# Student Progress Monitoring in Mathematics Pamela M. Stecker, PhD

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1 Student Progress Monitoring in Mathematics Pamela M. Stecker, PhD Clemson University

2 Session Objectives Discuss curriculum-based measurement as one research-validated form of progress monitoring. Contrast curriculum-based measurement with mastery measurement. Describe several forms of mathematics measures within curriculum-based measurement. Detail procedures for test administration, scoring, goal setting, and instructional decision making. 2

3 Progress Monitoring Progress Monitoring is conducted frequently and is designed to: Estimate rates of student improvement. Identify students who are not demonstrating adequate progress. Compare the efficacy of different forms of instruction and design more effective, individualized instructional programs for problem learners. 3

4 Curriculum-Based Measurement CBM is a specific type of progress monitoring with 30 years of research support. CBM procedures are reliable and valid. Teachers who use CBM for instructional decision making can build more effective programs and increase student achievement. 4

5 How Do Teachers Often Make Data-Based Instructional Decisions in Mathematics? Mastery measurement is a typical method for evaluating student performance on skill(s) being instructed. 5

6 Mastery Measurement Example This example does not illustrate curriculumbased measurement procedures. 6

7 Fourth-Grade Mathematics Computation Curriculum 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3. Multiplication facts, factors to 9 4. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 5. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number 6. Division facts, divisors to 9 7. Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 8. Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10. Add/subtract whole number and mixed number 7

9 Mastery of Multidigit Addition Number of problems correct in 5 minutes Multidigit Addition Multidigit Subtraction WEEKS 9

10 Fourth-Grade Mathematics Computation Curriculum 1. Multidigit addition with regrouping 2. Multidigit subtraction with regrouping 3. Multiplication facts, factors to 9 4. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 5. Multiply 2-digit numbers by a 2-digit number 6. Division facts, divisors to 9 7. Divide 2-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 8. Divide 3-digit numbers by a 1-digit number 9. Add/subtract simple fractions, like denominators 10. Add/subtract whole number and mixed number 10

11 Multidigit Subtraction Mastery Test Name: Date Subtracting

12 Mastery of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction Number of problems correct in 5 minutes Multidigit Addition Multidigit Subtraction Multiplication Facts WEEKS 12

13 Some Difficulties with Mastery Measurement Hierarchy of skills is logical, not empirical. Assessments do not reflect maintenance or generalization. Number of objectives mastered do not necessarily relate well to performance on criterion measures, such as high-stakes tests. Measurement methods are designed by teachers and have unknown reliability and validity. 13

14 In Contrast, Curriculum-Based Measurement Focuses on general outcome measures, rather than assessing only the skill(s) currently taught. Involves standardized procedures for test development, administration, scoring, and decision making. Provides a reliable and valid way for monitoring student progress across the year. 14

15 Sample CBM measure in mathematics computation All critical skills in the year-long curriculum are tested on each alternate form 15

16 Steps for Conducting Curriculum- Based Measurement Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: How to Place Students in a Curriculum-Based Measurement Math Task for Progress Monitoring How to Identify the Level of Material for Progress Monitoring How to Administer and Score Curriculum-Based Measurement Math Probes How to Graph Scores How to Set Ambitious Goals How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and to Increase Goals 16

17 Step 1: How to Place Students in a Curriculum-Based Measurement Math Task for Progress Monitoring Grades 1 6: Computation Grades 2 6: Concepts and Applications Kindergarten and First Grade: Number Identification Quantity Discrimination Missing Number 17

18 Step 2: How to Identify the Level of Material for Progress Monitoring Generally, students use the CBM materials prepared for their grade level. However, some students may need to use probes from a different grade level if they perform well below grade-level expectations. 18

19 Finding Appropriate Level of Material for Progress Monitoring To find the appropriate CBM level: Determine the grade-level probe at which you expect the student to perform in math competently by year s end. OR On two separate days, administer a CBM test (either Computation or Concepts and Applications) at the grade level lower than the student s grade-appropriate level. Use the correct time limit for the test at the lower grade level, and score the tests according to the directions. If the student s average score is between 10 and 15 digits or blanks, then use this lower grade-level test. If the student s average score is less than 10 digits or blanks, move down one more grade level or stay at the original lower grade and repeat this procedure. If the average score is greater than 15 digits or blanks, reconsider grade-appropriate material. 19

