Chapter 6 Essay Notes Post-War Political Aspects. Mr. R. Smith

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1 Chapter 6 Essay Notes Post-War Mr. R. Smith

2 Canada not war-like nation, yet over 1 million men and women had joined the Canadian military Canada s s WWII role was magnificent, well out of proportion to her size as a country 45,000 Canadian service people died during WWII Canada found a new sense of identity during WWII Cold War arrives as soon as WWII ends Canada aligned herself with USA to oppose the Communist system, i.e., democracy and capitalism in opposition to communist totalitarianism

3 Canada an original member of the UN (United Nations) USSR takes over Eastern Europe (the Iron Curtain ) 1949 China taken by Communists - former Chinese government escapes to Taiwan In 1949 Canada joins the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) military alliance and commits significant army, navy, and air forces to NATO, especially in Europe : 1953: Canada supports the UN and commits peace-making forces to defend South Korea from communist aggression : 1957: Pinetree,, Mid-Canada, and DEW lines constructed to detect USSR attacks over the North Pole

4 1955: USSR forms the Warsaw Pact to oppose a NATO alliance that now included West Germany 1956: USSR crushes the Hungarian Revolution 1956: Canada s s Lester Pearson proposes the concept of United Nations peace-keepers (Blue Helmets) to deal with the Suez Crisis, gets Nobel Peace Prize Note: Pearson was NOT Prime Minister at this time. He was a minister under PM Louis St. Laurent 1957: Canada joins the USA to create NORAD (North American Air Defence Agreement) 1959: Avro Arrow cancelled by John Diefenbaker

5 1961: USA involvement in Vietnam begins - Canada IS NOT militarily involved in the Vietnam conflict 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis takes the world to the edge of destruction - PM Diefenbaker didn t t believe US photo evidence and failed, at first, to put Canadian NORAD forces on alert - US-Canadian relations were poor 1963: Lester Pearson elected as PM, accepts American nuclear weapons on Canadian soil. Diefenbaker (Conservative) loses the close 1963 election by opposing the Liberal party about nuclear weapons 1965: PM Pearson lifted by the neck by US President Lyndon Johnson after Pearson criticized the American bombing of North Vietnam while visiting the USA 1968 Pierre Trudeau elected, replaces Lester Pearson as Liberal Prime Minister

6 Trudeau wants Canada to be a Middle Power with an independent foreign policy 1970: Trudeau recognizes Communist China : 1972: Trudeau removes nuclear weapons from Canada s s NATO forces in Europe and dismantles Bomarc missile sites in Canada Trudeau slashes Canada s s national defence budget and reduces Canada s s commitment to NATO by 50% in spite of American opposition - poor Canada/USA relations! Trudeau creates CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency) to boost Canadian aid to poor countries including tied aid 1973: Trudeau creates FIRA (Foreign Investment Review Agency) to limit USA investment in Canada

7 1972: USA and USSR sign SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) 1975: Communists win Vietnam war - USA defeated 1979: USSR occupies Afghanistan To protest the USSR s s action many western nations, including Canada, boycott the 1980 Moscow Olympics 1981: USA announces a massive military build-up up including nuclear weapons 1984: Trudeau retires from politics Brian Mulroney takes over as PM and works to build closer links with the USA opposite to Trudeau Mulroney says no to official Canadian participation in the Star Wars (SDI) Strategic Defence Initiative

8 Mulroney scraps 1989 FIRA 1989: Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement (FTA) established 1989: Pro-democracy students attacked by Communist Chinese forces in Tiananmen Square with much loss of life 1989: Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev understands that the USSR cannot maintain the arms race with the USA; introduces perestroika (reconstruction) and glasnost (openness) policies to give Russia a new direction 1989: USSR leaves Afghanistan in defeat 1991: Cold War ends after USSR dissolves 1992: NAFTA agreement signed (North American Free Trade Agreement) between Canada, Mexico, and USA

9 Canada-USA relations improve, and Canada s s political fortunes become more closely linked to the USA 1991: Canada participates in Operation Desert Storm (Gulf War) to remove an aggressor (Iraq) from an invaded country (Kuwait). This was a UN operation - peace-making - just like Korea! 1992: Somalia (Africa): UN Operation Restore Hope 1994: Rwanda - 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus killed (mostly Tutsis) in 100 days during an explosion of ethnic genocide - UN fails to send a multi-national force to stop the killing as requested by Canadian Major General Roméo Dallaire 2003: NATO leads the UN operation in Afghanistan - Canada has 2,500 peace-making troops in Afghanistan

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