Design:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Design: www.stevendickie.com/design"

Transcription

1

2 Design:

3

4 This report is a jointly funded initiative of the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) at the World Bank and the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). The report was written by Jan Kellett (lead author) and Alice Caravani at ODI. Guidance throughout the work came from Prashant at GFDRR and Tom Mitchell (ODI). Hemang Karelia (GFDRR) was invaluable in its early development, and especially in preparing the underlying database of disasterrelated financing. In addition to this, the following provided peer review during the preparation of this report: Tom Mitchell, Emily Wilkinson (ODI); Hemang Karelia, Daniel Kull, Prashant (GFDRR); John Harding (United Nations Office for DRR) Jo Scheuer (United Nations Development Programme). Additional thanks go to Petra Low at Munich Re for permission to use the company s data on the impact of disasters, and to Regina Below at CRED for help in preparing data on affected populations. Thanks also to Maxx Dilley (UNDP) for guidance on using global hotspots information and data, to Christian Peratsakis at Development Gateway for preliminary support on core datasets, and to Florence Pichon for her analysis of the Climate Funds Update website data. Publication design was by the writers in collaboration with designer Steven Dickie, who prepared all elements and the general layout for publication. Copy-editing was by David Wilson. Finally, a special thanks to Emma Lovell at ODI for significant support throughout this project. ii FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

5 ADB Asian Development Bank GNI Gross national income AF Adaptation Fund HFA Hyogo Framework for Action CCA Climate change adaptation IADB Inter-American Development Bank CERF Central Emergency Response Fund LDC Least developed country CFU Climate Funds Update LDCF Least Developed Countries Fund CRED CRS DAC DaLA DAT DRM DRR EBRD Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Creditor Reporting System Development Assistance Committee Damage and Loss Assessment methodology Disaster Aid Tracking database Disaster risk management Disaster risk reduction European Bank for Reconstruction and Development LIC LMIC MRI NAPA OECD PPCR SIDS UMIC Low-income country Lower-middle-income country Mortality Risk Index National Adaptation Programme of Action Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Pilot Program for Climate Resilience Small island developing states Upper-middle-income country GAR GCCA GDP Global Assessment Report Global Climate Change Alliance Gross domestic product UNDP UNISDR United Nations Development Programme United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction GFDRR Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery iii

6 100% 80% Remaining 40 donors Australia IADB EBRD ASDF United States Remaining 137 countries Low Medium-low Medium-high +5% population +2% population +1% population Less than $100 per capita EC World Bank - International Development Association (IDA) High 60% Asian Development Bank Turkey Very high Between $101 - $1,000 per capita Brazil India 40% World Bank - International Bank for Reconstruction & Development Argentina Colombia Mexico Less than 1% population Philippines Bangladesh Extreme Between $1,001 - $3,000 per capita 20% Indonesia Japan China Above $3,000 per capita Donor financing is heavily concentrated with Japan and the World Bank accounting for more than 50% of the total. DRR financing is heavily concentrated in relatively few, mostly middleincome countries. Financing of DRR goes to those countries ranked high on the mortality risk index, but the funding is considerably inequitable. The mortality risk index does not include drought. Countries affected by drought have received very little DRR financing. The poorest countries, those with the smallest annual revenue, have received less than 20% of total DRR financing.

7 Executive summary vi 1 4 The low priority of reducing disaster risk 5 Trends over time: how much and what 10 Who we fund: the recipients of DRR 13 The way we fund: concentration and fragmentation 15 Adaptation funding for DRR 18 The positives into perspective 21 In Focus Section A: Recipients Mortality risk 28 Economic and human risk 29 Government capacity 32 In Focus Section B: Donors Annex 45 Basic concepts and further notes on methodology 45 Basic reference table 46 Endnotes 48 v

8 This moment, with so many policy debates converging on 2015, represents a unique opportunity to ensure that disaster risk reduction (DRR) becomes a truly fundamental component of development and poverty reduction. The international financing of DRR, representing the international community s support to national governments in their efforts to protect development gains from disasters, is coming under increasing scrutiny. This report examines the record of the international community to date, investigating the priorities in financing of DRR, and asking questions of both the equity and adequacy of past efforts. Beyond this it points to the future of a more rational, targeted investment in risk reduction. The evidence of the 20-year trends in international DRR financing is worrying: Financing has been highly volatile; only in the past few years has there been relative stability. Although $13.5 billion of financing has been made available, it is a fraction of overall aid, less than 40 cents in every $100. Disaster losses in developing nations amount to $862 billion (a considerable under-estimate) equivalent in value to one-third of all international development aid. There is a high concentration of funding in a relatively small number of middle-income countries. The top ten recipients received nearly $8 billion, the remaining 144 just $5.6 billion combined. Financing is considerably fragmented. The 3,188 projects that cost less than $1.5 million represent 86.5% of the total number but only for 5.5% of the volume of financing. The administrative costs of this have not been calculated. Many high-risk countries have received negligible levels of financing for DRR compared with emergency response; 17 of the top 20 recipients of response funding received less than 4% of their disaster-related aid as DRR. In addition, the priorities of international financing are, on the whole, not matched to either the needs or capacity of recipient countries: There is some correlation between mortality risk levels and volumes of financing, but only at the high-risk level. Per capita financing reveals significant inequity. Ecuador, the second highest recipient per capita, received 19 times more than Afghanistan, 100 times more than Costa Rica and 600 times more than the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Where the economy is at risk, volumes of financing tend to be high; where predominantly populations are at risk, volumes are often low. Financing in drought-affected countries is very weak. Niger, Eritrea, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Malawi have seen 105 million people affected by drought, but their combined DRR financing has been $116.5 million, the same as Honduras alone. Financing does not take into account national capacity and finances. Twelve of a group of 23 low-income countries each received less than $10 million for DRR over 20 years. These same countries received $5.6 billion in disaster response, equivalent to $160,000 for every $1 of DRR. There are positive areas to build upon, including relatively stable financing in the past few years; less financing of heavy infrastructure; a move away from richer middle-income countries; and increasing DRR financing from climate adaptation. There should, however, be considerable caution given the pressures on traditional funding sources, and sustained concern for the high numbers of low-income, sub-saharan African countries, often severely affected by drought, that have seen minimal international DRR financing. The data available for tracking the financing of DRR is not as good as it should be. Both broad pictures and individual country detail are needed, and to obtain this data improvements are urgently required. We also need to better understand national financing of DRR, and the interplay between national and international sources. Despite issues with data, the evidence drawn together in this report strongly suggests that the international community must take stock of the way it provides support to national governments. Questions need to be asked about the role of international financing, the funding architecture and how funds from other sources can be brought to bear. Above all else, there is a need to move towards gauging the effectiveness of what has been spent. The future therefore is not just about more money from donor governments, but also about better financing more integrated and suitably coordinated, and certainly better targeted. vi FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