20 Step 3: How to Administer and Score Curriculum-Based Measurement Math Probes Students answer mathematics problems. Teacher grades mathematics probe. The number of digits correct, problems correct, or blanks correct is calculated and plotted on the student graph. 20

21 Computation For students in grades 1 6. Student is presented with 25 computation problems representing the year-long, grade-level mathematics curriculum. Student works for set amount of time (time limit varies for each grade). Teacher grades test after student finishes. 21

22 Computation: Sample Measure from Monitoring Basic Skills Progress: Basic Math Computation by L. S. Fuchs, Hamlett, and Fuchs 22

23 Computation: Time Limits Length of test varies by grade. Grade First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Time limit 2 min. 2 min. 3 min. 3 min. 5 min. 6 min. 23

24 Computation: Scoring Students receive 1 point for each problem answered correctly. Computation tests can also be scored by awarding 1 point for each digit answered correctly. The number of digits correct within the time limit is the student s score. 24

25 Computation: Scoring Digits in Correct Digits: Evaluate Each Numeral in Every Answer Answers correct digits 3 correct digits 2 correct digits 25

26 Computation: Scoring Different Operations 9 26

27 Computation: Scoring Division Problems with Remainders When giving directions, tell students to write answers to division problems using R for remainders when appropriate. Although the first part of the quotient is scored from left to right (just like the student moves when working the problem), score the remainder from right to left (because student would likely subtract to calculate remainder). 27

28 Computation: Scoring Scoring Examples: Division with Remainders Correct Answer Student s Answer R R 5! 2 3 R R 5!! (1 correct digit) (2 correct digits) 28

29 Computation: Scoring Scoring Decimals and Fractions Decimals: Start at the decimal point and work outward in both directions. Fractions: Score right to left for each portion of the answer. Evaluate digits correct in the whole number part, numerator, and denominator. Then add digits together. When giving directions, be sure to tell students to reduce fractions to lowest terms. 29

30 Computation: Scoring Scoring Examples: Decimals 30

31 Computation: Scoring Scoring Examples: Fractions Correct Answer Student s Answer 6 7 / / 1 1 (2 correct digits) 5 1 / / 1 2 (2 correct digits) 31

32 Computation Samantha s Computation Test Fifteen problems attempted. Two problems skipped. Two problems incorrect. Samantha s score is 13 problems. However, Samantha s correct digit score is

33 Concepts and Applications For students in grades 2 6. Student is presented with Concepts and Applications problems representing the yearlong grade-level math curriculum. Student works for set amount of time (time limit varies by grade). Teacher grades test after student finishes. 33

34 Concepts and Applications Student Copy of a Concepts and Applications test This sample is from a second grade test. The actual Concepts and Applications test is 3 pages long. Monitoring Basic Skills Progress: Basic Math Concepts and Applications 34

35 Concepts and Applications Length of test varies by grade. Grade Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Time limit 8 min. 6 min. 6 min. 7 min. 7 min. 35

36 Concepts and Applications Students receive 1 point for each blank answered correctly. The number of correct answers within the time limit is the student s score. 36

37 Concepts and Applications Quinten s Fourth Grade Concepts and Applications Test Twenty-four blanks answered correctly. Quinten s score is

38 38

39 Sample Early Numeracy Measures Number Identification Quantity Discrimination Missing Number See for more information 39

40 Number Identification For kindergarten or first grade students. Student is presented with 84 items and is asked to orally identify the written number between 0 and 100. After completing some sample items, the student works for 1 minute. Teacher writes the student s responses on the Number Identification score sheet. 40

41 Number Identification Student Copy of a Number Identification test Actual student copy is 3 pages long. 41

42 Number Identification Number Identification Score Sheet 42

43 Number Identification If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next item and say Try this one. Do not correct errors. Teacher writes the student s responses on the Number Identification score sheet. Skipped items are marked with a hyphen (-). At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item completed. Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through incorrect items on score sheet. Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1 minute. 43

