# Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory

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1 Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. (1984), 95, Printed in Great Britain Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory BY R. A. G. SEELY John Abbott College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3L9, Canada (Received 12 July 1983; revised 17 September 1983) 0. Introduction. It is well known that for much of the mathematics of topos theory, it is in fact sufficient to use a category C whose slice categories C/A are cartesian closed. In such a category, the notion of a 'generalized set', for example an 'Aindexed set', is represented by a morphism B^-A of C, i.e. by an object of C/A. The point about such a category C is that C is a C-indexed category, and more, is a hyperdoctrine, so that it has a full first order logic associated with it. This logic has some peculiar aspects. For instance, the types are the objects of C and the terms are the morphisms of C. For a given type A, the predicates with a free variable of type A are morphisms into A, and 'proofs' are morphisms over A. We see here a certain 'ambiguity' between the notions of type, predicate, and term, of object and proof: a term of type A is a morphism into A, which is a predicate over A; a morphism 1 -> A can be viewed either as an object of type A or as a proof of the proposition A. For a long time now, it has been conjectured that the logic of such categories is given by the type theory of Martin-Lof [5], since one of the features of Martin-Lof's type theory is that it formalizes ' ambiguities' of this sort. However, to the best of my knowledge, no one has ever worked out the details of the relationship, and when the question again arose in the McGill Categorical Logic Seminar in , it was felt that making this precise was long overdue. That is the purpose of this paper. We shall describe the system ML, based on Martin-Lof's system, and show how to construct a locally cartesian closed category from an ML theory, and vice versa. Finally, we show these constructions are inverse. A somewhat different approach to the question was taken by John Cartmell[l], who describes a categorical structure suitable for Martin-Lof's type theory. I have taken greater liberties with the type theory, my purpose being to characterize locally cartesian closed categories; the payoff is that these categories are simpler, and perhaps more natural, than Cartmell's contextual categories. For example, since toposes are locally cartesian closed, there are many familiar locally cartesian closed categories: the category of Sets, and more generally Boolean (or Heyting) valued models and Kripke models of set theory, (indeed any other example of a category of sheaves on a site). These results were first presented at the McGill Categorical Logic Seminar: an early draft, based on the seminar notes, appeared as [11] and an abstract was published [12]. 1. The type theory ML. The type theory described here is based on Martin-Lof's, as given in Martin-Lof [5]. We adopt some simplifications of Diller [2]. In the interests of readability, we present the type theory more or less informally, as in the first section of Martin-Lof [5]; a more formal version would follow the second section of 2 PSP 95

2 34 R. A. G. SEELY that paper. In particular, a fuller discussion of the ' condition on variables' is given there ( 2-2). An ML system permits the construction of 'terms', 'types', and of expressions of the form tet ('t is a term of type T'), s = t, when set, tet have been derived, and S = T. We identify expressions differing only by a change of bound variables. If we write e\x\, then x denotes all free occurrences of a; in the expression e, and e[a] is then the result of replacing these occurrences with a, under the assumption that a is substitutable in e. If x lt..., x n is a sequence of variables, we say x lt...,x n,e satisfy the condition on variables (c.o.v.) if for each i < n, x i does not occur in the type of any free variable of e other than x k, for k > i.ifx lt...,x n contains all free variables occurring in e, we say the variables are properly listed in e[x v..., x n ] iix v...,x n,e satisfy the c.o.v. It should be noted that 'occur' is used in the following sense: if xex occurs in e, then any variables occurring in X also occur in e. We may write if the variables are properly listed in e[x v..., x n ] Definition. An ML theory is given by a language which includes a set of typed type-valued function constants, a set of typed term-valued function constants, and variables and constants as indicated in the following rules. (By 'typed function constants' we mean that the arguments have types specified, and in the case of termvalued constants, the value has its type specified as well. We assume the arguments are properly listed.) l-l-l. Type formation rules. The following are to be types: (i) If F is a type-valued function constant, and a v...,a n are terms of the appropriate types, then F(a v...,a n ) is a type. (ii) 1 is a type. (iii) If a, b e A, then I(a, b) is a type. (iv) If A,B[x] are types, xea, where x,b satisfy the c.o.v., then H xea B[x] and Z^e A B[x] are types. lix does not in fact occur in B, these are written A => B and AxB respectively Term formation rules. The following are to be terms of the indicated types: (vbl) For each type A, there are variables xea; (such x could also be denoted x A, if the type of x is not clear from the context.) (fen) If / is a term-valued function constant, and a 1)...,a n are terms of the appropriate types, then f(a v..., a n ) is a term of the appropriate type. (II) *el. (III) If t[x]eb[x], where x A,t (and a;^,.b) satisfy the c.o.v., then (also written Ax A t[x] e Hx A B[x]). (TIE) IffeYl x A B[x], aea, thenf(a)eb[a]. (El) If aea,beb[a], then <a,b}e'l xea B[x']. (SE) If ce'l xea B[x], then7r(c)e4, 7T'(c)eB[n(c)]. (=1) If aea, then r(a)el{a, a).

