs are adjacent vowels that make a long vowel sound within a word, such as /ea/, /oa/, and /ay/. Vowel diphthongs are adjacent vowel combinations that start with one vowel sound and move into the other, such as /ew/ and /oi/. A consonant diagraph is a grouping of two or more adjacent consonants in a word that combine to make a new sound, rather than retain their individual sounds. Examples may be /sh/, /th/, or /ch/. Consonant digraphs are different from consonant blends or clusters, where each letter retains its own such as /sl/ or /gr/. Children may have difficulty with these patterns, because they are viewed as exceptions to the more common sound/letter combinations that students learn as emergent readers. Students do not need to learn terms, but rather to learn the sound/letter combinations and recognize them easily and quickly for decoding of words.

7 Question 2 Text: How does Ms. Marshall use word decoding as a jumping off point for a phonics lesson? Question 2 Hint: Review the second part of the video. Question 2 Feedback: Ms. Marshall begins with words in context and encourages students to sound out the letters and vowel combinations of an unknown word. She then moves immediately into a mini-lesson to demonstrate vowel diphthong combinations that link to the unknown word. Students are able to offer examples that fit the spelling patterns, pulling on their own background knowledge. Students have success because they can use their knowledge and build with the practice concepts. Notice how Ms. Marshall lists the words offered by the students vertically so that the students can readily see the /oy/ and /oi/ patterns in those words. Question 3 Text: Why is the small-group instruction appropriate for assessment? Question 3 Hint: Think about the teacher s ability to check for understanding and do on-thespot feedback and reinforcement. Question 3 Feedback: The group size allows the teacher to do informal assessment and check on students learning. She is able to hear students practice together and individually and note which students may need further practice or remediation. Question 4 Text: How does Ms. Marshall use teachable moments to teach good reader strategies and phonics instruction? Question 4 Hint: Review the second part of the video. Question 4 Feedback: Ms. Marshall is able to show students that good readers stop and look more carefully at each word, make use of chunking, and then check for meaning in context when they encounter an unfamiliar word. Assignments and Activities Title 5: Building Phonemic Awareness Learning Outcome 3: Explain the importance of sounds and rhyme in phonics instruction. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics, vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components.

8 Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a kindergarten teacher demonstrates a nursery rhyme lesson emphasizing the sound /p/. As you watch this video, identify ways children are helped to hear and become aware of individual sounds in spoken words (phonemic awareness). Video Asset: Building Phonemic Awareness URL:http://abavtooldev.pearsoncmg.com/myeducationlab/simpleviewer.php?projectID=literacy &clipid=building_phonemic_awareness.flv Question 1 Text: Explain why nursery rhymes are good sources for illustrating letter sounds and phonemic awareness. Question 1 Hint: Think about background knowledge and familiarity. Question 1 Feedback: Since children may already have memorized nursery rhymes or at least be familiar with the rhymes, the words will also be familiar to them. Nursery rhymes are also easily committed to memory. Also, frequently there are repeated sounds in nursery rhymes, so that phonemes can be heard and practiced. Question 2 Text: Explain why the use of a small group is especially effective for an activity in letter sounds. Question 2 Hint: Think about visual and auditory skills. Question 2 Feedback: The children are able to hear sounds accurately and also to watch as the teacher forms letters. In this example, the teacher clearly demonstrates the popping sound of the letter /p/ and is able to assess each student s performance as sounds are practiced. Question 3 Text: List the skills that are practiced during a small-group activity. Question 3 Hint: Think about learning styles. Question 3 Feedback: Students are practicing listening skills as well as practicing visual and auditory skills. Question 4 Text: Explain how the teacher can manage a small-group instruction center such as the one shown as part of daily instruction. Question 4 Hint: Note what other activities appear to be taking place in the classroom while the teacher is working with this small group. Question 4 Feedback: This small group can be part of center instruction. The teacher can have students rotate to this guided instruction table as part of other independent literacy centers that are set up in the classroom. In the video, it appears that at least one other adult is working with another small group. Activities and Applications Title 6: Matching Sounds in Phonics Instruction Learning Outcome 3: Explain the importance of sounds and rhyme in phonics instruction.

