Induceerbaar weerbaar

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1 Induceerbaar weerbaar Leerbaar Weerbaar Workshop Delft, 18 september Green Biology Utrecht University Institute of Environmental Biology (>100 plant scientists) Molecular Plant Physiology Plant-Microbe Interactions Plant Ecophysiology Ecology & Biodiversity Sjef Smeekens Corné Pieterse Rens Voesenek George Kowalchuk Learning from nature to enhance and protect crops Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for translational research to crops 2

2 Arabidopsis thaliana Zandraket 3 Learning from nature to enhance and protect crops Arabidopsis thaliana as a model for translational research to crops Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Aphids Myzus persicae Botrytis cinerea brassicicola Pseudomonas syringae Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Caterpillars Pieris rapae

3 Plant diseases: economical impact Are plants helpless? 5 HIPVs Pollinator Carnivore Plant pathogen Herbivore Competitor or parasitic plant Competitor or parasitic plant Herbivore Mycorrhizae Systemic HIPVs Rhizobacteria 6 Entomopathogenic nematode

4 Constitutive defenses NO TRESPASSING Hmm Structural and chemical barriers Animation: Remco van Poecke 7 Induced defenses NO TRESPASSING Animation: Remco van Poecke 8

5 Induced defenses ZZZAPPP NO TRESPASSING 9 The plant s immune system fungi insects viruses bacteria 10

6 Plant immune system 11 Plant immune system > phytohormones/plant growth regulators 12

7 insect Jasmonic acid (JA) Wound-induced resistance 13 pathogen Salicylic acid (SA) Systemic acquired resistance 14

8 Beneficial microbes e.g. Pseudomonas spp. Trichoderma spp. Induced systemic resistance 15 Jasmonic acid (JA) Ethylene (ET) Rhizobacteria-mediated Broad spectrum of effectiveness Fungus: Fusarium oxysporum Control Induced 16

9 : greenhouse trials Pseudomonas fluorescens + - Radish - Fusarium oxysporum 17 Plant responses to beneficial rhizobacteria > Growth promotion control + rhizobacteria WCS417r - YFP colonization by rhizobacteria Pseudomonas bacteria 18

10 The plant microbiome >10 10 cfu/ g >10 10 microbes/gram soil > species/gram in the rhizosphere The totality of microbes and their interactions on the plant are important for plant health Disease suppressive soils conducive suppressive Take-all disease severity 2,4-DAPG producing Pseudomonads Years wheat monoculture 20 Raaijmakers & Weller (1998) Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact.

11 Development of microbial community important for plant health Crop rotation Wheat monoculture Wheat take all disease (Gaeumannomyces graminis) 21 Berendsen, Pieterse, Bakker (2012) Trends in Plant Science, in press Plant immune system > Induced defense pathways The ugly The bad JA ET Cross talk JA The good SA

12 Induced plant defenses > Consequences for biodiversity at higher trophic levels Poelman, van Loon, Dicke (2008) Trends Plant Sci. 13: Hyaloperonospora Pieris PR-1 VSP2 Pieris rapae JA SA Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Microbially-induced SA Koornneef et al. (2008) Plant Physiol. 146: Defense against biotrophs Defense against insects/ necrotrophs 24

13 SA/JA crosstalk: SA antagonizes insect resistance Spodoptera exigua Low SA: > high JA-dep. defense High SA: > low JA-dep. defense Feeding for 11 days on Arabidopsis 25 Van Oosten et al. (2008) MPMI 21: Vivian van Oosten SA/JA crosstalk: SA antagonizes insect resistance Eggs of the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) on SA-responsive PR-1::GUS reporter line 26 Bruessow, Reymond et al. (2010) Plant J. 62, Verhage et al. (2010) Plant Physiol. 154:

14 Unravel hormonal interactions in the web of induced defense signaling pathways 27 Effect of drought stress and herbivory on level of disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea Botrytis cinerea Drought Pieris rapae

15 % of leaves with spreading lesions (relative to accession Col-0) Effect of drought stress and herbivory on level of disease resistance against Botrytis cinerea Arabidopsis accessions (ecotypes) Plant immune system > Induced defense pathways

16 Leerbaar weerbaar > Belangrijke onderzoeksvragen Wat zijn de belangrijkste positieve en negatieve interacties tussen verschillende stressors? pathogenen, insecten, abiotische stress, nutrienten stress (teveel, te weinig) Kunnen we deze interacties chemisch/biologisch sturen (b.v. biologische middelen)? Kunnen we genen/merkers identificeren die gerelateerd zijn aan vermogen plant om met diverse biotische/abiotische stressen tegelijk om te gaan? Learning from nature 31 Plant-microbe Interactions Utrecht University Marcel Dicke Wageningen University Johan Memelink Leiden University Alain Goossens VIB, Ghent, Belgium Robert Schuurink University of Amsterdam Katherine Denby, David Wild Systems Biology Warwick, UK 32

17 Microbes and insects on Arabidopsis Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Turnip crinkle virus Xanthomonas Botrytis cinerea Pseudomonas Alternaria Pseusomonas campestris Frankliniella brassicicola fluorescens syringae Fusarium oxysporum Myzus Pieris occidentalis persicae rapae Spodoptera Western flower exigua Cabbage thrips Green white Beet peach butterfly armyworm aphid Photos: Hans van Pelt 33 Dynamics of hormone crosstalk >high density time series RNA seq modeling hormone crosstalk Saskia van Wees Marcel van Verk RNA seq Richard Hickman >1000 DVDs per treatment 34 Collaboration with Warwick Systems Biology Centre: Katherine Denby and David Wild

18 Identificeer belangrijkste positieve en negatieve interacties (kunnen per plantensoort verschillend zijn) Chemisch/biologisch sturen van de interactie (b.v. biologische middelen die de SA pathway stimuleren) Genen/markers identificeren die gerelateerd zijn aan vermogen plant om met diverse biotische/abiotische stressen tegelijk om te gaan. The ugly The bad JA ET Cross talk JA The good SA

19 Fusarium oxysporum Botrytis cinerea Pieris rapae Spodoptera exigua Rhizobacteria-mediated Broad spectrum of effectiveness oomyc. bacteria fungi virus insects Hyaloperonospora parasitica Pseudomonas syringae Xanthomonas campestris Alternaria brassicicola Turnip crinkle virus 37

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