44 Number Identification Jamal s Number Identification Score Sheet Skipped items are marked with a (-). Fifty-seven items attempted. Three incorrect. Jamal s score is

45 Quantity Discrimination For kindergarten or first grade students. Student is presented with 63 items and asked to orally identify the larger number from a set of two numbers. After completing some sample items, the student works for 1 minute. Teacher writes the student s responses on the Quantity Discrimination score sheet. 45

46 Quantity Discrimination Student Copy of a Quantity Discrimination test Actual student copy is 3 pages long. 46

47 Quantity Discrimination Quantity Discrimination Score Sheet 47

48 Quantity Discrimination If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next item and say Try this one. Do not correct errors. Teacher writes student s responses on the Quantity Discrimination score sheet. Skipped items are marked with a hyphen (-). At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item completed. Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through incorrect items on the score sheet. Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1 minute. 48

49 Quantity Discrimination Lin s Quantity Discrimination Score Sheet Thirty-eight items attempted. Five incorrect. Lin s score is

50 Missing Number For kindergarten or first grade students. Student is presented with 63 items and asked to orally identify the missing number in a sequence of four numbers. After completing some sample items, the student works for 1 minute. Teacher writes the student s responses on the Missing Number score sheet. 50

51 Missing Number Student Copy of a Missing Number Test Actual student copy is 3 pages long. 51

52 Missing Number Missing Number Score Sheet 52

53 Missing Number If the student does not respond after 3 seconds, point to the next item and say Try this one. Do not correct errors. Teacher writes the student s responses on the Missing Number score sheet. Skipped items are marked with a hyphen (-). At 1 minute, draw a line under the last item completed. Teacher scores the task, putting a slash through incorrect items on the score sheet. Teacher counts the number of correct answers in 1 minute. 53

54 Missing Number Thomas Missing Number Score Sheet Twenty-six items attempted. Eight incorrect. Thomas s score is

55 Additional Samples of Mathematics Measures AIMSweb : Grade-Level Computation Basic Facts: Single Operation Basic Facts: Mixed Operations Yearly Progress Pro : Mixed Computation and Problem Solving 55

56 AIMSweb Computation: Grade-Level Skills 56

57 AIMSweb Basic Facts: Mixed Operations and Single Operation 57

58 Yearly Progress Pro

59 Yearly Progress Pro 59

60 Step 4: How to Graph Scores Graphing student scores is vital. Graphs provide teachers with a straightforward way to: Review a student s progress. Monitor the appropriateness of student goals. Judge the adequacy of student progress. Compare and contrast successful and unsuccessful instructional aspects of a student s program. 60

61 Graphing Scores Teachers can use computer graphing programs. Teachers can create their own graphs. Create template for student graph. Use same template for every student in the classroom. Vertical axis shows the range of student scores. Horizontal axis shows the number of weeks. 61

62 Progress Monitoring Graph 62

63 Progress Monitoring Graph 25 Digits Correct in 3 Minutes Weeks of Instruction Student scores are plotted on graph and a line is drawn between scores. 63

64 Step 5: How to Set Ambitious Goals Once a few scores have been graphed, the teacher decides on an end-of-year performance goal for each student. Three options for making performance goals: End-of-Year Benchmarking National Norms Intra-Individual Framework 64

65 Goal Setting: End-of-Year Benchmarks End-of-Year Benchmarking For typically developing students, a table of benchmarks can be used to find the CBM end-of-year performance goal. 65

66 End-of-Year Benchmarks Grade Probe Maximum score Benchmark Kindergarten Data not yet available First Computation digits First Data not yet available Second Computation digits Second Concepts and Applications blanks Third Computation digits Third Concepts and Applications blanks Fourth Computation digits Fourth Concepts and Applications blanks Fifth Computation digits Fifth Concepts and Applications blanks Sixth Computation digits Sixth Concepts and Applications blanks 66