3 Locally cartesian closed categories 35 (= E) If a,bea, cel(a,b), dec[a,a,r(a)], where C[x,y,z] is a type depending on x,yea, zei(x,y), then a(d)[a,b,c]ec[a,b,c] Equality rules. Using the notation of 1-1-2, we have the following equations: (f eq) Any imposed equations on function constants induce the obvious equations. (lred) If<el,then< = *. (Tired) (* xea t[x])(a) = t[a]. (Uex V )f=a xea f(x). (S red) n«a,b)) = a; n'((a,b)) = b. (Sexp) c = (n(c),n'(c)y. (= red) cr(d) [a, a, r(a)] = d. (= exp) If/[a, b, c] e C[a, b, c], then/ = <r(f[a, a, r(a)]) [a, b, c]. (I rule) If a[x], b[x]ea, t[x]el(a[x], b[x]), then a[x] = b[x], and t[x] = r(a[x]). Furthermore, an ML theory may have axioms of the form S = T for types S, T. (We suppose similar axioms for terms are given by function constants of the appropriate I-type.) Finally, we have the usual rules for = : for types or terms o, b, c (as appropriate): If a = b then c[a] = c[b]. If a b then b = a. If a = b and b = c, then a = c. a = a. If cea and a = b, then ce6. If aec and a = b, then 6ec Remarks. There are obvious similarities between ML and first order logic - the types of ML correspond to predicates, and the terms of ML to derivations of the predicates, so that' t e T' can be interpreted as ' t proves T'. Under this interpretation, I(a,b) is a = b, U xea B[x] is VxeAB[x], ~L xea B[x\ is 3xeAB[x], and 1 is T. Furthermore, the term formation rules are then the introduction and elimination rules in a natural deduction system for first order (intuitionistic) logic, as in Prawitz [7] or [8] (also Seely [10], where equality is included in the system). There is a slight problem with (SE): although it specializes properly to (AE), it does not seem quite like (3E), which is usually denoted 3xeABjx] C C where {} denote a discharged assumption, and where x must not occur freely in 3xeAB[x],C, or any assumption other than B on which C depends. This is more closely given by Martin-Lof 's version of (SE) in [5]: (2 elim) If <7[2] is a type depending on zes^^ijla;] but not on #6.4 nor on y eb[x], and if t[x,y]ec[(x,y>] is a term depending on xe A, yeb[x], then there is a term i(z)ec[z\. This rule is accompanied by its own reduction and expansion rules: (S red n) *(<*,?>) = *[*,*]. (S exp n) If/[z]eC[z], and if t[x,y] is/[<a:,y>], then/[z] = l(z). (Martin-Lof does not give (S exp n), nor any other expansions, in his system. The expansions are all based on the ones in Seely [9] or [10].)

4 36 R. A. G. SEELY It is easy to see that the ( E), (2 red), (S exp) of ML are special cases of (2 elim), (2 red n), (2 exp n), but it is also true that they imply the more general forms. For example, the I in (2 elim) may be given by l(z) = t[n(z), n'(z)]; the other equations follow immediately. The equality rules for ML, under the interpretation of ML as first order logic, correspond to the operations on derivations given in Seely [10]. (The (Irule) corresponds to Corollary 1 of 2 of [10], and is a consequence of the rule (RCoh) expressing that 'z = x' is isomorphic to T x, the terminal 'truth' predicate. It expresses that equality is given by an equalizer; it does not occur in Martin-Lof[5].) So, in effect, terms correspond rather to equivalence classes of derivations ('proofs') in first order logic, than to derivations themselves. There is one major difference between ML and first order logic: in regarding types as predicates, we then use both notions at the same time in forming U xea B[x], ~L xea B[x\. Equivalently, we are quantifying in some sense over proofs of predicates. It is precisely this ambiguity between types (as 'sets') and predicates that we need to characterize locally cartesian closed categories. In addition to the analogy with first order logic, the notation suggests the terms and types have a naive interpretation in Sets: II and 2 are the cartesian product and disjoint union of indexed families respectively. 1 is the singleton family. / is the identity: if a, b are indexed families of objects then I (a, b) is the family made up of singletons where a and b are equal and of null sets where they are not. This is the basis for what follows, as will be seen in As in Seely[10], from the substitution rule for equality (i.e. (= E)) we can derive symmetry and transitivity of equality: LEMMA. If a,b,cea, del(a,b), eel(b,c), then there are terms S(a,b,d)el(b,a) and T(a,b,c,d,e)el(a,c). IffeA => B, then there is a term Ap(a,b,d,f)el(f(a),f(b)). Proof, (i) Let C[x,y,u] be I(y,x), for x,yea, uel(x,y); then r(a)ec[a,a,r(a)]. Take S(a, b, d) to be a{r(a)) [a, b, d], of type C[a, b, d] = I(b, a). (ii) Let C[y,z,v] be I(a,z), for y,zea, vel(y,z). Then C[b,b,r(b)] is I(a,b) and d e C[b, b, r{b)]. Take T(a, b, c, d, e) to be a(d) [b, c, e], of type C[b, c, e] = I(a, c). (iii) Let C[x,y,u] be I(f(x),f(y)), for x,yea, uel(x,y); r(f(a))ec[a,a,r(a)] = /(/(a),/(a)). Take Ap (a, b, d,f) to be o-(r(f(a))) [a, b, d]. 2. Categorical preliminaries. For basics, refer to Mac Lane [4] Definition. A locally cartesian closed category (LCC) C is a category C with finite limits, such that for any object A of C, the slice category C/A is cartesian closed Remark. C/A has as its objects all morphisms B->A of C (for all possible B). Morphisms in C/A are commutative triangles over A:

