What are the monomer units that make up proteins? A. amino acids B. glucose C. fatty acids D. nucleotides

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1 Question 1 Which of the following molecules are made of organic subunits? A. water, lipid, salts, acid, base, DNA B. sugar, oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose C. protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, lipid D. carbohydrate, carbon dioxide, glucose, starch Question 2 A polymer is a large molecule that forms when smaller molecules known as monomers bond covalently in a repeating pattern. There are many biological polymers such as nucleic acids, proteins, and starches. What are the monomer units that make up proteins? A. amino acids B. glucose C. fatty acids D. nucleotides Question 3 Which of the following best describes a carbohydrate? A. Carbohydrates are organic macromolecules that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and are used for energy storage or as structural molecules. B. Carbohydrates are organic macromolecules that are insoluble in water and have the ability to store energy for extended periods of time. C. Carbohydrates always consist of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and one or more phosphate groups and are used to store genetic information. D. Carbohydrates are composed of amino acid monomers and are involved in cell signaling, cell transport, immune responses, and the cell cycle. Question 4 Sugars such as glucose, fructose, and ribose are examples of. A. lipids B. proteins C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates Question 5 Polymers of the carbohydrate monomer glucose are used as the major form of energy storage for many plants. What are these glucose polymers called? A. starch B. glycogen C. maltose D. table sugar Question 6 Lipids are organic macromolecules that serve a variety of purposes. What is the most important role of lipids? A. to metabolize sugar B. to build muscles C. to oxygenate blood D. to store energy

2 Question 7 Organic macromolecules called are insoluble in water, are often found in biological membranes and other waterproof coverings, and have the ability to store energy for extended periods of time. A. lipids B. nucleic acids C. carbohydrates D. proteins Use this information for questions 8 & 9: A student athlete has a sports even tomorrow. He was told to eat a large amount of pasta the night before. Question 8 What important energy molecule is found in pasta? A. Protein B. Lipid C. Glucose D. Starch Question 9 Why shouldn t he eat the pasta an hour before the event? A. The molecule is a long chain of glucose that needs to break down before the event B. The molecule must be stored around his waist before the energy can be used C. The molecule has no energy. It will be used to create energy as he sleeps. D. He will get a fever. Question 10 Which of the following is true about protein molecules? A. The shape and folded structure of a protein molecule are important in determining its function. B. Protein molecules are made up of strands of DNA joined together by amino acid sequences. C. The sequence of amino acids that make up a protein molecule do not affect its function. D. Protein molecules have many functions in the body, including the storage of genetic information. Question 11 Proteins are used for many structural functions such as in the actin and myosin in muscle or as a part of the cytoskeleton scaffolding that maintains cell shape. What other main function do proteins serve? A. as enzymes to control the rate of reactions and regulate cellular activity B. as coding for genotypic expression and phenotypic traits C. as waterproof membranes to regulate the transport of molecules in and out of the cell D. as cellulose to form the major structural component of plant cell walls Question 12 An enzyme is a biomolecule that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. An enzyme is a kind of. A. catalyst B. translator C. inhibitor D. ribosome Question 13 Suppose that enzyme X catalyzes a reaction that involves the breakdown of a molecule. The product of this reaction is an amino acid. What molecule is the enzyme breaking down? A. a protein B. a lipid C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

3 Question 14 Examine the diagram of the enzyme catalase to the right: How does the structure of this enzyme help with its function? A. The enzyme's substrate is a mirror image of the enzyme, thus allowing it to reverse any reactions initiated by the enzyme. B. The enzyme is much larger than its substrate, thus allowing the catalyzed chemical reaction to take place inside the enzyme. C. The enzyme's active site can change shape in order to match any substrates in need of a catalyst. D. The enzyme's shape fits its substrate's shape, thus allowing the enzyme to catalyze the appropriate reaction. Question 15 A biochemist is attempting to replicate a chemical reaction that commonly takes place in cells. During the chemical reaction, starch is broken down into glucose. What will most likely happen if the biochemist adds an enzyme to the reactants? A. The reaction will take place at a higher temperature. B. The reaction will speed up. C. The reaction will slow down. D. The reaction will stop. Question 16 The graph to the right shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this graph? A. Enzymes operate most efficiently within a certain range of temperatures. B. Enzymes are only able to operate in acidic environments. C. Digestive enzymes are most active in an environment with a ph of 7. D. Each enzyme operates best within a certain ph range. Question 17 Examine the following chemical reaction, which is catalyzed by the enzyme catalase: What molecule is catalase breaking down in this reaction? A. O 2 B. There are no molecules in this reaction. C. H 2 O D. H 2 O 2

4 Question 18 Any factor that changes the shape of an enzyme can affect the enzyme's activity. Which of the following two factors affect an enzyme's operation the most? A. temperature and ph B. amount of light and pressure C. amount of light and temperature D. blood glucose level and ph Question 19 Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the complex carbohydrate lactose into glucose and galactose, which can be absorbed by the bloodstream and carried to the body's cells. Lactose is found primarily in dairy products. What would most likely happen to a person who had a shortage of lactase? A. The person would not be able to digest any carbohydrates. B. The person would develop an allergy for dairy products. C. The person would be unable to fully digest dairy products. D. The person's pancreas would not be able to regulate the body's blood glucose level. Question 20 Enzymes are catalysts. This means that they are able to speed up chemical reactions. Which of the following statements is also true of enzyme catalysts? A. They must be continuously replaced after each catalyzed reaction. B. They increase the energy that must be absorbed by reactions. C. They are not used up by reactions. D. They increase the energy that is released by reactions. Question 21 The diagram to the right represents an enzyme-substrate complex. To which of the following could this complex best be compared? A. lock and key B. shoe and sock C. salt and pepper D. dime and penny Question 22 In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells can function equally as well at all ph s. B. Cells do not function well at ph s that are too high or too low. C. Cells function best at low ph s. D. Cells function best at high ph s.

5 Question 23 The graph to the right shows how temperature affects the rate of a reaction that uses the catalase enzyme. At what temperatures, approximately, is the enzyme denatured? A. between 60 C and 100 C B. between 37 C and 60 C C. between 0 C and 27 C D. Between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Question 24 Why does a fever cause a life threatening problem? A. High temperatures denature enzymes B. High temperatures increase enzyme rates C. High temperatures kill virus and bacteria invaders D. High temperatures are not a threat to homeostasis Question 25 Enzymes in the human body have their highest rate of reaction at 98.6⁰. What will most likely happen if the body temperature drops to 86⁰? A. The enzymes will be in homeostasis B. The enzymes will catalyze another type of reaction C. The enzymes reaction rate will increase D. The enzyme reaction rate will decrease

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