9 1

10 The importance of the moment is indisputable. We are already close to 2015 and to not only a likely successor to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), the international community s blueprint for reducing disaster risk, but also a follow-on to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). There is evidence that increasingly the policy behind these grand initiatives is coming together, and that risk and development, development and risk, are increasingly being seen as going hand-in-hand. The original MDGs had little to say about the impact of disasters on development. However, there are signs that their successor initiative will have something considerable to say about disaster risk, and similar restraints and setbacks to progress, with perhaps if the High Level Panel s recommendations are made real a direct link to the reduction of poverty. 1 In addition, the HFA itself is coming of age. At the recent Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Geneva, it was clear that we have now entered the phase of implementation. Delegates, in both formal sessions and informal conversations, made it clear that they are keen to move beyond rhetoric. National platforms have been set up, legislations have in large part been created and institutions developed, and in some countries much more has been done, but now more than ever the focus is on actions leading to concrete results. While policy debates and considerations of best financing practices might occupy attention, disasters continue to make their impact felt both nationally and locally. Massive sudden-impact disasters destroy communities in an instant, while the socio-economic fabric of nations is eaten away by slow-onset disasters such as drought, month-by-month, year-by-year. Recent estimates suggest that the number of people displaced by disasters reached more than 32 million in 2012, double the total in the previous year. 2 The impact of climate on disaster risk is continuing to grow. The World Bank s report Turn Down the Heat 3 and the Overseas Development Institute s forthcoming Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030 both highlight the contribution of climate to an increase in extensive risk and impoverishment, factors which often fail to gain the attention they deserve. The mid-term review of the HFA 4 made it clear that national governments bear the primary responsibility for reducing disaster risk, supported where required by the international community. It also stated that financing from all sources was largely failing to meet requirements, considerably hindering progress. For domestic financing, this is largely due to the challenge of ensuring that DRR is a budgetary priority. With international financing, the most important issue is that DRR remains a humanitarian issue, financed largely out of emergency budgets. This is not, however, a question of levels of financing from either domestic or international sources but one of complementarity, alignment, coordination and mutual accountability. While policy debates and considerations of best financing practices might occupy attention, disasters continue to make their impact felt both nationally and locally. Massive suddenimpact disasters destroy communities in an instant, while the socioeconomic fabric of nations is eaten away by slow-onset disasters such as drought, month-bymonth, year-by-year 2 FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

11 This report goes further than DRR: Spending Where it Should Count, (by Kellett and Sparks, 2012) by analysing for the first time the financing of DRR to all countries. It considers the international financing of DRR in terms of the support it gives, or should give, to national efforts to reduce disaster risk. This is in the context of pressures on traditional sources of donor financing from the international community, with budgets stretched and international aid having fallen in successive years (by 4% in 2012, following a 2% fall in 2011) and with only a modest recovery likely this year. 5 This report is therefore first and foremost about choice, firstly about the case for allocating what is a limited pot of money to the reduction of disaster risk, to complement and not compete with other aid activity; and, secondly, about where and what are the most appropriate areas to spend this money. There are serious questions to be asked about the choices that the international community makes. What drives investment in reducing disaster risk? For what reasons do we invest in one country rather than another? This report is therefore first and foremost about choice, firstly about the case for allocating what is a limited pot of money to the reduction of disaster risk, to complement and not compete with other aid activity; and, secondly, about where and what are the most appropriate areas to spend this money. Much has already been achieved by national governments, in many cases supported by the international community, both before and since the HFA. There have been successes. Lives have been saved, livelihoods protected and resilience built. However, we need more, faster and better action to contain the current trend of risk. Above all else, this report is a call to action. 3

12

13 Financing for disaster risk reduction makes up a tiny fraction of overall investments in development aid. There is little evidence of sustained financing from the international community. Large single projects often account for apparent trends. Financing is gradually moving away from larger (often infrastructure) projects towards technical support. Heavy concentration of financing in relatively few middle-income countries and in a small number of projects, masks inequality and fragmentation, with many high-risk countries sharing little funding spread across many projects. Many high-risk countries receive negligible financing for DRR compared with massive amounts for response and reconstruction. Disaster losses in developing nations are equivalent to a minimum of onethird of all international development aid over the past 20 years. DRR has been at best a very low priority over the past two decades. In this period, the international community committed just over $3 trillion in aid. Of this, $106.7 billion was allocated to disasters, and of that just a fraction, $13.5 billion, was for risk reduction measures before disasters strike, compared with $23.3 billion spent on reconstruction and rehabilitation and $69.9 billion spent on response. Of overall aid financing over 20 years, the $13.5 billion spent on DRR accounts for just 0.4% of the total amount spent on international aid. Essentially, for every $100 spent on development aid, just 40 cents has been invested in defending that aid from the impact of disasters. Essentially, for every $100 spent on development aid, just 40 cents has been invested in defending that aid from the impact of disasters. The key dataset in this report is drawn from the Disaster Aid Tracking (DAT) database developed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) and Development Gateway. Drawn from a line-by-line examination of more than a million international aid projects, it presents probably the best-combined data on international commitments to disasters. The dataset is broken down into three sub-sets: disaster prevention and preparedness, emergency response, reconstruction and rehabilitation. The most important for this report is disaster prevention and preparedness. This is equivalent to what the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) would term disaster risk reduction. (DRR) (see unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology). Throughout this report the terminology is used from the same source. 5

14 Total international aid Funding for natural disasters $3.03 trillion $106.7 billion $13.5 billion $23.3 billion $69.9 billion Disaster risk reduction Reconstruction & rehabilitation Emergency response HFA endorsed Kashmir earthquake Haiti earthquake Marmara earthquake Gujarat earthquake Indian Ocean tsunami Pakistan flooding DRR Emergency response Reconstruction and rehabilitation 6 FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

