Geology of New Jersey

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1 Geology of New Jersey

2 Geology of New Jersey Highlands - Richard Volkert, Ron Witte Valley & Ridge - Don Monteverde, and Ron Witte Piedmont - Don Monteverde, Roy Schlische Coastal Plain - Peter Sugarman Surficial Geology - Scott Stanford and Ron Witte

3 Physiographic Provinces in New Jersey 1) Highlands 2) Valley and Ridge 3) Piedmont 4) Coastal Plain

4

5

6 Highlands

7 Valley and Ridge Highlands

8 Piedmont Valley and Ridge Highlands

9 Coastal Plain Piedmont Valley and Ridge Highlands

10

11 Highlands Physiographic Province modified from Rich Volkert and Ron Witte scenic and rugged terrain ~1,000 square miles mountainous uplands northeast-trending ridges rocks resistant to erosion Highest Point - 1,496 ft on Wawayanda Mountain deep narrow valleys e.g. Musconetcong underlain by more resistant shale and limestone

12 New Jersey Highlands Most ancient part of State rocks >1 billion years old ancient mountain belts formed from colliding plates roots of Appalachian Mtns Metamorphic Rocks High temperature/pressure Granite, gneiss, quartzite, and marble (small amounts) Deformed by faulting and folding

13 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Granite Widespread, common igneous rock crystallized from magma underlies 50% of Highlands medium grained texture with quartz and feldspar Byram, 1.1 Ga Lake Hopatcong, 1.1 Ga Mount Eve Granite, 1 Ga

14 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Gneiss Widespread, common, banded-metamorphic rock underlies 45% of Highlands alternating light- and dark-colored layers Losee Suite, 1.2 Ga volcanic gneiss Sedimentary gneiss, ~1.2 Ga

15 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Marble - quarried as ornamental stone and white cement due to chemical purity Quartzite: altered quartz-rich sandstone Marble: altered limestone and dolomite Both Uncommon Quartzite and Marble quartzite, 1.2 Ga marble, ~1.2 Ga

16 New Jersey Highlands Paleozoic outliers Valleys underlain by younger Paleozoic rocks million years old found in elongate valleys separated by an unconformity Sedimentary rocks deposited in land and shallow seas conglomerate, sandstone, limestone, dolomite and shale unconformity conglomerate dolomite

17

18 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Fractures Fractures are cracks or breaks in the rock They are important conduits for water movement Joint - crack or break in rock with no displacement quartzite, 1.2 Ga marble, ~1.2 Ga

19 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Faults Fractures are cracks or breaks in the rock They are important conduits for water movement Fault - fractures or along which rocks on adjacent sides have broken and moved up, down, or horizontal

20

21 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Ramapo Fault Large faults form the major boundary between the Highlands and the Piedmont Location of small earthquakes

22 Piedmont Highlands Ramapo Fault Ramapo Fault

23 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Ramapo Fault

24 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Folds Bends in rock formed from squeezing Large range in size (inches to thousands of feet) arched upward = anticline; arched downward = syncline S A

25 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Economic Mineral Deposits zinc ore Magnetite -iron ore graphite

26 Rocks of the New Jersey Highlands: Radioactive ore Uranium, thorium, and rare-earth element-bearing minerals

27 Precipitation The New Jersey Highlands experiences the greatest precipitation in the State due to physiography and other factors.

28 New Jersey Highlands Outcrop Route 15, Jefferson Township Sheeting joints

29 Interlocking texture of minerals in crystalline rock inhibits fluid movement

30 Ground water flow in a fractured rock aquifer

31 Ground-water occurrence and movement in a bedrock aquifer is controlled by the density and interconnection of the fractures.

32 Water-bearing fractures in granite near the Mendham Fault, along India Brook transmit water that contains asbestiform minerals.

33 Weathered joints and bedding-plane fractures in Paleozoic limestone transmit large amounts of water at rapid rates.

34 Sinkholes rapidly recharge limestone aquifers

35 NJGS statewide aquifer ranking system based on median yield of high-capacity wells.

36 Bedrock aquifers of the New Jersey Highlands

37 Bedrock aquifer ranking - New Jersey Highlands

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