Bridge Engineering Seminar

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1 Bridge Engineering Seminar Micropile Foundations for Bridges Lexington, KY Dan Thome, P.E. January 10, 2012

2 Micropiles Overview Installation Techniques Applications/Case Histories Design Load Testing

3 Reasons for Deep Foundations Incompetent bearing layer Total settlements and/or differential settlements can not be achieved with shallow foundations Surface soil is subject to scour Excavation will undermine existing shallow foundations

4 Micropiles Description 5 to 12 Inch diameter drilled and grouted piles Can achieve capacities in Soil and Rock (250 tons) Develop primarily skin friction capacity Ductile steel tubes (traditionally) Depths over 200 feet (~330 feet)

5 Micropiles Advantages Hole is typically cased until grouted Obstruction/rock drilling typically not an issue Equipment could fit in 8 feet headroom and 3 foot doorways Vibrations/noise less of an issue than with other systems Disadvantages Most expensive foundation system unless there are geotechnical or physical constraint

6 Typical Compression Compressible Zone Bond Zone

7 Typical Tension Compressible Zone Bond Zone

8 Casing Only Compressible Zone Bond Zone

9 Bar Only Compressible Zone Bond Zone

10 End-Bearing Piles

11 Materials Steel Casing Use mill secondary oil field casing Typically y flush threaded joints 80 ksi minimum yield strength

12 Materials Reinforcing Bar Grade 60 Grade 75 or 80 Grade 150 Centralizers are used

13 Materials - Grout Neat cement with water/cement ratio of 0.45 Compressive strength of 4-6 ksi Improved stiffness w/confinement

14 Drilling Methods Proximity to other structures? Soil stratigraphy? Location of water table? Soil gradation? Boulders/obstructions present? Cost of spoil removal? Total depth?

15 Installation/Drilling Methods Duplex Rotary eccentric percussive duplex External flush Self-drilling bars (bar only)

16 Duplex Drilling

17 Duplex Drilling Often specified - least risk Minimal loss of ground in cohesionless soils Grouted through the casing - then pulled with tremie head or excess pressure

18 Eccentric Duplex Drilling

19 Eccentric Duplex Drilling Top of Rock Void Bond Zone

20 External Flush Drilling Opening larger than casing size Risk of ground loss in cohesionless soils Tremie grouted through casing then pulled with tremie head or excess pressure

21 Applications New Structures in Difficult Ground

22 MDOT M-78 Bellevue, MI

23 J.W. Marriott Parking Structure Grand Rapids, MI

24 SR 33 Stockertown, PA

25 Applications Additions to Existing Structures

26 Route 139 NJ DOT

27 Route 139 NJ DOT

28 Applications Rehabilitation of Existing Structures

29 MDOT I-94 - Project Background Original Construction (Late 1950s) Two, three-span bridges for Interstate 94 over Riverside Drive T-beam deck sections Common partial height abutments Abutments supported by shallow foundations on embankment fill Piers supported by shallow foundations on native soils Reconstruction (Summer 2009) Two, single span bridges Common full height abutments Both abutments on driven H piles 29

30 MDOT I-94 - Original Reconstruction Plan New Pile Caps Phases III & IV Construction Phases I & II Construction Existing Shallow Fdns Phases III & IV Construction 30

31 MDOT I-94 - Timeline of Events Mid April - Removal of bridge deck, piers and abutments for Phases I & II construction April 30 th Pile driving with vibratory hammer begins for shallow depths May 5 th Test piles are driven with impact hammer to LRFD refusal Estimated pile lengths ~ 90 to 100 feet Actual pile lengths ~ 140 feet May 13 th Pile driving continues with vibratory hammer for shallow depths MDOT observes: Pavement cracks behind eastbound abutment (rotation of abutments towards Riverside Drive) Settlement of existing piers (towards centerline of I-94) Settlement of Riverside Drive (~ 1 foot concluded) Pile driving discontinued with vibratory hammer (~ 51 piles installed) May 14 th MDOT observes lateral lshift of eastbound dpier 2( (~ 6i inches) Shutdown EB and WB lanes of Interstate 94 (WB lanes reopened on May 15th) Per MDOT, Nicholson visited site to observe movements May 15 th MDOT contracted Nicholson to perform an emergency micropile retrofit of the existing eastbound pier footings and perform real-time monitoring of the two bridges 31

32 MDOT I-94 - Timeline of Events Westbound Lane Looking Northeast 32

33 MDOT I-94 - Timeline of Events Eastbound Lane Looking South 33

34 MDOT I-94 - Timeline of Events Eastbound Lane Looking Northwest 34

35 MDOT I-94 - Emergency Micropile Retrofit Pile Layout N Phases I & II Construction Phases III & IV Construction 35

36 MDOT I-94 - Emergency Micropile Retrofit Pile Detail 36

37 MDOT I-94 - Emergency Micropile Retrofit West Pier Interior Column 37

38 MDOT I-94 - Emergency Micropile Retrofit East Pier Interior Column 38

39 MDOT I-94 - Emergency Micropile Retrofit West Pier Interior Column 39

40 Micropile Design Aspects Geotechnical Frictional bond compression & tension End bearing Structural Lateral loads/bending Battered piles/axial Connection

41 FHWA Allowable Compression P allc = 0.40 * f c * A grout * f ycasing * A casing * f ybar * A bar

42 FHWA Allowable Tension P allt = 0.55 * f ybar * A bar

43 Code Allowable Load in Kips ACI with LF = 1.55 FHWA Micropiles AASHTO Caisson AASHTO Driven Unfilled AASHTO Driven Concrete Filled AREA Driven CIP Concrete AREA Drilled Shafts MASS BLDG CODE City of Chicago IBC2000 & BOCA Drilled uncased piles IBC2000 Concrete filled pipe piles > 8" IBC2000 Concrete filled pipe piles IBC2000 Caisson Piles > 18" BOCA Concrete filled pipe pp piles > 8" UBC Uncased CIP Concrete Piles UBC Metal Cased Concrete Piles UBC Concrete-filled Pipe Piles UBC180872ConcretefilledPipePiles Concrete-filled Piles 7 OD x 0.5 wall casing with 5 ksi grout

44 Geotechnical Design Typical friction pile Tip resistance neglected P all = σπdl where: σ = Allowable bond stress of Soil/Rock in bond zone (F.S. = 2.0 or 2.5) d = Diameter of bond zone L = Length of bond zone L D

45 Bond Stress Recommendations FHWA 1 kpa = psi

46 Bond Stress PTI Recommendations

47 Bond Stress PTI Recommendations

48 Bond Stress PTI Recommendations

49 Lateral Load Analysis Batter piles NAVFAC procedure LPILE to determine bending moment GROUP5 considers effect of batter Combined stress = axial load + bending

50 Simple Compression, New Footing

51 Compression and Tension, New Footing

52

53 Existing Footing Connection

54 Pile Load Testing Compression ASTM D1143 Tension ASTM D3689 Lateral ASTM 3966

55 Compression Test

56 Tension Test

57 Lateral Load Test Test 2 Piles Jack & Load Cell between 2 piles Hand Pump small load increments

58 Load Test Acceptance Criteria - FHWA Micropile Guidelines The pile shall sustain the compression and tension design loads (100% DL) with no more than inches total t vertical movement at tthe top of fthe pile. The slope of the pile deflection curve at twice the allowable design load is less than a slope of 0.15 mm per kn (0.05 in / Ton) of applied load. Creep at Test Load of 0.04 inches 1 to 10 min or 0.08 inch/log cycle

59 Thank You

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