15 The trend for commitments related to disasters has been on the increase since the late 1990s, but this increase is largely accounted for by activities undertaken in the aftermath of events rather than by DRR, with financing of response in particular having increased to a remarkable degree. Certain events have been particularly important in accounting for peaks in overall disaster financing while also, due to the massive impact and media attention they have generated, often helping at least to put DRR on the agenda. Most such events have been earthquakes, where a very visible and sudden impact generates significant attention, pushing up financing of both response and reconstruction activities. This was true of the Marmara earthquake in Turkey in 1999, when $1.1 billion of reconstruction aid was provided by the World Bank alone, and Gujarat, India in 2001, where two projects one by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and one by the World Bank accounted for $1.4 billion of reconstruction aid. Another peak for both financing for disasters and consciousness of the risks came in 2005, when the Indian Ocean tsunami and the Kashmir earthquake dominated the headlines and accounted for a huge volume of finance saw a continued rise year-on-year in disaster financing, the second highest on record after 2005 driven largely by the Haiti earthquake, when $1.8 billion of post-disaster aid was accounted for largely by emergency response ($1.7 billion of the total) and not by reconstruction, unlike in earlier earthquake contexts. DRR as a proportion of financing for disasters was much higher earlier in the two decades than in the past few years: this is largely a function of particularly large infrastructure investments (mostly in flood prevention and control) in the first ten years examined, combined with relatively low levels of emergency response before Since 2003, financing of DRR has been roughly stable at about 10% of overall financing on disasters each year. This stability has to be put into the context of overall financing of disasters compared with other priorities of the international community. The $1.1 billion financed in 2010 one of the best years on record in terms of overall volumes pales in comparison with expenditures on food aid, on financing of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and on peacekeeping (see Figure 2.4 on next page). These are all worthy of finance in their own way, and their presentation here is not a criticism; rather it puts the low priority of DRR compared with other aid funding into perspective % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% DRR Emergency response Reconstruction and rehabilitation 7

16 on peacekeeping on food aid Global Fund Disaster risk reduction (2nd highest year on record) International priorities are also evident in how skewed funding has been towards post-disaster financing was a key year it terms of raising consciousness about disasters, driven by the massive impact of the Kashmir earthquake in October 2005 and in particular by the Indian Ocean tsunami that struck in December The post-disaster financing for these two events puts in a stark light the considerable 2,000 1,600 1, Kashmir earthquake Emergency response Reconstruction and rehabilitation Indian Ocean tsunami predisposition of the international community towards response and reconstruction, rather than prevention. In 2005 at least $3.3 billion was committed after these two disasters alone, $1 billion for response and $2.2 billion for reconstruction and rehabilitation. Essentially, the emergency response and reconstruction financing for these two disasters in one year were equivalent to a quarter of the total ($13.5 billion) spent on DRR in all countries over a period of 20 years. Given the scale of these events and the costs in emergency response and reconstruction, it might be wondered what more it would take to increase financing of reducing disaster risk. Essentially, the emergency response and reconstruction financing for these two disasters [Kashmir earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami] were equivalent to a quarter of the total $13.5 billion spent on DRR in all countries over a period of 20 years 8 FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

17 The economic losses attributed to disasters at a global level is staggering. Insurance group Munich Re estimates that 8,652 disaster events in developing countries between 1991 and 2010 caused $846 billion of financial losses (a figure that is limited to the direct impact of disaster alone) 6. This makes the $13.5 billion spent on DRR look even more like a drop in the ocean compared with what happens when such investment is not made. These losses might also be balanced against the $3.03 trillion spent on all aid activities over the same two decades. We can t state how much international development has been lost to disasters and its too crude to simply compare overall aid to overall losses. However we can be certain that the impact of disasters is significant, and that development, whether funded by domestic resources or international aid, is considerably impacted. How much could have been saved if funding to DRR had been doubled, tripled or more? This can also be examined using specific data from detailed investigations based on the Damage and Loss Assessment (DaLA) Methodology (see methodology box on next page). This data, which comes from just a selection of countries where the impact of single large disaster events has been analysed, also highlights the cost of not investing in prevention. Since 1991, a total of 81 assessments using the DaLA format have been undertaken in 44 Excluded from traditional calculations of losses (including the DaLA methodology) are intangible costs, i.e. those that do not have a market price, such as the psychological impact of losing a house, or other social and cultural factors such as the disruption of social cohesion that greatly influence a person s life and make recovery from disasters an even more difficult and expensive process. Increasingly a large body of literature is examining ways to integrate these intangible costs into the total costs assessments for natural hazards. 7 countries (Figure 2.6). The total damage and losses in these assessments amounted to $101 billion, with individual losses ranging from $8.7 million caused by flooding in the Central African Republic (CAR) in 2009 to the massive $7.8 billion in losses caused by the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Although more damage and losses might be presumed to occur in richer developing nations (given the greater likelihood of them having assets to damage or lose, and the likely greater value of those assets) a massive financial impact is also seen in low-income 8 countries, such as Haiti, Myanmar after Cyclone Nargis ($4.1 billion of damage and loss) and Pakistan after the Kashmir earthquake ($3.2 billion). Sum of total damage and losses ($ millions) Number of DaLA assessments undertaken DRR financing ( ) ($ millions) Mexico 10, Indonesia 10, ,439.2 Haiti 8, Honduras 5, India 4, Peru 4, Philippines 4, Venezuela 4, Myanmar 4, Cayman Islands 3, No data Remaining 34 countries assessed using DaLA 39, , , ,

18 The Damage and Loss Assessment (DaLA) Methodology was initially developed by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC) in It has since been improved to capture the closest approximation of damage and losses due to disaster events. The DaLA Methodology bases its assessments on the overall economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. See https:// for more details. Note that damage is calculated as the replacement value of totally or partially destroyed physical assets; losses in the flows of the economy that arise from the temporary absence of the damaged assets; and the resultant impact on postdisaster macroeconomic performance, with special reference to economic growth, the balance of payments and the fiscal situation of the government. All the investments in reducing disaster risk made by the international community look meagre at best in the face of these massive financial impacts. Perhaps the $99.2 million invested in Haiti since 1991 stands out in particular as being too little, especially when considering the range of risks that the country faces and its history of disasters well before the 2010 earthquake. It is almost impossible to discern any clear trends within DRR financing over the past 20 years, except perhaps for a modest increase from 2000 onwards. Similar to financing for disasters overall, most of the higher figures for individual years are not trend-related at all but are largely accounted for by a few large projects. In 2000, for example, the World Bank allocated $584 million to Mexico for a multi-sector disaster management project. In 2002, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) spent $320 million on flood protection schemes for St Petersburg in Russia, which according to data is the only DRR project the bank has funded. In 2005, four World Bank projects accounted for $993 million (in Turkey, Colombia, Argentina and Vietnam) or 76.6% of total DRR financing that year; the remaining $304 million was fragmented across 133 separate projects (an issue that will be revisited later). Finally, in 2010 the peak in financing was attributable largely to the World Bank (with one cyclone risk mitigation project worth $252.6 million in India and another risk financing project worth $99 million in Peru) and Japan s climate risk financing of $147 million spread across 14 countries. 1,400 1,200 1, FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