9 Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics, vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a group of children participates in a learning center in which they are asked to group objects that rhyme. As you watch the video, think about the experience and knowledge students bring that reinforce success with this learning center. Video Asset: Matching Sounds URL: ds&clipid=rm_02_234.flv Question 1 Text: What are the three components needed in this activity for students to be successful? Question 1 Hint: What must students be able to do? Question 1 Feedback: Students need to pronounce the words clearly and correctly, so speech clarity is important in this activity. Students need to be able to recognize and identify the example toys, and then connect the rime sound to the preselected groups. If a student does not know what an object is, it is not possible to complete the activity with understanding. The activity also gives evidence to the need to expand background knowledge to enhance learning. Question 2 Text: Describe the learning center activity in the video. Question 2 Hint: Observe what the children do. Question 2 Feedback: A small group of students uses a bin of objects and sorting containers that are labeled with common rimes. Each student has a sorting container, determines the rime found on the container, and selects objects from the bin that match the rime. This activity is auditory based; there is no writing or word matching part in the activity.

10 Question 3 Text: Is it necessary for this center activity to be monitored by a teacher? Why or why not? Question 3 Hint: Pay attention to the prompting done by the teacher as she works with the students. Question 3 Feedback: The teacher is needed in this example for monitoring and assessing students progress. One of the students may be an ELL and needs more support for the names of the objects. The center activity may eventually become a review station that could be done with little or no support and even used as an independent center while the teacher is working with a guided reading group. Question 4 Text: What multiple intelligences are addressed in this phonics activity? Question 4 Hint: Watch for all the things the students do. Question 4 Feedback: Kinesthetic intelligence is present in the active movement and handling of the objects. Visual/special intelligence is used by the observation and handling of tangible objects. The lesson uses auditory intelligence with students verbalizing and practicing sounds. The group interaction also provides for interpersonal intelligence. Activities and Applications Title 7: Defining Phonemic Awareness Learning Outcome 3: Explain the importance of sounds and rhyme in phonics instruction. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics, vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, teachers describe the importance of understanding phonemic awareness. As you watch the video, be aware of the five tasks used to help children hear individual sounds in spoken words (phonemes) and why phonemic awareness is an important component of literacy. Video Asset: Defining Phonemic Awareness

11 URL:http://abavtooldev.pearsoncmg.com/myeducationlab/simpleviewer.php?projectID=literacy &clipid=defining_phonemic_awareness.flv Question 1 Text: Define phonemic awareness. Question 1 Hint: Watch the video for the definition given by Dr. Juel. Question 1 Feedback: Phonemic awareness is the ability to distinguish individual sounds in spoken language. Question 2 Text: Explain the connection between phonemic awareness and the ability to read and write. Question 2 Hint: Why is the thinking connection between hearing sounds and repeating sounds so important? Question 2 Feedback: The kindergarten teacher in the video explains that phonemic awareness is the backbone of reading and writing instruction. Being able to distinguish the oral and spoken version of words is key to this connection. Question 3 Text: Explain why phonemic awareness can develop even before knowing the alphabet. Question 3 Hint: Look for the explanation of how children begin to perceive sounds and start to form phonemic awareness. Question 3 Feedback: Children actually begin to feel the sound in their mouths as they make the connection between sounds as they hear letters. Children will begin to be able to tell the sounds they hear and how to form and repeat those sounds before they even learn to write the sounds. Question 4 Text: What types of activities can be used for assessing students knowledge of phonemic awareness? Question 4 Hint: What instruction might the teacher plan for do with whole class and small groups to assess phonemic awareness? Question 4 Feedback: Students phonemic awareness can be assessed through picture identification and beginning letter sorts, isolating sounds through pictures, segmenting sound games, and manipulating sound games with rhyming words. Sound boxes, graphing sounds, and other games can all help to teach as well as assess phonemic awareness. Assignments and Activities Title 8: Onsets and Rimes in Phonics Instruction Learning Outcome 4: Describe how onset and rime are used in emergent literacy instruction. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics,

