API OICS Guided Wave Radar Probe types and applications. By Kevin Martyn Magnetrol April 14/08

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1 API OICS Guided Wave Radar Probe types and applications By Kevin Martyn Magnetrol April 14/08

2 Types Coaxial Twin Single rod Dual element probes, no beam spread, high sensitivity. Single element probes, less sensitivity. High build up resistance. In a matched chamber performs like a coaxial probe Selecting the right probe is key to the application, in both electrical and mechanical aspects. It their simplest form they are just a rod in a process, made with compatible metal, that can be cut, bent, or coated to suit the application. Over 20 types to choose from, that fall into two simple categories, single or dual element. Twin and Single Rod Probe can be rigid or flexible.

3 Anatomy and function of GWR Probes To better understand their application, lets look at what they do. End of Probe Pulse Fiducial Pulse Level Pulse

4 Anatomy and function of GWR Probes End of Probe Pulse Fiducial Pulse Level Pulse Let s break our look at this into 3 sections.

5 Starting at the top of the probe Engineered impedance change (Fiducial) causes a reference reflection in the probe gland rather that in the vessel where it can cause error (transition zone) or complete loss of signal (blind zone). This allows a true overfill rated device, as opposed to hold last value approaches and their associated risk. This contributes to their suitability as SIL 2 devices. Deadzones, null areas, transition zones etc. can now be avoided in almost all applications Delay line which connects the electronics to the probe is a predetermined length (9 Typical). The fiducial is continuously measured to verify calibration and accuracy. Can be extended to 15 feet for convenient remote electronics. The process seal is also contained in this section. Certified to ISA , confirming reliability of both hard bonded, and soft (o-ring) type seals. Our seals are tested up to 16,000 psi by accredited 3 rd party agencies. Seals can be bonded borosilicate glass (hermetic) or a variety of o-rings materials combined with other materials like Teflon, Peek, or alumina, depending on application requirements. A reference target is added to the probe a few inches below the gland, in those cases where the dielectric of the upper gas vapor is variable and high enough to start impacting accuracy (steam). It measures and provides correction of error. With this compensation algorithm, boiler drum level, feed water heaters and flash tanks become excellent applications.

6 Seal types and related applications Hard bonded seals, and soft o-ring seals Hard Seals Contain borosilicate glass Rated to 800F or 6250 PSI Hermetic seal useful for full-vacuum applications Rated to -320F for cryogenic applications Must be used for ALL anhydrous ammonia and chlorine applications Not a good choice for saturated steam Soft Seals O-ring material selected for application Faced with TFE, Peek, or Alumina, to suit application 650F or 2400 PSI Suitable for vacuum, but not true hermetic Spacers (coax probes) TFE, Peek, or alumina

7 The level reflection Correct probe / chamber / electronics configuration will yield a suitable level reflection in even the lowest dielectric media There will be one reflection in overall level application or two reflections in interface applications. The second (interface) reflection can be generated with any probe type. The standard electronics looks at the distance between the two reflections and corrects for the time of flight delay through the hydrocarbon layer. Probe reflections can easily be observed and optimized with free industry standard FDT software.

8 Interface Measurement Interface Specifications: Top Layer r = 1.4 to 5 Bottom Layer r > 15 Probes to 40 feet Tracks upper edge of emulsion Emulsion can be several feet Resolves 1-2 inch of hydrocarbon even in high temperature apps Coaxial probe, 500cP Enlarged Coaxial probe or Twin Flexible probe, 2000cP SRP in matched chamber

9 Interface Level measurement & Emulsion Layers Air Oil Does overall level vary, as well as interface? Clean interface or emulsion? Air Oil GWR will track here Rag Layer Water Water Clean Interface Rag Layer Do you have one variable (interface) or two (overall level and interface). Many technologies can handle only one variable. A second will introduce substantial error.

10 End of Probe reflection In low E applications, or when there is no level on probe, this signal can be seen a verified to be in the correct location. A helpful diagnostic. This EOP signal does move with level on the probe, but should not be used to infer level (EOP following) as it is affected by dielectric changes in the media, and offers poor resolution and accuracy.