19 This relatively high and stable funding of DRR since 2008 is in stark contrast with the volatility and sometimes very low figures over the rest of the two decades. Some years have seen miserably low levels of financing for DRR, such as 2003, when only $150.8 million was allocated to 43 projects worldwide. Of that, three projects alone accounted for $111 million, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sudan and Azerbaijan. The remaining $39 million was shared between 29 countries and two regions. DRR financing can be further investigated by disaggregating funding for flood prevention and control from that intended for other activities. Flood prevention activities, made up largely of large infrastructure projects, dominated the first 10 years, regularly making up more than 90% of all DRR financing, and accounting for $7.8 billion (57.7%) of the 20-year total. The financing for the remainder of DRR was a very low proportion of financing for much of the first decade and into the next, nine years below 20% and a further four years below 50%. Financing for flood prevention has decreased significantly since 2002 however, and this, combined with increased allocations for the remaining DRR has pushed up the latter to beyond 80% of totals on a regular basis, especially since The data provides no clear reason for this changing pattern. Perhaps a focus on the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA), and an emphasis on technical support to countries, has shifted overall international financing away from large-scale infrastructure projects. It could also be partly due to a combination of greater national ownership of disaster risk and pressures on donor financing, leading to a greater emphasis on funding support to transfer more of that ownership. Finally, the decline in flood prevention and control financing also coincides with years in which climate adaptation funds have started to play a more important role in financing DRR preliminary evidence suggests these are much less likely to focus on heavy infrastructure but rather on early warning, climate-related legislation and risk knowledge. This all needs further examination. It also calls into question the comparative advantage of international financing for reducing disaster risk. What exactly should the international community be funding? Arguably the financial heavy lifting of risk reduction should be left largely to national governments, so that international actors can focus increasingly on kickstarting projects, on technical advice and on technology transfer. The data is not very helpful at this stage, since it is impossible to understand exactly what is being funded beyond these two broad sets of DRR data described above, without a detailed line-by-line search of the 3,687 DRR projects over 20 years. Present recording and tracking systems demand this forensic investigation to understand the full investment by the international community in early warning systems, the development of government frameworks or coordination capacity. What the data does suggest is that, whatever the international community does, it appears to be fragmented into many approaches (as discussed overleaf). 1, % 1,200 1, DRR (general) DRR on flood prevention and control Proportion DRR (general) 11

20 For some countries, flood prevention and control has accounted for a very high proportion of overall DRR funding. Most of these are middle-income countries. Some of the countries with a high proportion of funding going towards flood prevention are rather surprising. They do not show up in the top 10 overall due to the relatively small amounts received, but proportionally their flood financing is significant and unusual, such as the DRC (100% of $52.2 million for DRR) and Kenya (80% of $88 million). Flood protection and control Remaining DRR financing Total Proportion to flood prevention China 1, , % Indonesia 1, , % Bangladesh % Philippines % Argentina % Brazil % Russia % Sri Lanka % Lebanon % Poland % One of the key challenges of the work of investigating the financing of DRR is understanding exactly what is being financed, and the quality of that financing, something that the broad categories of databases rarely describe. Three examples are particularly relevant to this section of the report and throughout: Investments in flood prevention and control (like the rest of DRR financing) can both add and reduce disaster risk, dependent on exactly how they were undertaken. Financing of reconstruction and rehabilitation may not only reconstruct but also may contribute to the reduction of disaster risk, perhaps, for example, if the oft-heard concept of build back better is adopted. Financing beyond DRR can also contribute to risk reduction. International investments in rural and urban development could well reduce the likelihood of disaster, or reduce its impact. (Of course, similar to flood prevention, risks can also be built through such developments.) A relevant question for moving forward on tracking DRR is how we can understand the real value of all investments that may reduce risk, whilst also being in a position to challenge investments that may be simply adding to risk. 12 FINANCING DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A 20 YEAR STORY OF INTERNATIONAL AID

Countries Ranked by Per Capita Income A. IBRD Only 1 Category iv (over $7,185)

Countries Ranked by Per Capita Income A. IBRD Only 1 Category iv (over $7,185) Page 1 of 5 Note: This OP 3.10, Annex C replaces the version dated September 2013. The revised terms are effective for all loans that are approved on or after July 1, 2014. Countries Ranked by Per Capita

More information

Eligibility List 2015

Eligibility List 2015 The Global Fund adopted an allocation-based approach for funding programs against HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria in 2013. The Global Fund policy states that countries can receive allocation only if their components

More information

Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016. International UN Volunteers (12 months)

Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016. International UN Volunteers (12 months) Proforma Cost for international UN Volunteers for UN Partner Agencies for 2016 Country Of Assignment International UN Volunteers (12 months) International UN Youth Volunteers (12 months) University Volunteers

More information

Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals

Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals Bangladesh Visa fees for foreign nationals No. All fees in US $ 1. Afghanistan 5.00 5.00 10.00 2. Albania 2.00 2.00 3.00 3. Algeria 1.00 1.00 2.00 4. Angola 11.00 11.00 22.00 5. Argentina 21.00 21.00 42.00

More information

COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION. of 24.5.2016

COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION. of 24.5.2016 EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 24.5.2016 C(2016) 3040 final COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION of 24.5.2016 amending Commission Implementing Decision C(2015) 8936 of 15.12.2015 on the financing of humanitarian

More information

Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending

Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending Appendix A. Crisis Indicators and Infrastructure Lending APPENDIX A Table A.1. Crisis Indicators (Case Study Countries) Country % as Share of GDP Share of in Bank Crisis Severity Score (principal factor

More information

FDI performance and potential rankings. Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD

FDI performance and potential rankings. Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI performance and potential rankings Astrit Sulstarova Division on Investment and Enterprise UNCTAD FDI perfomance index The Inward FDI Performance Index ranks countries by the FDI they receive relative

More information

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2015

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2015 INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2015 INFORM 2015 INFORM MEASURES THE RISK OF HUMANITARIAN CRISES AND DISASTERS IN 191 COUNTRIES COUNTRY RISK 3 YR TREND Afghanistan 7.88 æ Albania 2.61 à Algeria 4.64

More information

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

DISASTER RISK REDUCTION BRIEFING PAPER DISASTER RISK REDUCTION Spending where it should count AUTHORS: Jan Kellett & Dan Sparks WORKSTREAM: Global trends DATE: March 2012 VERSION: 1 INTRODUCTION The humanitarian system is under

More information

Population below the poverty line Rural % Population below $1 a day % Urban % Urban % Survey year. National %

Population below the poverty line Rural % Population below $1 a day % Urban % Urban % Survey year. National % 2.7 International the the Afghanistan.................... Albania 2002 29.6 19.8 25.4...... 2002 a

More information

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016

Senate Committee: Education and Employment. QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Senate Committee: Education and Employment QUESTION ON NOTICE Budget Estimates 2015-2016 Outcome: Higher Education Research and International Department of Education and Training Question No. SQ15-000549

More information

Action required The Committee is requested to take note of the position of 2010 11 income and expenditure as of 30 September 2010.