5 Locally cartesian closed categories 37 If C has finite limits, then each category C/A also has. However, even if C has exponents, the categories C/A need not have them: that they do is the essential property of an LCC category Definition. For C a category with finite limits, a C-indexed category P consists of: (i) for each object A of C, a category P(A), (ii) for each morphism/: A^-B of C, afunctor/*: P(B)->1*{A), subject to (i) (idj* S id PU), (ii) (9/)* =/V, and standard coherence conditions. (See Par6-Schumacher[6].) 2-3. Definition. A C-indexed category P is a hyperdoctrine if (i) for each object A of C, ~P(A) is cartesian closed, (ii) for each/: A -> B of C, /* preserves exponents, (iii) for each/: A -> B of C, /* has adjoints Sy -H/* i Yl f, (iv) P satisfies the Beck condition: if I 1 is a pullback in C, then for any object <f> of P(C), ~L k h*<l>->/*e ff <f> is an isomorphism in P(J4). (A similar condition for FI follows from this.) 2-4. Any category C with finite limits induces a C-indexed category (which we shall denote C also) given by C(^4) = C/A;f* is then defined by pullback. One of the basic results of topos theory is the following. THEOREM. // C has finite limits, then C is LCC iff as a C-indexed category C is a hyperdoctrine. A proof may be found in Freyd [3], 1-3. The point is that for all A, C/A is cartesian closed iff for all/,/* has a right adjoint H f. For any C with finite limits, each/* of C has a left adjoint 2y (defined by composition), and the Beck condition for C is satisfied (it says the composite of two pullback diagrams is a pullback diagram, which is always true) In Seely[10] it is shown that the category of hyperdoctrines is equivalent to the category of first order theories (with equality). With the interpretation of ML theories as specialfirstorder theories, and of LCC categories as special hyperdoctrines, the connection between ML theories and LCC categories seems natural Definition. Two C-indexed categories P x and P 2 are equivalent, P x ~ P 2, if for each A, there is an equivalence Pi(A) ~ P 2 (^l), and furthermore, these equivalences commute with the/*'s Remark. If P x ~ P 2 as C-indexed categories, and if P x is a hyperdoctrine,

6 38 R. A. G. SEELY then so is P 2, and moreover, the equivalences P X (A) ~ P 2 (A) commute with the Z/s and IL/s. 3. From ML to LCC. Given an ML theory M, we define a category C(M), whose objects are all closed types of M (i.e. types depending on no free variables), and morphisms A^-B are closed terms of type A => B. (So /: A-+B in C(M) means fea =BinM.) 3-1. PROPOSITION. C(M) is cartesian closed. Proof. We can check that C(M) is a cartesian closed category with finite limits directly; the details are straightforward. (The reader can turn directly to 3-2.) Category axioms. For an object A, id A :A->A is A xea x. Given f:a-*b, g:b->c,gof:a-+cis A xea g(f(x)). foid A = fo(a xea x) = A ysa f((a xea x){y)) (definitions) = \e A f(y) (H red) = / (Ilexp). Similarly idjjof = /, ho (gof) = (hog) of Products. 1 is the terminal object of C(M). Given any object A, there is a morphism A -> 1, namely A xea *. LEMMA. For any closed type A, if t is a closed term of type A =3 1, then t = X xea * = A xea t(x) (Ilexp) (Ired). For objects A,B, AxB is given by AxB; pah-ing <,), and projections n, n' are likewise given by' themselves', and that the requisite equations are satisfied is obvious from (S red) and (S exp) LEMMA (PTJLLBACKS). Givent: A->B, s: C-+B, thepullback Pof s along t p is given by H xea 'E yec I(t(x),s(y)), q is nn'. C» B with the evident projections to A and C: p is n and Proof. Given/: X->A, g: X->C such that tf = sq, note that there is a term p(x)gl(t(f(x)),s(q(x))), for xex, viz. r(t(f(x))). Define h: X^P by A a :c </(*),< (*),^)». Clearly ph =/and qh = g, and (using the (I rule) to see p(x) is the only possible term in I(t(f(x)), s(q(x)))) his unique with this property.

