E1 Precipitation and Water Purity

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1 E1 Precipitation and Water Purity E1 is a one session lab! Will we do the entire experiment? Experiment 1 Pre-lab Report Pre-lab Report (page 34) Due at the start of Lab (8am or 11am or 2pm) Goals for Experiment 1 One session three hour lab Complete Parts 1 and 2A and 2B (all). Complete part 3 OR 4 as assigned*. Complete team report and turn in at the end of lab or by the grace period deadline indicated in the lab manual, p * Team assignments are on p. 227 Discussion: first hour of next session Prepare discussion abstract and presentation during lab or before next session. 1

2 Background: Salts Ionic compounds with cations (+ ions) and anions (- ions) in fixed positions in a crystalline solid. I m a cation. Note my eyes! Background: Salt Formulas In the solid, the salt ions are fixed in a rigid lattice. The simplest ratio of the ions in the solid is represented by the formula of the salt. See Figure 3, p. 223 of the manual for common ion charges and periodic table position Salt Formulas Formula? 2

3 Background: Water and Salt Solubility In the solid salt, the ions are fixed in a rigid crystal lattice In water solution the salt ions are dissociated and free to move about. Water (H 2 O) is polar. Salt Solubility in Water Salt Solubility in Water Polar water molecules reduce the effective charges of the ions in the solid and thus salt ions dissociate and the salt dissolves. NaCl(s) = Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 3

4 Salt Solubility Aqueous salt solutions are electrolytes due to the fact that the dissolved salt ions are mobile and carry a charge. Elem Prop frames.htm Precipitation A solid comes out of solution + Solutions before mixing After mixing Precipitation reactions Hg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) + K + (aq) + I - (aq) KCl HgI 2 1. The positive ion of a dissolved salt combines with the negative ion from a different dissolved salt. 2. The recombined ions may stay in solution or come out of solution in the form of a solid called a precipitate. 4

5 Part 1. What is the precipitate? HgCl 2 (aq) + KI (aq)? (s) clear and colorless salt solutions? ppt.? REFERENCE BLANK TEST Test mixture designed to identify reactants (forming the precipitate) and spectators (non-reactants). Test Mixture Omit a species (ion) from the reaction mixture. Substitute a known SPECTATOR ion for the omitted ion such as Na + or K + or NO 3 - Compare the products of the test and original reaction mixture Reference Blank Tests Reaction: HgCl 2 (aq) + KI (aq)? Clear and colorless Reference blank test: Hg(NO 3 ) 2 + KI Clear and colorless Conclusion? Same properties 5

6 Reference Blank Test Design HgCl 2 (aq) + KI (aq)? colorless solutions Valid Reference Blank Test produces the identical products or no reaction. Reference Blank Test Design HgCl 2 (aq) + KI (aq)? Invalid test: CuCl 2 (aq) + KI (aq) The test produces a different reaction with different products and is therefore invalid. BaCl 2 (aq) + AgF (aq) white (s)? Test Observations: 1. FeCl 3 (aq) + AgF (aq) green (s) 2. NaCl (aq) + AgF (aq) white (s) 3. Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + AgF (aq) no reaction Q. What do you know about the white (s)?

7 Course theme There are structure and property and periodic table relationships Useful web sites (Ctools posted) are: Part 2A. Precipitation Studies Discussion questions 1-3, p. 48 Is precipitate color predictable from the position of the cation s element in the Periodic Table? Is the solubility of a cation predictable from the position of its element in the Periodic Table? Is there a relationship between cation charge and solubility? Compare. Nitrate salts Sodium Salts Cations Cl - CrO 4 2- I - C 2 O 4 2- S 2- SO 4 2- Hg 2+ Part 2A. Table, page 23; Team cation assignments, page 227 7

8 Part 2B. Can I identify it? Identify an unknown metal ion based on precipitation observations from part 2A: Caution: Save your acetate sheet results from Part 2A for use in Part 2B Hypothesis Formation Figure: Water Molecules oriented about Ions Formulate your hypothesis and predictions based on provided models (solubility) Example: Predict the solubility of NaF (s) versus FeF 3 (s) Hypothesis Formation * p.255, lab manual Formulate your hypothesis and predictions based on provided models and periodic table info. Example: Solubility of MgF 2 (s) versus BaF 2 (s)? 8