Action required The Committee is requested to take note of the position of 2010 11 income and expenditure as of 30 September 2010. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE Governing Body 309th Session, Geneva, November 2010 Programme, Financial and Administrative Committee GB.309/PFA/1 PFA FOR INFORMATION FIRST ITEM ON THE AGENDA Programme and

More information

OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP

OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Republic of Albania People s Democratic Republic of Algeria Principality of Andorra Republic of Angola Antigua and Barbuda

More information

GLOBAL. 2014 Country Well-Being Rankings. D Social (% thriving) E Financial (% thriving) F Community (% thriving) G Physical (% thriving)

GLOBAL. 2014 Country Well-Being Rankings. D Social (% thriving) E Financial (% thriving) F Community (% thriving) G Physical (% thriving) 0 0 GLOBAL 0 Country Rankings 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : >0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.% 0.0% 0.0% A Country s global rank B in three or more elements of well-being C (% thriving) D (% thriving) E

More information

FACT SHEET. Gini Coefficient

FACT SHEET. Gini Coefficient FACT SHEET 1. Overview 1.1 Developed by an Italian statistician Corrado in the 1910s, is commonly used to indicate income inequality in a society. is a number which has a value between zero and one. As

More information

מדינת ישראל. Tourist Visa Table

מדינת ישראל. Tourist Visa Table Updated 22/06/2016 מדינת ישראל Tourist Visa Table Tourist visa exemption is applied to national and official passports only, and not to other travel documents. Exe = exempted Req = required Press the first

More information

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries

Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Fiscal Affairs Department Effects of Good Government, by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Siena, Italy, 1338-39 Fiscal Rules and Fiscal Responsibility Frameworks for Growth in Emerging and Low-Income Countries Martine

More information

Expression of Interest in Research Grant Applications

Expression of Interest in Research Grant Applications INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING AND BIOTECHNOLOGY THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION ICGEB-TWAS-UNESCO/IBSP Joint

More information

Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts

Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts Guidelines for DBA Coverage for Direct and Host Country Contracts An Additional Help document for ADS Chapter 302 New Reference: 06/14/2007 Responsible Office: OAA/P File Name: 302sap_061407_cd48 BACKGROUND:

More information

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE USAID/TDA DEFENSE BASE ACT (DBA) APPLICATION

INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE USAID/TDA DEFENSE BASE ACT (DBA) APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE USAID/TDA DEFENSE BASE ACT (DBA) APPLICATION Full Name of Insured or Company and Complete Mailing Address: This is whoever has the contract with USAID. Generally, it is

More information

Resilient Recovery at GFDRR

Resilient Recovery at GFDRR Resilient Recovery at GFDRR The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) supports resilient reconstruction planning and post-disaster assessments, helping more than 50 disaster-affected

More information

Norwegian Climate Finance 2010.

Norwegian Climate Finance 2010. Norwegian Climate Finance 2010. In Decision 1/CP.16 (Cancun Agreements AWGLCA outcome), relevant parties were invited to submit information on the resources provided for the fast start period (2010 2012).

More information

GFDRR on Resilient Recovery

GFDRR on Resilient Recovery GFDRR on Resilient Recovery GFDRR supports resilient reconstruction planning and post-disaster assessments, helping more than 50 disaster-affected countries with these approaches since its launch in 2007.

More information

This note provides additional information to understand the Debt Relief statistics reported in the GPEX Tables.

This note provides additional information to understand the Debt Relief statistics reported in the GPEX Tables. Technical Note 3 Debt Relief This note provides additional information to understand the Debt Relief statistics reported in the GPEX Tables. Introduction 1. Debt is a major development issue. There is

More information

UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Belgium 22 Jul 1953 r 08 Apr 1969 a Belize 27 Jun 1990 a 27 Jun 1990 a Benin 04 Apr 1962 s 06 Jul 1970 a Bolivia 09 Feb 1982 a 09 Feb 1982 a Bosnia and Herzegovina 01 Sep 1993 s 01 Sep 1993 s Botswana

More information

Migration and Remittances: Top Countries

Migration and Remittances: Top Countries Migration and Remittances: Top Countries Top Immigration Countries a, 010 number of immigrants, millions United States b Russian Federation b Germany b Saudi Arabia b Canada b United Kingdom b Spain b

More information

States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol

States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol States Parties to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol Date of entry into force: 22 April 1954 (Convention) 4 October 1967 (Protocol) As of 1 October 2008 Total

More information

United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs

United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs United States Department of Labor Office of Workers' Compensation Programs Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP) Division of Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation (DLHWC) Defense Base Act

More information

MEETING THE INVESTMENT CHALLENGE TIPPING THE DEPENDENCY BALANCE

MEETING THE INVESTMENT CHALLENGE TIPPING THE DEPENDENCY BALANCE BREAKING NEWS MEETING THE INVESTMENT CHALLENGE TIPPING THE DEPENDENCY BALANCE Domestic investments exceed international investments total reaching US$ 8.6 billion. 40 countries fund more than 70% of their

More information

Total Purchases in 2012

Total Purchases in 2012 Fighting Hunger Worldwide Food Procurement Annual Report 2012 Maize, Niger WFP/Rein Skullerud Procurement Mission Statement To ensure that appropriate commodities are available to WFP beneficiaries in

More information

International Fuel Prices 2012/2013

International Fuel Prices 2012/2013 International Fuel Prices 212/213 8 th Edition Published by International Fuel Prices 212/213 8 th Edition Disclaimer Findings, interpretation and conclusions expressed in this document are based on the