7 Locally cartesian closed categories Remark (Equalizers). Given s,t: Az B, the equalizer of s,t eq(s,t) >->AzZB is given by 'L zea I(s(x),t(x)) > the inclusion being the projection n. (That it is a monomorphism follows from the (I rule).) LEMMA (EXPONENTS). B A defined as A=> B makes C(M) cartesian closed. Proof. Given t: A xc^b, define t = A yec *. xea t((x,y)): G^B A ; given s:g^b A, define s = A z AxC s(n'(z))(n(z)): AxC^-B. It is a routine exercise to see these operations are inverse. (Note that this correspondence is the usual one; for example, ev: AxB A^-B is just A Z AXB A n'(z) (n(z)), so that ev «a,/» = /(a).) 3-2. THEOREM. C(M) is locally cartesian closed. Proof. To see that C(M) is LCC, we must check that the slice categories C(M)/A are cartesian closed, or equivalently, that C(M) is a hyperdoctrine. To do this we define two C(M)-indexed categories, one being C(M) itself, and show they are equivalent hyperdoctrines Definition. P(M) is the C(M)-indexed category defined by: (i) for an object A of C(M), P(M) (.4) is the category whose objects are types B[x], depending only on x e A, and whose morphisms are terms t[x] e B[x] => C[x], depending only on xea. (ii) for a term feb^a (i.e. /: B->A in C(M)) /* is denned by substitution: e[x]i->e[/(2/)], yeb, for an expression e LEMMA. For any closed type A, P(M) (A) is cartesian closed. Proof. The proof of this fact is exactly like the proof that C(M) was cartesian closed. (We never really needed to know that the objects were closed types, so repeat the arguments with a parameter xea.) LEMMA. For any closed type A, C(M)/A ~ P(M) (A). Proof. We define functors C(M)/A ^ ^ > P(M) (^4): A (i) For /: B^-A, f is the type f- x (x) = ^ S v6b /(x,/(2/)), xea, For a morphism h of C(M)/A: A so that f = goh, h is the term A 2e/ -i( a. ) <A(77 1 (z)),p)e/- 1 (a;) ^g'hx), where pel(x, g(h{n(z)))) is defined by 'transitivity' from n'{z) el(x,f{n(z))) and r(j(n{z)))el(f(n(z)), g(h(n(z)))), using Lemma 1-3. (ii) For B[x] in P(M)(-4), B is the morphism in C(M) given by the projection n: I, X A B[x]^-A. For t[x]eb[x) => C[x] in P(M) {A), I is given by ^&ibw <n(z), t[n(z)] (n'(z))) of type Y. xea B[x] => X xea C[x]. It is easy to check this gives a morphism in C(M)/A.

8 40 R. A. G. SEELY We must now show these are functors, and the two composites are isomorphic to the identity functors. We shall not give all the details - the highlights are the following SUBLEMMA. If feb=> A in M, then the objects B and S wi /" 1 (a;) are isomorphic in C(M). i Proof. Morphisms B^_^~L X A ^y B^i. x >f(y)) are given by for xea, yeb, zel(x,f(y)). (Actually, there is considerable abuse of language here: i and j should be given using A terms, and (x, (y, z» should be a single variable we'l xea f- 1 (x); x, y, z thus stand for projection terms.) Clearly j(i{y)) = y. For the inverse, i(j((x, (y, z») = <J{y),{y, r(f(y)))) and thus we are done if we show x =f{y), z = r{f(y)). But since zel{x,f(y)), this is a consequence of the (I rule) SUBLEMMA. For B[x] a type, xea, the objects B[x] and are isomorphic in P(M)(A). Proof. Morphisms B[x]^IZ!>'L yel^ab[x] I(x,n(y)) m i(z) = «x,z),r(x)} are given by ior x, x' e A, z e B[x], z' e B[x'], v e I(x, x'), (with the familiar abuse of language.) Clearly j(i(z)) = z. Inversely, i(j(((x',z'y,v))) = ({x,z'),r(x)), and we are done if x = x', z' eb[x], and v = r(x). These follow from the (I rule) as before SUBLEMMA. // A is a closed type, B[x A ] a type in P(M) (A), then there is a bijection between the set of terms t[x] e B[x] and the set of (closed) terms sea => T, xea B[x satisfying n(s(x)) = x. Remark. To see the significance of this, recall that P(M) (^4) is cartesian closed and that A =; J: xea 1 in C(M). Proof. The functors of in this case specialize to The composites are (i) t[x]^t = \ x A (x,t[x]), = s, and (ii) n'((\ xea (x,t[x]y) (x)) = n'{(x,t[x])) = t[x]. (These proofs also work if A, B, B[x] have other parameters, and a similar result holds for B[x] with more than one (extra) variable.) PEOPOSITION. AS C(M)-indexed categories, C(M) ~ P(M).

