October 18, 2005 Smart Metropolitan Neighborhoods Series: Land Bank Authorities Tools for Vacant Property Reclamation

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1 Experts Online October 18, 2005 Smart Metropolitan Neighborhoods Series: Land Bank Authorities Tools for Vacant Property Reclamation

2 Land Bank Authorities A Guide for the Creation and Operation of Local Land Banks Professor Frank S. Alexander Emory Law School Local Initiatives Support Corporation & Fannie Mae Foundation October 18, 2005

3 Yes No Is there a land bank in your community?

4 Are you considering to create a Yes No land bank?

5 Definition A land bank is a governmental entity that focuses on the conversion of vacant, abandoned, and tax-delinquent properties into productive use.

6 What a Land Bank is not: A financial institution A redevelopment agency A land assembly agency

7 Is there a significant amount of tax delinquent property in your Yes No community?

8 Does your local government have a significant inventory of surplus property? Yes No

9 The focus is on: Surplus public property Below water properties Abandoned properties Tax delinquent properties

10 The Evolution of Land Banks St. Louis (1971) Jackson Co., MO. Cleveland (1976) Omaha, NB Louisville (1989) Valdosta, GA Wyandotte Co., KS Atlanta (1991) Genesee (2002)

11 The Triggers for Creating a Land Bank: Fragmented inventories Ineffective tax foreclosure procedures Code violations Title problems Property disposition requirements

12 The Essential Powers: Acquisition, Management and Disposition of Properties Financing of Operations Waiver of Delinquent Taxes? Eminent Domain?

13 St. Louis Louisville Genesee Governance Structures: Governance Structures: Cleveland Atlanta

14 St. Louis Louisville Genesee Cleveland Funding Sources: Funding Sources: Atlanta

15 St. Louis Louisville Genesee Sources of Properties: Sources of Properties: Cleveland Atlanta

16 St. Louis Disposition Pricing Policies: Disposition Pricing Policies: Louisville Genesee Cleveland Atlanta

17 St. Louis Louisville Genesee Disposition Priorities: Disposition Priorities: Cleveland Atlanta

18 Balancing of Critical Policy Goals: Affordable Housing Eliminate Blight Create Homeownership Maximize Revenues Create Green Space Enforce Housing Codes

19 Keys to Success: Clarity of purpose Limited number of specific goals Efficient decision making Asset Management Responsive to changing needs

20 Resources Land Bank Authorities: A Guide for the Creation and Operation of Local Land Banks (available from LISC Online Resource Library) Land Bank Strategies for Renewing Urban Land, 14 J. Aff. Housing & Comm. Dev. L. 140 (2005)

21 This is the type so far

22 Flint s Story... This is the type so far Birthplace of GM and the UAW 1970 population: 193,000 GM employment peaked at 76,000 in the late 70 s 2000 population: 120,000 12% of housing stock abandoned Roger and Me City government incapacitated receivership

23 Former Foreclosure Law This is the type so far 4-7 year process No clear title Hundreds of owners Low-end speculation Indiscriminate foreclosure homeowners at risk Contagious blight PA 123 of year process Clear title judgement Property titled to county Tax liens eliminated Hardship postponements Intervention

24 Michigan s New Land Bank Law This is the type so far Created Michigan Land Bank Fast Track Authority Allows counties that foreclose to create Land Banks through intergovernmental agreement with state Authority Allows the City of Detroit to create a Land Bank Defines all Land Bank properties as Brownfields 20 Land Bank properties are tax-exempt Provides 90 day expedited quiet title action Can sell at less than fair market value Can lease, sell, demolish, maintain, rehab, improve 5yr/50% tax capture

25 The Genesee County Land Bank This is the type so far Foreclosure Prevention This is bullet size Housing This is bullet Renovation size Side This Lot is bullet Transfer size Property This is bullet Maintenance size Planning This is bullet size This is bullet size Rental Management This is bullet size Clean This is & bullet Green size Demolition New Development

26 The Genesee County Land Bank This is the type so far Michigan s first land bank Created This in is 2002, bullet modified size in Dec member This is Board bullet of size Directors 10 staff, This including is bullet sales, size rehab., property management Land This development is bullet team size Planning team (University of Michigan faculty and staff) Funding: This tax is bullet foreclosure size fees: $4.1 million over 3 years Land sales revenue, tax capture (Brownfield and 5yr/50%)

27 The Genesee County Land Bank This is the type so far Progress since ,400 This foreclosures is bullet (8% sizeof Flint) 1,350 This foreclosure is bullet prevention size cases 455 demolitions This is bullet size 1,300 This sites is maintained bullet size 550 properties This is bullet in Clean size and Green program 14 single This family is bullet rehabs size 16 infill This underway, is bullet 18 size more initiated $3.8 million This is mixed-use bullet sizeredevelopment of 30,000 sq. ft downtown building The Land Bank Center 600 tons of debris removed since summer 2004

28 Land Bank Brownfield Redevelopment Plan This is the type so far Approved December 2004 $5 million financing Cross-collateralized scattered site TIF district 2500 parcels included 330 demolitions This is bullet size Environmental This is bullet remediation size for rehabilitation 600 major This is cleanups bullet size Title clearance/insurance This is bullet size Site preparation/infrastructure development

29 BEFORE Barbara Drive Flint Tax foreclosed in 2003 Acquired for $3,100 Rehabilitation cost: $42,000 This is the type so far

30 AFTER Sold in 2005 to first-time homeowner for $55,000 This is the type so far

31 The Genesee Institute This is the type so far Formed in 2004 Executive Director: Professor Bob Beckley, Dean Emeritus, UM School of Architecture and Urban Planning Mission: research, training, and technical assistance regarding This land is bullet banking, size smart growth, and regional land use This policy is bullet size Funding: This Genesee is bullet County, size C.S.Mott Foundation National This Vacant is bullet Properties size Campaign Technical Assistance This is Project bullet size Michigan Land Bank Technical Assistance Project (Saginaw, Ingham, Calhoun, Jackson, Grand Traverse)

32 Land Bank Technical Assistance Project This is the type so far Saginaw County...similar to This Flint/Genesee, is bullet size over 500 foreclosures in 2005 Ingham This County is bullet size...stronger This market, is bullet some abandonment size Calhoun This County is bullet size stable market, This is some bullet abandonment, size focus on prevention Jackson This County is bullet size...stronger This market, is bullet some abandonment, size focus on prevention Grand Traverse This is bullet County size...strong market, focus on conservation and affordable housing

33 Dan Kildee Genesee County Treasurer Genesee Land Bank The Genesee Institute

34 Additional Resources Genesee County Land Bank National Vacant Properties Campaign LISC Online Resource Library Smart Growth America

This is the type so far

This is the type so far This is the type so far This is the type so far Dan Kildee Genesee County Treasurer Chairman/CEO of the Genesee Land Bank President, Genesee Institute This is the type so far What is a Land Bank? A land

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