9 Discussion Preparation Manipulate the class data. You will NOT get points for just reproducing the class data. 1A 1 H 1s1 IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 3 4 Li Be 2s 1 2s 2 11 Na 3s 1 19 K 4s 1 37 Rb 5s 1 55 Cs 6s 1 87 Fr 7s 1 12 Mg 3s2 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB! VIIIB IB IIB 20 Ca 4s 2 38 Sr 5s 2 56 Ba 6s 2 88 Ra 7s 2 VIIIA 2 He 1s B C N O F Ne 2s 2 2p 1 2s 2 2p 2 2s 2 2p 3 2s 2 2p 4 2s 2 2p 5 2s 2 2p Al Si P S Cl Ar 3s 2 3p 1 3s 2 3p 2 3s 2 3p 3 3s 2 3p 4 3s 2 3p 5 3s 2 3p Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 3d 1 4s 2 3d 2 4s 2 3d 3 4s 2 3d 5 4s 1 3d 5 4s 2 3d 6 4s 2 3d 7 4s 2 3d 8 4s 2 3d 10 4s 1 3d 10 4s 2 4s 2 4p 1 4s 2 4p 2 4s 2 4p 3 4s 2 4p 4 4s 2 4p 5 4s 2 4p Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd 4d 1 5s 2 4d 2 5s 2 4d 3 5s 2 4d 5 5s 1 4d 5 5s 2 4d 7 5s 1 4d 8 5s 1 4d La* 5d 1 6s 2 Periodic Trends Look for patterns within families Look for patterns across families (pre-transition, transition, post-transition) 47 Ag 4d 10 5s 1 48 Cd 4d 10 5s 2 49 In 50 Sn 51 Sb 52 Te 53 I 54 Xe 5s 5p 1 5s 5p 2 5s 5p 3 5s 5p 4 5s 2 5p 5 5s 5p Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 5d 2 6s 2 5d 3 6s 2 5d 4 6s 2 5d 5 6s 2 5d 6 6s 2 5d 7 6s 2 5d 9 6s 1 5d 10 6s 1 5d 10 6s 2 6s 2 6p 1 6s 2 6p 2 6s 2 6p 3 6s 2 6p 4 6s 2 6p 5 6s 2 6p Element synthesized, Ac # but no official name assigned 6d 1 7s 2 6d 2 7s 2 6d 3 7s 2 6d 4 7s 2 6d 5 7s 2 6d 6 7s 2 6d 7 7s 2 Part 3. Concentration and Precipitation. Discussion (Question 4, page 67) Examine the relationship between concentration and amount of precipitate. Laboratory Combine assigned ion combinations at different concentrations Observe and record the relative amounts of precipitate formed at different concentrations. 9

10 Concentration and Salt Precipitation Saturated solution = contains the maximum amount of salt that can be dissolved in a given solution volume. Concentration and Salt Precipitation Supersaturation and precipitation. Concentration and Precipitation Precipitation (ppt.) is dependent on concentration and occurs only if the solubility limit of the salt is exceeded M KI (aq) M HgCl 2 (aq) 10-3 M KI (aq) M HgCl 2 (aq) ppt. NO ppt. 10

11 Concentration and Precipitation Precipitation reactions are equilibrium systems and thus there are always unprecipitated reactant ions present when precipitation occurs : 1.Remove the ppt. by filtration 2. Check for presence of reactant ions in the filtrate. Part 4. Solvent Pollution and Precipitation Laboratory Compare salt solubility and amount of precipitate formed by the salt mixtures in the different solvents (water, acetone, and hexane). Discussion Question 5, page 48 What is the relationship, if any, between salt solubility, precipitation, and solvent polarity? Part 4 Solvents WATER (H 2 O) is very polar. HEXANE (C 6 H 14 ) is nonpolar CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 O / \ H H ACETONE (CH 3 COCH 3 ) is moderately polar. O C / \ CH 3 CH 3 11

12 Solvent Polarity Polar and non-polar solvents are immiscible Salts will not dissociate in non-polar solvents. Salt solubility and solvent polarity Acetone is less polar than water. Acetone will be added to a saturated solution of CuSO 4 (aq). Q1. Will the solubility of the CuSO 4 Increase? Decrease? Remain the same? Q2. What will you observe? Questions? Contact 12

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