9 Locally cartesian closed categories 41 Proof. The only other point to verify is that the equivalences of Lemma commute with the/*'s: given/: B-+A in C(M), it suffices to show that C(M)/A S *» C(M)/JJ commutes. Let t: C^A be in C{M)/A; t = t~\x A ) in P(M)(A), f*(t) = t~ l (f(y B )), and (/ (?))» is X veb t-hf(y))^b, i.e. Zy 6S Z. eo Hf(y),t(z)) + B. But this is just the definition of the pullback of t along/, as in Lemma 3-1-3, i.e. (/*(<))* = /*(<) PROPOSITION. C(M) is a hyper doctrine. Proof. Since P(M)(^4) is cartesian closed, so also is C(M)/.4, for each A, and so C(M) is a hyperdoctrine Remark. Although this completes the proof of Theorem 3-2, in fact it is easy to show by direct calculation that P(M) is a hyperdoctrine (equivalent to C(M), by the preceding). For example, the construction of 2 /; 11^, for/: B->A, is exactly the same as for first order logic, as in Seely [10]: for P[y B ] in P(M) (B), U f P[y] = n yeb (I(x A,f(y)) It is easy to check these commute with the equivalences of Interpreting ML in LGC. Given an ML theory M and an LCC category C, it is possible to define the notion of an interpretation of M in C, denoted M -> C. 41. Definition. An interpretation ~: M->C consists of: (i) for a type-valued function constant, F, with arguments of types X lt...,x n, a morphism <j>: F->X n of C, and (ii) for a term-valued function constant, /, with arguments of type X lt...,x n, and value of type A, a morphism/: X n^-a of C/X, X the codomain of X n and A. X n, A must be defined consistently with 4-4. We shall generally write F = <fi: F-+X n (abusing the notation horribly!) Given an interpretation ~: M -> C, we shall extend it to all types and terms of M: a type depending on a free variable xea will be interpreted as an object in C/A (for suitable A), and terms will be interpreted as morphisms in the appropriate slice categories. In particular, a closed type A (with no free variables) will correspond to an object A of C, and if t[v]e A depends only oneel, t will correspond to a morphism t: X ->A. The main intuitive idea is that we think of the type B[x A ] as the morphism n: I, xea B[x] -> A, (this will be B-> A), and so B -+ A is the type /- 1 (x A ), as in Lemma 3-2-3; note that via this interpretation, / is the projection n Remark (concerning the condition on variables). If B[x lt..., x n ] is a type with the variables properly listed, x 1 ex 1, x 2 ex 2 [x 1 ],...,x n ex n [x lt..^xn^], then under our

10 42 R. A. G. SEELY interpretation X lt being closed, corresponds to an object X 1 of C. X 2 should correspond to a morphism ^2: X 2 ->X lt where we think of X 2 as H, xexi X 2 [x]. Then, in saying x 2 e Ja^J to form X 3 [x lt x 2 ], we are implying that the x x is # 2 (z 2 ) an d so X 3 becomes a morphism # 3 :X 3 ->X 2. This induces the expected morphism X s ->-X 1 xx 2 as (JX2X3' Xz)- (Equivalently, we could interpret X z as Xz- X 3^-X 1 x X 2 ; then the c.o.v. would require that commutes, inducing % z : X 3 ->X 2 as n'x'a)- Similarly for the other variables, so that B is interpreted as B-+X n with induced 'projections' to X x,...,x n _ v In what follows, we assume variables are properly listed We now extend the notion of interpretation to all terms and types of M. Since M is (like) a first order theory, and C is a hyperdoctrine, this follows the ideas of Seely [10] closely; we give fairly complete details to allow the reader to verify 4-5. Definition (continued). Given an interpretation ~: M->C (as in 4-1), the extension of ~ to all types and terms of M is defined as follows (i.e. the following equalities must be true of ~): (Substitution). The substitution of a term t in a type A is defined via the functor t* (for the hyperdoctrine C): A[t] = t*a. The substitution of t in a term a is defined by composition: a[t] = a-l (Type formation rules), (i) 1 = 1. (ii) I(x A,y A ) = Aj: A-> Ax A. (In view of the definition of substitution, if a,bea are interpreted as a,b: X->A, X the interpretation of the type(s) of free variable(s) in a, b, then I(a, b) is the equalizer Eq (a, b) -> X of a and b.) (iii) If A, B[x A ] are types interpreted a,a a,: A->X, fi: B->A, then B\X\ = nj, (Here II a, 2 a are adjoints to a*, in the hyperdoctrine C. X interprets the type(s) of free variables in A, and also those other than x A in B.) Remark. If B is independent of x A, then 5[x^] is B with a dummy free variable x A added; i.e. B = ft': JJ->X, and B[x A ] is the pullback A x XB B