More information

Mineral Industry Surveys

Mineral Industry Surveys 4 Mineral Industry Surveys For information contact: Robert L. Virta, Asbestos Commodity Specialist U.S. Geological Survey 989 National Center Reston, VA 20192 Telephone: 703-648-7726, Fax: (703) 648-7757

More information

Poorest Countries of the World: Projections upto 2018

Poorest Countries of the World: Projections upto 2018 Poorest Countries of the World: Projections upto 2018 By Dunya News http://www.dunyanews.tv Author: Anis uddin Shiekh (anis.shiekh@dunyatv.tv) December 2013 Copyright Dunya News 1 Introduction Poverty

More information

Outsource International Ltd

Outsource International Ltd Providing global technology solutions for: Carriers Systems Integrators Resellers Outsource Manufacturers International Ltd Government agencies Financial sector Global Technology Solutions Providing global

More information

HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40

HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40 BLOOMBERG RANKINGS THE WORLD'S HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES HEALTHIEST COUNTRIES 1 to 40 1 Singapore 89.45% 92.52% 3.07% 2 Italy 89.07 94.61 5.54 3 Australia 88.33 93.19 4.86 4 Switzerland 88.29 93.47 5.17 5 Japan

More information

Brandeis University. International Student & Scholar Statistics

Brandeis University. International Student & Scholar Statistics 1 Brandeis University International Student & Scholar Statistics 2014 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENT & SCHOLAR POPULATION 3 DETAILED INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL STUDENT POPULATION

More information

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT

INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT INDEX FOR RISK MANAGEMENT RESULTS 2016 WELCOME Welcome to the INFORM (Index for Risk Management) 2016 global results report. INFORM is a way to understand and measure the risk of humanitarian crises and

More information

Consolidated International Banking Statistics in Japan

Consolidated International Banking Statistics in Japan Total (Transfer Consolidated cross-border claims in all currencies and local claims in non-local currencies Up to and including one year Maturities Over one year up to two years Over two years Public Sector

More information

What Can I Do With the Data?

What Can I Do With the Data? Profile of GMAT Testing: Report Five-Year Summary, TY2011 TY2015 November 2015 Globally, nearly 1.3 million Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT ) exams have been taken over the past five years by

More information

Conference Statement:

Conference Statement: Conference Statement: Strengthen Resilient Recovery and Reconstruction in the Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction Preamble: The growing incidence of high-impact disasters has made countries

More information

Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details

Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details White Paper Cisco Global Cloud Index Supplement: Cloud Readiness Regional Details What You Will Learn The Cisco Global Cloud Index is an ongoing effort to forecast the growth of global data center and

More information

Citizens of the following nationalities are exempted from holding a visa when crossing the external borders of the SCHENGEN area:

Citizens of the following nationalities are exempted from holding a visa when crossing the external borders of the SCHENGEN area: WEB SUMMIT BULLETIN VISA The VISA requirement to cross the external borders of the SCHENGEN area it is one of the most important procedural steps for all those participants in the next Web Summit that

More information

(b) the details of those who have been given asylum of other country, country-wise during the last three years

(b) the details of those who have been given asylum of other country, country-wise during the last three years Annexure Table indicating country-wise data on asylum seekers (LS Starred Q No. 232 for answer on 5.8.2015 on Political Asylum ) S.No. Name of Country (a) the total number of Indians who have sought political

More information

Withholding Tax Rates 2015*

Withholding Tax Rates 2015* Withholding Tax Rates 2015* International Tax Updated March 2015 Jurisdiction Dividends Interest Royalties Notes Afghanistan 20% 20% 20% Albania 15% 15% 15% Rates on dividends, interest and royalties increased

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION Notes: R = Ratification At = Acceptance Ap = Approval Ac = Accession 1. ALBANIA ----- 01/04/05 (Ac) 30/06/05 2. ALGERIA ---- 16/02/05 (Ac) 17/05/05 3. ANTIGUA AND

More information

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014)

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014) Ministry of External Relations Immigration Division Padip Holders of diplomatic passports Pasof Holders of official or service passports Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on July 08, 2014) Caption Vitem

More information

DRINKINGWATERCOVERAGE

DRINKINGWATERCOVERAGE DRINKINGWATERCOVERAGE I n 2002, 83 per cent of the world s population around 5.2 billion people used improved drinking water sources. These include piped water connections and standpipes, as described

More information

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015)

Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015) Ministry of External Relations Immigration Division Padip Holders of diplomatic passports Pasof Holders of official or service passports Entrance Visas in Brazil (Updated on November, 24, 2015) Caption

More information

Withholding Tax Rates 2016*

Withholding Tax Rates 2016* Withholding Tax Rates 2016* International Tax Updated March 2016 Jurisdiction Dividends Interest Royalties Notes Albania 15% 15% 15% Algeria 15% 10% 24% Andorra 0% 0% 5% Angola 10% 15% 10% Anguilla 0%

More information

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment

Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International

More information

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA BACKGROUND PAPER FOR FIXING THE BROKEN PROMISE OF EDUCATION FOR ALL DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE: AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD SURVEY DATA By Hiroyuki Hattori, UNICEF This

More information

AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP

AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP 250000 200000 Millions (USD) 150000 100000 50000 0 AFR EUR MENA NAC SACA SEA WP India China USA Russian Federation Brazil Germany Pakistan Japan Indonesia Mexico Bangladesh Egypt France Italy Turkey Thailand

More information

Visa Information. New Document

Visa Information. New Document Visa Information New Document To request for an invitation letter for visa application, please email your name, company/affiliation, country, and registration number to registration@apricot2009.net Visa-Exempt

More information

DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR HEALTH (DAH): RECENT TRENDS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION Catherine Michaud, MD, PhD

DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR HEALTH (DAH): RECENT TRENDS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION Catherine Michaud, MD, PhD DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE FOR HEALTH (DAH): RECENT TRENDS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION Catherine Michaud, MD, PhD Paper prepared for the Second Consultation Commission on Macroeconomics and Health World Health

More information

The global economy in 2007

The global economy in 2007 Introduction The global economy in 27 Global output grew 3.8 percent in 27, receding slightly from 4 percent in 26. The downturn was greatest in high-income economies, where growth fell from 3 percent

More information

FY 2014 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption March 31, 2015

FY 2014 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption March 31, 2015 Pursuant to Section 104 of the Intercountry Adoption Act of 2000 (IAA) (Public Law 106-279), the U.S. Department of State submits the FY 2014 Annual Report on Intercountry Adoption. IAA 104(b) Report Elements:

More information

The Education for All Fast Track Initiative

The Education for All Fast Track Initiative The Education for All Fast Track Initiative Desmond Bermingham Introduction The Education for All Fast Track Initiative (FTI) is a global partnership to help low income countries to achieve the education

More information

New Technologies and services - Cable Television

New Technologies and services - Cable Television New Technologies and services - Cable Television WORLD: AFRICA provide service Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi applications. Cameroon The relevant licence must be obtained. Cape Verde Central

More information

MDRI HIPC. heavily indebted poor countries initiative. To provide additional support to HIPCs to reach the MDGs.