12 vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a group of children uses word cards, word family mats, and wipe-off boards to match and write words belonging to the word families /a/, /et/, /op/, and /ug/. As you watch the video, notice the ways in which the teacher interacts with the children and scaffolds their learning. Video Asset: Onsets and Rimes URL: ds&clipid=rm_02_237.flv Question 1 Text: Define onsets and rimes. Question 1 Hint: How are onsets and rimes connected to word families? Question 1 Feedback: Onsets are single consonants, consonant blends, and consonant digraphs that are found at the beginning of words or syllables. Rimes (sometimes called phonograms or word families) are the vowel and consonant combinations that follow the initial consonants. Question 2 Text: Why is it helpful for emergent readers to recognize common rimes in print? Question 2 Hint: How do rimes help students decode new words? Question 2 Feedback: Rimes are generally pronounced consistently which improves a student s likelihood of recognizing a pronounceable word part. Students are then able to expand their word recognition and word-building strategies by recognizing known and pronounceable rimes in an unknown word. Question 3 Text: How was the activity in the video scaffolded from prior experiences? Question 3 Hint: What did students need to know to be successful in this activity? Question 3 Feedback: Students had prior knowledge of hearing the rime word patterns in common words and unknown words that still follow the pattern. Students were familiar with the group of rimes being used in the activity. They also demonstrated sound/letter recognition and combinations in print, because they were able to sort the words by the rimes, not by pictures or objects. Students recognized not only their own assigned patterns but also other patterns in the group and were able to offer those rimes to the appropriate student. Students were then able to print their own matched rimes to the

13 sample sort pattern, indicating knowledge of letter formation and sound/letter connections. Question 4 Text: What is the difference between rime and rhyme? Question 4 Hint: Think about word families and rhyming words. Question 4 Feedback: The students in this video have been instructed to find three words from the same family. Their choices all have the same rime and they also rhyme. Rime indicates the same spelling in the second chunk of the word. Rhymes sound alike, but can be spelled differently such as pair and pear. Activities and Applications Title 9: Name Lotto Learning Outcome 4: Describe how onset and rime are used in emergent literacy instruction. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics, vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Assignment Introduction Text: Knowledge of the alphabet is a good predictor of early literacy success and, when appropriately introduced in the early childhood classroom, can represent an early literacy milestone. The teacher in this video clip has designed a classroom activity for fouryear-olds aimed at exposing children to the letters of the alphabet using their first names. As you watch the video, notice how the teacher s behaviors encourage letter recognition. Video Asset: Name Lotto URL:http://abavtooldev.pearsoncmg.com/myeducationlab/simpleviewer.php?projectID=earlychi ldhoodeducation&clipid=each_029_135.flv Question 1 Text: What does the teacher do during the name lotto game to help reinforce letter instruction? Question 1 Hint: Watch the teacher s behaviors as the students play the game.

14 Question 1 Feedback: The teacher sometimes points to each letter in the child s name as she says it. Also the teacher has color-coded capital letters to help students distinguish them from lower case letters. She spells out each name to the students orally as she shows them the cards, and then has the students read the names back to her. All of these behaviors help the students focus on the individual letters in the names. Question 2 Text: Why is using children s names a model of an effective lesson for letter instruction? Question 2 Hint: Reflect on why the students are motivated during this activity. Question 2 Feedback: Using names makes for an effective lesson for several reasons. One reason is by using the children s names the children will recognize a familiar first letter. Also, students at this age are very self-involved, so they are easily engaged in activities that include personal information. Also, this activity is a game rather than a worksheet, which makes it fun and enjoyable. Assignments and Activities Title 10: Decoding through Word Chunking Learning Outcome 5: Explain strategies for decoding in the instruction of phonics. Standard 1: Foundational Knowledge have knowledge of the foundations of reading and writing processes and instruction. Standard Element 1.4: As a result, candidates will demonstrate knowledge of the major components of reading (phonemic awareness, word identification and phonics, vocabulary and background knowledge, fluency, comprehension strategies, and motivation) and how they are integrated in fluent reading. list and define the major components of reading. explain how the components of reading are integrated during fluent reading. can articulate the research that grounds their practice. identify students strengths and weaknesses in relation to the various components. Standard 2: Instructional Strategies and Curriculum Materials use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, methods, and curriculum materials to support reading and writing instruction. Standard Element 2.3: As a result, candidates use a wide range of curriculum materials in effective reading instruction for learners at different stages of reading and writing development and from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. use a wide range of curriculum materials selected by a classroom teacher or reading specialist. plan for the use of a wide range of curriculum materials.