11 Locally cartesian closed categories 43 i.e. B[x A ] = a* ft'. Then U xea B[x] = U a a*ft' = a =>/?', and Z x<ea B[x] = Z a a*jff' = (Term formation rules). Variables are interpreted as identity morphisms, as in Seely[10]. (II). ; = id i: l-^l. (III). If t[x A ]eb[x A ], <[a;^] is a morphism l A ->fi in C/A, i.e. a triangle B in C. Then A aea t[x] = U a t; since II a i A = ljj.t his is a morphism l^-*-ii a f! inc/x (ITE). IifeYl xea B[x], aea are interpreted by morphisms/: f->ii a /?, a: ->-a in C/X, for some : Z->X, then/(a): lj->a*/? in C/.Z is defined as follows: (without loss in generality, we suppose a,f depend on the same free variables 'Z'; add dummy variables if not). Since a: ->a is a morphism in C/X, ad =, and so there is a morphism ('id') 2 a a-> in C/X. By adjointness, there is a morphism a->a* in C/A. Similarly, /: ->- U a fi in C/X induces a morphism <x* ->/? in C/A. Composing, we have a morphism a-> /?; i.e. a morphism S^lg->/? in C/A, and again adjointness gives the required f(a): lg-»-a*/?. (21). If aea, beb[a], a: ->a in C/X, 6: H^a*p~ in C/Z, for some f: Z->X (again supposing a, b depend on the same free variables), then (a, b): ->2 a /ff in C/X is obtained from the morphism induced by b: 1^^-a*ft:viz. 2 s lg-*/?, in C/A. Since 2^1^ is a, we have a^-/?. Apply 2 a to get S a a^-2 a yff. But again the morphism ('id') ->2 a a gives us, by composition, <a, 6>. (2E). As indicated in 4-2, n = /?: S a y5^-a. As for TT', essentially jr' is the identity map. (This is because of a peculiarity of category theory, whereby for a map whose 'codomain' depends on the argument of the map, these 'partial codomains' are replaced by their disjoint sum. Here we want a map Z,x A B[x]-+'B[x]'; we replace this with Xx A B[x] -> 2x A B[x].) To see how this works, suppose c e ~Z xea B[x], c: ->Z a /?inc/x (for some : Z->X); we derive n'(c): \ z -» (n(c)) *ftvia the following correspondence. Note that n(c) = fie: ^a, and so (n(c))*p~= (/?c) *y?= c*p*/3. c.pc^-fi in C/A c-.'lpglz -> ft in C/A n'(c):lz-*(/3c)*p~ m C/Z ( = I). r(,-r^) = id^: A-+A. Hence if ae.4, a: ^-^a. then I(a,a) is,a)v>2) = (idi z : Z -+Z), and r(a) is idg ( = E). In SeelyflO] ( 5) it is shown that any hyperdoctrine P has 'substitution' morphisms B\a\ x I(a, b)->b[b], where B[x A ] is a predicate in P(^4), / is the 'equality

12 44 R. A. G. SEELY predicate', and a, b are terms of type A. This is essentially ( = E), since by the c.o.v. Ci x A>yA> z Hx, y )\ must be interpreted as a morphism C->A; recall that I{x,y) is Aj: A->Ax A.) Briefly the details are as follows: If, for some : Z->X, a, be A are interpreted as a, b: ->a in C/X, the substitution morphism is a*fix(a,b)*i->b*/1 inc/z given by the following, a * /? x (a, 6> * / is the morphism P^-Z defined by the top left pullback in =, j P 1 ^ A a*b b */\$ is the pullback of ft along b: b*b B P.b. The morphism between these pullbacks is induced by the commutative square P a*b * B V z z A I id,, by the pullback's universal property PROPOSITION (SOUNDNESS). For any interpretation ~: M->C, as given in 4-1 and 4-4, the equality rules are all valid under the interpretation. The proof of the soundness theorem is a straightforward matter of checking definitions. Since a similar sort of result is discussed in Seely [10], I omit most of the details here. (1 red) is valid since 1 is a terminal object. (IT red). If in the notation of for the Ft rules, Z = X, = id 5, f=ax A t[x]. a: ljf->a, then one can check that of the two morphisms whose composite a^-fi induces f(a): ljf-»a*(1, the first a->a* is a itself (a* = 1 A ), and the second a is i, so the composite is t-a = t[a].

