UNIT 3: Macromolecules. Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

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1 UNIT 3: Macromolecules Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

2 Lesson #1: What are the main elements found in all living things? There are five main elements in all living things: H = Hydrogen O = Oxygen N = Nitrogen C = Carbon P = Phosphorus The most important of all these elements is! BECAUSE... It has four valence electrons. It can bond easily to itself and other elements. It can make single, double, and triple bonds. It can make chains, branches, and rings.

3 Lesson #2: What is a macromolecule? How is one formed? A macromolecule is a molecule found in living matter that is made up of 1000's of smaller molecules. Small units called are joined together to form a larger unit called a. A really large polymer is a macromolecule. joins subunits together by taking away a water molecule and forming a new bond. splits subunits apart by adding a water molecule and breaking a bond.

4 THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES RESPONSIBLE FOR LIFE ARE... A chef carries out the instructions of the cookbook to make the cake, just like carry out life's instructions. The oven supplies the energy necessary to bake the cake, just like supply energy to carry out life's many reactions. A cookbook holds the instructions for baking a cake just like holds the instructions for life! The pan holds the cake in place to make it a single object, just like create a cell membrane to capture life in a cell.

5 Composition:,,,, and. Monomer: These subunits are made up of three things: 1. phosphate group 2. 5-carbon sugar 3. base Functions: Store and transmit genetic information Polymers: Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Deoxynucleic Acid (DNA)

6 Composition:,,, and Monomer: These are made up of: 1. an amino group (-NH 2 ) 2. a carboxyl group (-COOH) 3. a functional group There are different amino acids. Functions: Structural support - form muscles and bones Storage - third source of energy Transport - help substances enter and leave a cell Defense - help fight disease; control rate of reactions Signalling - hormones Polymers: hemoglobin amylase

7 Composition:,, and Names: usually end in. Functions: Main source of energy for living things Structural support for plants and some animals. Types: monomer = simple sugars: ex. double sugars: ex. polymer = complex sugars: ex.

8 Most Common Disaccharide: "Table Sugar" Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Most Common Polysaccharides: Starch - found in plants and stored form of energy for cells. Glycogen - "animal starch" produced by the liver and stored in the liver and in muscle tissue. The branching structure allows for easy solubility and faster rate of synthesis and degradation. Cellulose - a structural component of plant cell walls.

9 Composition: mostly and Functions: Second energy source for living things Waterproofing - such as oil glands to coat bird feathers Structural support - large part of all cell membranes Hormones - act as chemical messengers

10 TRIGLYCERIDES (FATS) Made of two kinds of molecules: glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains. Types of Fatty Acids: Saturated Carbons joined by bonds. Unsaturated Carbons joined by at least one bond. PHOSOLIPIDS One head that is "water-loving. Two tails that are "water-fearing." Part of any cell membrane!

11 There are four major groups of macromolecules in all living things: Macromolecule Elements Monomer Polymer Functions Nucleic Acid Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids

12 Lesson #7: How do enzymes work? What factors affect them? Enzymes are proteins that act as biological. A catalyst is a substance that the rate of a chemical reaction. Enzymes succeed in speeding up a chemical reaction inside a cell by the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction to proceed. Enzymes are very. Each type of enzyme usually can only act on one specific chemical reaction. For this reason, part of the enzyme's name is derived from the reaction it catalyzes. Ex. Carbonic anhydrase - job is to speed up the reaction to get rid of water from carbonic acid. Almost all enzymes end in.

13 So...how does an enzyme lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction? For a chemical reaction to take place, the reactants must collide with enough energy so that existing bonds will be broken and new bonds will be formed. Enzymes provide a site ( )where reactants (also called the ) can be brought together to react, which reduces the energy needed. The enzyme is NOT in the process and can be reused when the chemical reaction is complete.

14 How are Enzymes Regulated? Enzymes can be affected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction: ph temperature concentration These variables can be thought of as inhibitors, because they affect all enzymes in a cell. Most cells contain proteins that help to turn enzymes "on" or "off" at critical stages in the life cycle of the cell. There are also enzyme inhibitors: 1. Competitive Inhibitors - attaches to the active site; thus blocking substrates from attaching to the active site 2. Non-competitive Inhibitors - attaches to another site on the enzyme and changes the shape of the active site; thus substrates no longer fit into the active site.

15 There are four major groups of macromolecules in all living things: Macromolecule Elements Monomer Polymer Functions Nucleic Acid C, H, O, N, P Nucleotide DNA & RNA stores & transmits genetic information Proteins C, H, O, N Amino Acid hemoglobin transports materials amylase stored source of energy forms bones & muscles chemical messengers helps immune system controls rate of reactions Carbohydrates C, H, O monosaccharide polysaccharide main source of energy (glucose, fructose) (cellulose) structure: plant cell wall Lipids C, H fatty acid triglycerides stored source of energy (saturated or phospholipids structure: cell membrane unsaturated) waterproofing hormones

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