11 Probe Choice Is Critical! Must Consider.. Temperature Pressure Steam Mounting fitting Length Head room Dielectric sensitivity Coating/bridging/buildup Viscosity Material compatibility Seal / O-rings Turbulence Obstructions/proximity effects Overfill considerations

12 Probe types

13 Probe Configurations Coaxial Probe Coaxial Probe (10mm) rod inside of a (22 mm tube (standard) 0.6 (16mm) rod inside a 1.75 (45 mm) tube (enlarged) Most efficient waveguide, Er > 1.4 No proximity effects. Reads level accurately to the very top (no transition zone) Suitable for very high RF fields Viscosity < 500 cp (standard)/ <2000 cp (enlarged) High Temperature, High pressure versions (800F or 6250 PSI) Probe lengths to 20 Feet rigid 316 ss standard. Hastelloy and Monel optional Single bottom spacer for viscous applications Optional flushing connection allows CIP without process interruption Bottom View Electromagnetic Propagation

14 Probe Configurations Twin Rod Probe Two 0.5 (12 mm) parallel rods General purpose probe, Er > or larger chamber Viscosity < 1500 cp Rigid Probe lengths to 20 feet (6 meters) FEP Coated Flexible Probes to 75 feet (22 meters) 316ss (std.) Hastelloy and Monel optional Bottom View Electromagnetic Propagation

15 Probe Configurations Single Rod Probe Solid 0.5 (12mm) rod Single Rod Probe Er > 1.9 when used in chambers, 1.4 if impedance matched. Er > 10 when used in open vessels High viscosity applications (<10,000 cp) Immune to high dielectric buildup Rigid probes to 20 feet, flexible cable to 75 feet Exotic metals and PFA coating optional The least sensitive probe also has a large impedance change as the signal enters the vessel which can cause a small blind area at the top. Mounting in a matched chamber turns it into a large coax probe, making it very sensitive and overfill suitable. The larger the launch plate (flange, top of tank), the better the performance.

16 Yes you can really bend it!

17 Probe mounting Chambers and nozzles

18 Invasive or bridle mounts present different issues Single rod probe in a matched chamber gives constant impedance and coax performance.

19 Typical approach in refineries, & chemical plants Isolation allows maintenance without interrupting the process. Chamber is sized and matched to instrument characteristics. Option for redundant indicator (MLI). B31.3 piping code typical NACE, insulation, heat trace optional Available as a complete package.

20 Temperature effect Cooler product becomes more dense, and indicates a lower level for same weight. Insulation & heat tracing can help.

21 Why Overfill Safe? Overfill probes can measure to within specification all the way up to the process seal Important in cage applications Don t go blind! LLSD ?

22 Piping Configurations

23 Single Rod Probe nozzles C A Note: by B Note: A divided divided A = Diameter B = Length C = Mounting B should be >or= 1 for optimum performance 2"x6" (50x150mm) nozzles (typ.) will force increased BLOCKING DISTANCE and possible decreased SENSITIVITY

24 Bent Probe with built in chamber Popular displacer level transmitter replacer Before After

25 Coaxial vs. SRP invasive vs SRP Single Rod Probe Coaxial Probe Fiducial Level No unwanted changes in impedance Fiducial Mismatch depending on mounting Level

26 Coaxial vs. Single Rod Probe Coaxial Probe Fiducial Level Single Rod Probe in Stillwell/Cage No unwanted changes impedance Fiducial Smaller mismatch depending on chamber dimensions Level

27 Frequently Asked Questions Q: Is the probe matched to the electronics, such that I need to select a certain combination for my application? A: No, the electronics quick connect to, and work with any probe. It is the probe and optional chamber you select for the application, not the electronics. Electronics are typically selected to meet area classifications. Q: I am replacing displacer transmitters that came with chambers, can I do the same with GWR? A: Yes this matching chambers are becoming increasingly popular, However you may be able to use the existing chamber with a new GWR probe as well. Q: Do GWR probes work if the application is producing steam? A: Yes, but only if a steam probe with compensating reference target is selected. Q: I have a vacuum tower application, any special concerns? A: Yes, you should select a probe that accurately reads to the face of the probe, and you may also want a true hermetic seal. Q: Can I cut the probe if it is too long. A: Yes, please request the appropriate procedure from the manufacturer. Q: What about liquid /liquid interface applications? A: Fine for a standard unit, but if non invasive (in a bridle), make sure you have sufficient equalization connections, if it is not flooded service. Q: What about critical overfill applications? A: Select a probe that has no transition zone for accuracy and reliability to the very top of the probe.

28 Questions?

29 for additional info, or a copy of this presentation. For the internal use of API OICS This presentation contains Magnetrol proprietary and confidential information. Do not reproduce or distribute without written permission

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