13 Locally cartesian closed categories 45 (II exp) is checked similarly; the point here is that the adjunction correspondences are just (II I). (a* y^fi)^->(y-» HJ) and (II E): (y-> nj)v* (a* y^ ). (E red) and (S exp) follow similarly, from the remark that essentially (S I) is the adjunction correspondence (/?-= a * y) H>- (S a /?->y), and (S E) is ( a /?-> y)»-> (f}->a* y). ( = red) and ( = exp) are similar to the proof in Seely [10] ( 5). (/ rule) is valid, essentially since equalizers are monomorphisms: If a, be A are interpreted &sa,b: Z->A (Z interpreting the type of the variable x in a[x], b[x\), then i: I(a,b) y->z is the equalizer. If t[x] el(a[x], b[x]), and x satisfies the c.o.v., then t is a morphism in C/Z: Z It is easy to see that there can be at most one such I, since i-t = id^, and i is mono; and that the existence of such a I implies i is an isomorphism, so that a = b. (Hint: i must be mono since i is, and so also t i = id^.) 4-6. Given an ML theory M, there is a canonical interpretation ~: M->C(M), essentially using the ideas of Lemma 3-2-3; types are interpreted as their 'extensions', and terms are interpreted according to So if A[x lt..., x n ] is a type depending on z 1 ex 1, x 2 ex 2 [x 1 ],...,x n ex n [x v...,x n _ 1 ], then X x is interpreted as itself, X 2 is interpreted as the projection term n: 2, XieXi X 2 [x 1 ]->X 1 (denoted X^-^-Xj), and so on, A being interpreted as the projection ^ e X a ^x 2 e XJLX{1 ^x n e X n [x x...a^-j A[x x... J (denoted A-+X n ). The main fact we must check is that this is compatible with (i) Since 1 is closed, 1 = 1. (ii) /(*, y) is interpreted as Y, xea T, y A I(x,y)^-AxA:(x,y,r}\-^(x, y) (supposing for simplicity that A is closed). We must show an isomorphism making the triangle commute. The evident maps will do, because of the (I rule): <x, y,r)h->x and xt-> (x, x, r(x)> are the required inverses. (iii) If for xea, B[x] is a type, then B[x] is interpreted as 2 Z6^.B[V]->-^4 (again supposing A closed). ^xe A^l x ] an( i ^xe^-^m are interpreted as themselves (since they are closed): we must show they are (isomorphic to) II^7r and Ti A n (where we identify A with A^-l). The latter is obvious, since I> A n = 2, xea B[x]->l. For the former, note that 11^ 7r = 2 /e^- J v 2/lB r, ] /(7T/,id^), the pullback of n A :A=>I,x A B[x]^-A=> A along rid 1 : 1 -> A => A. To see this is isomorphic to U xea B[x], we can copy the proof of : to t in 11^ A B[x]

14 46 R. A. G. SEELY associate t = (& xea (pc,t(x)}, r(id A )), and to s in U A n, associate s = A X6A n\ns)(x). It is easy to check these are inverse Given an ML theory M and an LCC C, an interpretation ~: M -» C induces a functor F: C(M)-»-C preserving all LCC structure. Under ~, closed types of M are interpreted as objects of C, and closed terms as morphisms; it can then be checked that this is in fact functorial. That LCC structure is preserved follows from soundness (4-5). Hence: PROPOSITION. There is a canonical interpretation ~: M->C(M); given any other interpretation ~: M -» C, there is a unique functor F: C(M) -> C making M ^ C(M) C commute (in the evident sense) Definitions, (i) LCC is the category of all LCC categories and structure preserving functors. (ii) For any ML theory M and any LCC category C, Int (M, C) is the set of interpretations M->C. (iii) For ML theories M,M', an interpretation M->M' is an interpretation (iv) ML is the category of all ML theories and interpretations between them. Remark. It is straightforward to check that the definition (iii) is equivalent to the standard syntactical description one would expect of the notion 'interpretation of ML theories' COROLLARY, (i) For any ML theory M, and any LCC category C, Int (M, C) ~ LCC (C(M), C). (ii) For ML theories M, M', ML(M, M') ~ LGC(C(M), C(M')); each is isomorphic to Int (M, (CM')) Remark. Int (, ) is in fact functorial: given an interpretation/: M->M' in ML, and a functor g: C -» C in LCC, we have maps Int(/,C):Int(M',C)-^Int(M,C) and Int(M,g): Int(M,C)->Int(M,C), with the expected properties. The isomorphisms of 4-8 are then natural in each variable. 5. From LCC to ML. Given an LCC category C, we define an ML theory M(C), basically by mimicking the definition (4-1, 4-4) of an interpretation. The objects of C are to be the type constants of M(C) (i.e. type-valued function symbols with no argument), and the morphisms of C are to be term-valued function symbols, with argument and value of types given by the domain and codomain respectively. Following the steps of 4-4, the other types and terms are defined as objects and