15 make selections that are guided by an evidence-based rationale and accommodate the developmental, cultural, and linguistic differences of their students. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a teacher works with a first-grade student on word recognition and chunking. As you watch the video, think about how clarity of pronunciation is needed for success in chunking. Video Asset: Word Chunking URL: ds&clipid=rmet_003_60.flv Question 1 Text: Why do you think the student may be struggling with this activity? Question 1 Hint: Where is the student s area of weakness? Question 1 Feedback: The student is not clearly discerning the ending consonant sound of the rime or phonogram. Since he does not hear it clearly in his own mind, he needs to have the assistance from the teacher, who pronounces each word family group to help him distinguish the ending sound. Question 2 Text: How does the activity provide practice for sight and sound recognition? Question 2 Hint: What two modalities are modeled in this activity? Question 2 Feedback: Some of the practice words are written and others are shown by pictures with no letters on the card. This provides practice in both visual recognition of similar letters and sound recognition of the rime. Question 3 Text: How does this activity support the learning of word chunking as a way to decode unknown words? Question 3 Hint: Consider the pronunciation and meaning of larger words. Question 3 Feedback: Once students learn to recognize smaller word parts by sight and sound, they are able to connect those smaller parts with others to pronounce a larger, more complicated word. Knowing the meaning of smaller parts may also help students use that knowledge and the context to determine meaning. Question 4 Text: What potential does this activity have for informal reading assessment? Question 4 Hint: What can the teacher learn from the student s performance in this activity? Question 4 Feedback: This activity has many of the same elements as an Informal Reading Inventory (IRI). The student is demonstrating what sounds he recognizes in words and in pictures. Word chunking is not only a practice activity, but it could also function as an assessment. Activities and Applications Title 11: Assessing Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

16 Learning Outcome 6: Describe how phonological and phonemic awareness can be assessed. Standard 3: Assessment, Diagnosis, and Evaluation use a variety of assessment tools and practices to plan and evaluate effective reading instruction. Standard Element 3.2: As a result, candidates place students along a developmental continuum and identify students proficiencies and difficulties. compare, contrast, and analyze information and assessment results to place students along a developmental continuum. recognize the variability in reading levels across children in the same grade and within a child across different subject areas. can identify students proficiencies and difficulties. recognize the need to make referrals for appropriate services. Assignment Introduction Text: In this video clip, a first-grade teacher explains how phonemic awareness is assessed and what these tests are used for. As you watch the video, think about the fundamental assessment tasks teachers use to assess phonological and phonemic awareness in order to plan focused instruction according to individual needs. Video Asset: Assessing Phonological and Phonemic Awareness URL:http://abavtooldev.pearsoncmg.com/myeducationlab/simpleviewer.php?projectID=literacy &clipid=assessing_phonological_and_phomeic_awareness.flv Question 1 Text: List the parts of the Phonological Awareness Skills Test. Question 1 Hint: The first-grade teacher explains the parts of the test at the beginning of the video. Question 1 Feedback: The test includes sections on breaking words down into phonemes, segmenting words, and identification of initial and final sounds. Question 2 Text: Explain how the Phonological Awareness Skills Test is useful for diagnosing reading and writing difficulties. Question 2 Hint: Listen carefully to the explanation given of the parts of the test and what reading and writing problems might be indicated by the results. Question 2 Feedback: The assessment will point to reasons for mistakes made in writing with the initial sounds and final sounds. The assessment can also show if the student is having difficulty breaking words down. A child that is having difficulty with the test may need remediation in the area of phonemic awareness. The teacher needs to know that emphasis on sounds should be a focus for those students who score poorly on the phonemic awareness test.

17 Question 3 Text: What cautions should teachers be aware of when assessing phonemic awareness? Question 3 Hint: What variables may affect a student s score? Question 3 Feedback: Teachers should be aware that some students do not understand the directions and may score poorly throughout because they do not understand how they should be responding. Often, once students understand the directions, they will respond correctly. Question 4 Text: Predict how often a teacher might use the Phonological Awareness Skills Test. Question 4 Hint: Think about the stage of reading when this test is administered. Question 4 Feedback: This test may be given at the beginning of the year and then administered as regular progress monitoring after practice and instruction.

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