MDRI HIPC. heavily indebted poor countries initiative. To provide additional support to HIPCs to reach the MDGs. Goal To ensure deep, broad and fast debt relief and thereby contribute toward growth, poverty reduction, and debt sustainability in the poorest, most heavily indebted countries. HIPC heavily indebted poor

More information

List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption. Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries

List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption. Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption Between the People s Republic of China and Foreign Countries (In alphabetical order of foreign countries) Last Update: May 9, 2015 No. Foreign Country Passport

More information

EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD

EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD EMERGENCIES 911 ABROAD If you re in an emergency situation abroad, you ll need to know how to contact the police, an ambulance, or even the fire department. Not every county uses 911 as its emergency contact

More information

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION

KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION KYOTO PROTOCOL STATUS OF RATIFICATION Notes: R = Ratification At = Acceptance Ap = Approval Ac = Accession 1. ALBANIA ----- 01/04/05 (Ac) 30/06/05 2. ALGERIA ---- 16/02/05 (Ac) 17/05/05 3. ANGOLA ----

More information

Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 2120 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 1867, geo@unm.

Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 2120 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 1867, geo@unm. Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 220 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 867, geo@unm.edu Report on International Students, Scholars and Study Abroad Programs

More information

Dealing with construction permits

Dealing with construction permits 60 Dealing with construction permits Dealing with construction permits is easiest in Hong Kong, where it takes 6 procedures and 67 days to complete this process. From June 2011 to June 2012 Doing Business

More information

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gini_coefficient

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gini_coefficient Gini coefficient From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gini_coefficient Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of

More information

Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter calling number, enter 800-544-6666 American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199

Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter calling number, enter 800-544-6666 American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199 National Financial Services International Calling Instructions Albania 00-800-0010 Dial 00-800-0010, when prompted to enter American Samoa 1-800-544-6666 Number can be dialed directly Angola 0199 Dial

More information

The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective

The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2389480/ The World Market for Medical, Surgical, or Laboratory Sterilizers: A 2013 Global Trade Perspective Description: This report

More information

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS SIXTY-EIGHTH SESSION ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE

LIST OF RESOLUTIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AT ITS SIXTY-EIGHTH SESSION ON THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE LIST OF AT THE LEVEL OF THE THIRD COMMITTEE ITEM 27: SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ITEM 27 (a) Implementation of the outcome of the World Summit for Social Development and of the twenty-fourth special session of

More information

Per Minute Rate Unlimited North America

Per Minute Rate Unlimited North America AT&T U-verse Calling Calling Rates Rates do not include taxes, fees, surcharges. Call destinations and rates are subject to change. An additional per minute rate for international calls terminating on

More information

Taxation Determination

Taxation Determination Page status: legally binding Page 1 of 8 Taxation Determination Fringe benefits tax: reasonable amounts under section 31G of the Fringe Benefits Tax Assessment Act 1986 for food and drink expenses incurred

More information

LIST OF PAYMENT FOR VISA AND SECURITY BOND PAYMENT FOR VISA ( RM )

LIST OF PAYMENT FOR VISA AND SECURITY BOND PAYMENT FOR VISA ( RM ) LIST OF AND COUNTRY FOR Afghanistan 20 2000 Albania 20 2000 Algeria 20 2000 Angola 20 1500 Antigua and Bermuda - 2000 Argentina 20 2700 Armenia 20 2000 Australia - 1500 Austria ( Vienna ) 20 1500 Azerbaijan*

More information

Country Briefing: Jordan Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) At a Glance

Country Briefing: Jordan Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) At a Glance Oxford and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) www.ophi.org.uk Oxford Dept of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford Country Briefing: Jordan Multidimensional Index (MPI)

More information

Policy Paper 12. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap

Policy Paper 12. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap Education for All Global Monitoring Report Policy Paper 12 March 2014 Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap Sustained economic growth has increased the resources that many of the

More information

LOCAL: INTRALATA RATES: COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.07 DEBIT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.60; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.

LOCAL: INTRALATA RATES: COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.07 DEBIT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.60; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $. RATE INFORMATION SHEET LOCAL: (COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; CALL RATE $.25 unlimited (~otal $1.00) DEBIT: $.80 INTRALATA RATES: COLLECT: PER CALL SERVICE CHARGE: $.75; PER MINUTE CHARGE: $.07

More information

Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services

Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services Excerpt Sudan Fixed Telecommunications: Low Penetration Rates Get a Boost from Broadband Internet and VoIP Services This report is part of Pyramid Research s series of Africa & Middle East Country Intelligence

More information

Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd

Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd Introducing Clinical Trials Insurance Services Ltd Important Staff Richard Kelly Managing Director Richard joined CTIS in 2006 having previously managed the Pharmaceutical wholesale division at Heath Lambert

More information

H1N1 Vaccine Deployment and Vaccination update

H1N1 Vaccine Deployment and Vaccination update H1N1 Vaccine Deployment and Vaccination update Outline Donor Commitments Vaccine Prequalification Country Preparedness Vaccine Deliveries Vaccine utilization and coverage Some lessons learned 2 H1N1 Pandemic

More information

MINISTERIAL MEETING ON ENHANCING THE MOBILIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT LISBON, 2-3 OCTOBER 2010

MINISTERIAL MEETING ON ENHANCING THE MOBILIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT LISBON, 2-3 OCTOBER 2010 MINISTERIAL MEETING ON ENHANCING THE MOBILIZATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES DEVELOPMENT LISBON, 2-3 OCTOBER 2010 Background Paper ADDRESSING THE DEBT PROBLEMS OF THE LEAST DEVELOPED

More information

International Talk & Text

International Talk & Text International Talk & Text Use your voice plan minutes to call landlines in over 50 countries, including Mexico, Canada and the Dominican Republic Unlimited text messaging to any cell phone in over 200

More information

Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe

Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe Asylum Trends Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in The Netherlands and Europe November 2013 2014 November 2014 Colophon Title Subtitle Author Asylum Trends Monthly Report on Asylum Applications in

More information

Social Protection in the World, Filling in Data Gaps: Where are We?