15 Locally cartesian closed categories 47 morphisms of appropriate slice categories, so that, e.g., a type with a free variable x A is an object of C/A. We have to make certain that the syntactical constructions give the correct results; for instance, if A, B are objects of C (and so types of M(C)) then there is an object A x B (which is a type of M(C)) as well as a (different!) type AxB: these should be equal. So we add all such equations to M(C). (In Seely[10] a similar construction is carried out, adding appropriate terms (or derivations) and equations (or operations) forcing the terms to be the required isomorphisms.) We omit the details The point about M(C) is that its types are the predicates of the first order theory T(C) corresponding to the hyperdoctrine C, and its terms are the 'proofs' (equivalence classes of derivations) in T(G) PROPOSITIOX. M(C) is an ML theory. The proof is essentially the same as the proof of the Soundness Theorem Remark. In denning M(C) above, we could regard an ML theory as made up of a set of types, a set of terms, a relation 'e' between them, and equality relations ' = ' on each, the type and term formation rules being regarded as closure conditions on these sets, and the equality rules as conditions on ' = '. This viewpoint produces a somewhat more economical structure for M(C). In adopting the more usual viewpoint, regarding the formation rules as a procedure for generating new terms and types from old, we produce a 'fatter' structure for M(C); this does not present too much of a problem. First we note that an ML theory M has a natural categorical structure (essentially C(M)). Then note that the 'extra' types and terms of the fat version of M(C) are isomorphic to ones in the more economical version of M(C), and so the two versions are in fact equivalent theories; this is essentially Proposition Remark. An LCC functor F:C->C canonically induces an interpretation M(C)-»C, and furthermore Int(M(C), C) ^ LCC(C, C) (naturally in C and C). A direct proof may be done as an exercise. The result is also a corollary of Definition. Two ML theories M, M' are equivalent if the functors Int(M,~), Int (M', -) are naturally isomorphic. Remark. This means that for any C in LCC, there is an isomorphism Int(M,C)^Int(M',C), and moreover, for any functor/: C-»C, Int(M,C)^Int(M',C) \ 1 Int(M,C')^Int(M',C) commutes. By 4-8 this is equivalent to C(M) s C(M') in LCC, or that MsM'in ML. There is also an equivalent' standard syntactical description' of equivalence of ML theories: it may be left as an exercise to write this out, showing it equivalent to 5-5.

16 48 R. A. G. SEELY 6. Equivalences 61. THEOREM. IfC is LOG, then C = C(M(C)). Proof. By construction of M(C), theclosed types and terms of M(C) are the predicates and proofs of C/l (i.e. without free variables). But C/l s C. Hence C(M(C)) =r C Remark. By 4-8 and 5-4, LCG(C,C) s LCC(C(M(C)), C), giving an alternative proof. (Or: 6-1 and 4-8 imply 5-4.) 6-2. THEOREM. If M is an ML theory, M(C(M)) is an equivalent ML theory. Proof. Immediate from 6-1 and the definition THEOREM. The categories ML and LCC are equivalent. Proof. Immediate from 6-1, 6-2. Note that, from 5-4 and 6-1, LCC(C,C) ~ Int(M(C),C) ~ Int(M(C),G(M(C'))) = ML(M(C), M(C')), and we have already seen in 4-8 that ML(M, M') ^ LCC(C(M)), C(M')). REFERENCES [1] J. W. CARTMELL. Generalized algebraic theories and contextual categories, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oxford, [2] J. DILLER. Modified realisation and the formulae-as-types notion. In To H. B. Gurry: Essays on Gombinatory Logic, Lambda Calculus and Formalism, ed. J. P. Seldin and J. R. Hindley (Academic Press, 1980), [3] P. FBEYD. Aspects of topoi, Bull. Australian Math. Soc. 7 (1972), [4] S. MACLANE. Categories for the Working Mathematician (Springer-Verlag, 1971). [5] P. MABTIN-L6F. An intuitionistic theory of types: predicative part. In Logic Colloquium '73, ed. H. E. Rose and J. C. Shepherdson (North-Holland, 1974), [6] R. PABE and D. SCHUMACHER. Abstract families and the adjoint functor theorems. In Indexed Categories and Their Applications, ed. P. T. Johnstone and R. Pare 1 (Springer- Verlag, 1978). [7] D. PBAWITZ. Natural Deduction: a Proof-theoretical Study (Almqvist and Wiksell, 1965). [8] D. PBAWITZ. Ideas and results in proof theory. In Proc. of the Second Scandinavian Logic Symposium, ed. J. E. Fenstad (North-Holland, 1971), [9] R. A. G. SEELY. Hyperdoctrines and natural deduction. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, [10] R. A. G. SEELY. Hyperdoctrines, natural deduction, and the Beck condition. Zeitschrift fur Math. Logik und Orundlagen der Math. (To appear, 1984.) [11] R. A. G. SEELY. Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory. McGill University Mathematics Report (Montreal, 1982). [12] R. A. G. SEELY. Locally cartesian closed categories and type theory. Mathematical Reports of the Academy of Science, IV, 5, (Canada, 1982).

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