Social Protection in the World, Filling in Data Gaps: Where are We? Social Protection in the World, Filling in Data Gaps: Where are We? Maddalena Honorati, Claudia Rodriguez Alas and Ruslan Yemtsov Social Protection and Labor Global Practice FAD seminar - IMF June 26,

More information

SUN Movement Meeting of the Network of SUN Countries: Report of the 17 th Meeting- 26 th January to 2 nd February 2015

SUN Movement Meeting of the Network of SUN Countries: Report of the 17 th Meeting- 26 th January to 2 nd February 2015 SUN Movement Meeting of the Network of SUN Countries: Report of the 17 th Meeting- 26 th January to 2 nd February 2015 The 17 th meeting of the SUN Movement Network of SUN countries took place from January

More information

Summary of GAVI Alliance Investments in Immunization Coverage Data Quality

Summary of GAVI Alliance Investments in Immunization Coverage Data Quality Summary of GAVI Alliance Investments in Immunization Coverage Data Quality The GAVI Alliance strategy and business plan for 2013-2014 includes a range of activities related to the assessment and improvement

More information

Development aid in 2015 continues to grow despite costs for in-donor refugees

Development aid in 2015 continues to grow despite costs for in-donor refugees OECD Paris, 13 April 2016 Development aid in 2015 continues to grow despite costs for in-donor refugees 2015 Preliminary ODA Figures In 2015, net official development assistance (ODA) flows from member

More information

Time Warner Cable Date: 03/03/2014. Phone Product Management. BCP Standard International Rates

Time Warner Cable Date: 03/03/2014. Phone Product Management. BCP Standard International Rates Afghanistan $1.070 $1.100 Afghanistan Albania $1.040 $1.230 Albania Algeria $0.490 $0.560 Algeria Andorra $0.460 $0.750 Andorra Angola $1.440 $1.520 Angola Anguilla $0.570 $0.690 Anguilla Antarctica $3.010

More information

Adobe Creative Cloud Availability

Adobe Creative Cloud Availability Adobe Availability Countries/Regions for teams for teams United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antigua & Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas

More information

THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME IN FACTS AND FIGURES

THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME IN FACTS AND FIGURES THE WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME IN 2014 FACTS AND FIGURES WFP S KEY ACHIEVEMENTS 80 MILLION PEOPLE reached with food assistance in 82 COUNTRIES WFP S KEY ACHIEVEMENTS Children remained the primary focus of WFP

More information

See International Termination Points for Business Communications Services for additional termination points for some countries.

See International Termination Points for Business Communications Services for additional termination points for some countries. Sprint Real Solutions VPN Toll Free with International Termination Switched Access from 1 The rates below apply to toll free calls which originate in the U.S. Mainland, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S.

More information

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Below please find the complete rankings of all 75 markets considered in the analysis. Rankings are broken into overall rankings and subsector rankings. Overall Renewable

More information

INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944

INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 State INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT SIGNED AT CHICAGO ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 Entry into force: The Agreement entered into force on 30 January 1945. Status: 130 Parties. This list is based on

More information

Global Online Business Intelligence Masterfile

Global Online Business Intelligence Masterfile Size of Universe Cost Source Min Order Quantity 5,000 Update Frequency 6,074,363 Names USD 150.00 /M Addresses (Business Addresses Only) USD 175.00 /M Addresses (Named Executives) USD 150.00 /M Addresses

More information

E Study ICC 107 7. 22 August 2011 Original: English. International Coffee Organization 107 th Session 26 30 September 2011 London, United Kingdom

E Study ICC 107 7. 22 August 2011 Original: English. International Coffee Organization 107 th Session 26 30 September 2011 London, United Kingdom ICC 177 22 August 211 Original: English E Study International Coffee Organization 17 th Session 26 3 September 211 London, United Kingdom The effects of tariffs on the coffee trade Background In the context

More information

Requirements For Entry Into Jamaica

Requirements For Entry Into Jamaica Requirements For Entry Into Jamaica Visitors are required to be in possession of a national passport or other acceptable travel document establishing nationality and identity, and bearing a photograph.

More information

Philanthropic Foundations Actual versus Potential Role in International Development Assistance 1

Philanthropic Foundations Actual versus Potential Role in International Development Assistance 1 Philanthropic Foundations Actual versus Potential Role in International Development Assistance 1 The role of private philanthropic foundations in the international development agenda has been drawing significant

More information

VoIP Phone Calling Rates

VoIP Phone Calling Rates Afghanistan Default $0.52 Albania Default $0.24 Albania Mobile $0.71 Algeria Default $0.17 Algeria Mobile $0.86 Andorra Default $0.09 Andorra Mobile $0.48 Angola Default $0.21 Angola Mobile $0.24 Anguilla

More information

The Effective Vaccine Management Initiative Past, Present and Future

The Effective Vaccine Management Initiative Past, Present and Future EVM setting a standard for the vaccine supply chain The Effective Vaccine Management Initiative Past, Present and Future Paul Colrain TechNet meeting Dakar, Senegal, February 2013 February 2013 TechNet

More information

Lebara Unlimited Plan

Lebara Unlimited Plan AFGHANISTAN $0.05 $0.19 ALBANIA $0.35 $0.43 ALGERIA $0.28 $0.38 AMERICAN SAMOA $0.15 $0.15 ANDORRA $0.07 $0.44 ANGOLA $0.25 $0.35 ANGUILLA $0.33 $0.33 ANTARCTICA $1.39 $0.00 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA $0.25 $0.25

More information

ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international

ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international The ISO Survey 2005 ISO and The ISO Survey ISO is the world s largest developer of voluntary international standards for business, government and society. Its portfolio at the beginning of June 2006 comprised

More information

New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50. Australia (Zona A)

New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50. Australia (Zona A) New Zealand =============================== Standard Courier NZD$5.00 Rural Delivery Courier NZD $5.00 + $4.50 = $9.50 Australia (Zona A) Option 1: Airmail economy - 2-6 working days, no tracking NZD $11.50

More information

CONTENTS THE UNITED NATIONS' HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR)

CONTENTS THE UNITED NATIONS' HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) CONTENTS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) 1. INTRODUCTION...2 2. UNHCR HANDBOOK...2 3. CONTACT WITH UNHCR...2 4. UNHCR DATABASE...3 5. UNHCR HEADQUARTERS...3 ANNEX A. LIST OF STATES PARTY TO THE

More information