67 Goal Setting: National Norms National Norms For typically developing students, a table of median rates of weekly increase can be used to find the end-of-year performance goal. Grade First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Computation: Digits Concepts and Applications: Blanks n/a

68 Weekly Growth Example National Norms Median performance: 14 Fourth Grade Computation Norm: 0.70 Multiply by weeks left: = 11.2 Grade First Second Third Computation: Digits Concepts and Applications: Blanks n/a Add to median: = 25.2 Fourth The end-of-year performance goal is 25 Fifth Sixth

69 Drawing the Goal Line Once the end-of-year performance goal has been created, the goal is marked on the student graph with an X. A goal line is drawn between the median of the student s baseline scores and the X. 69

70 Goal Plotted on a Graph Drawing a Goal Line 25 Digits Correct X X Weeks of Instruction Goal line: The desired path of measured behavior to reach the performance goal over time. 70

71 Sample IEP Goal Consider median baseline performance Calculate number of instructional weeks until end of year (or IEP date) Figure normative growth for weekly slope and/or consider end-of-year benchmarks Given 25 computational problems at the sixth-grade level, Pamela will write 75 digits correct in 6 minutes by (insert date). (i.e., end of year, or 36 instructional weeks from baseline to goal date) 71

72 Goal Setting: Intra-Individual Framework Intra-Individual Framework Weekly rate of improvement (slope) is calculated using at least eight data points. Rate of improvement is multiplied by 1.5. Product is multiplied by the number of weeks until the end of the school year. Amount of increase is added to the student s baseline rate to produce end-ofyear performance goal. 72

73 Quick Way to Calculate Weekly Rate of Improvement Digits Correct X Rate of Improvement: (median point of third phase median point of first phase) divided by # of data points (or weeks) 1 (40 20) (9-1) = 2.5 slope X Weeks of Instruction Setting goal: 2.5 x 1.5 = x # weeks left to goal date Add product to the baseline rate to obtain student goal 73

74 Step 6: How to Apply Decision Rules to Graphed Scores to Know When to Revise Programs and to Increase Goals After drawing the goal line, teachers evaluate student progress periodically. After seven to eight CBM scores, teachers draw a trend line to represent actual student progress. Teachers compare the student s trend line to the goal line. The trend line can be drawn using the Tukey method. Trend line: A line drawn in the data path to indicate the direction (trend) of the observed behavior. 74

75 Standard Decision Rules: Trend Line After trend lines have been drawn, teachers use graphs to evaluate student progress and formulate instructional decisions. If the trend line is steeper than the goal line, the end-of-year performance goal needs to be increased. If the trend line is flatter than the goal line, the student s instructional program needs to be revised. If the trend line and goal line are fairly equal, no changes need to be made. 75

76 What Is the Data-Based Decision? 30 Problems Correct in 7 Minutes X trend line X goal line Weeks of Instruction 76

77 Drawing a Trend Line Tukey Method Graphed scores are divided into three fairly equal groups. Vertical lines are drawn to separate the groups. In the first and third groups: Find the intersection between the median score and the median point in time. Mark with an X. Draw a line between the first group X and third group X. This line is the trend line. 77

78 Drawing a Trend Line Using the Tukey Method Digits Correct X X 3 rd median point 1 st median point # of data points (weeks) 1 (40 20) (9-1) = 2.5 slope Weeks of Instruction 78

79 Standard Decision Rules: Using the 4-Point Rule If at least 3 weeks of instruction have occurred and at least six data points have been collected, examine the four most recent consecutive points: If all four most recent scores fall above the goal line, the end-of-year performance goal needs to be increased. If all four most recent scores fall below the goal line, the student's instructional program needs to be revised. If these four most recent scores fall both above and below the goal line, continue collecting data (until the 4- point rule can be used or a trend line can be drawn). 79

80 What Is the Data-Based Decision? 30 Digits Correct in 7 Minutes most recent 4 points goal line Weeks of Instruction 80

81 What Is the Data-Based Decision? 30 Digits Correct in 7 Minutes goal line most recent 4 points Weeks of Instruction 81

82 Computer- or Web-Based Progress Monitoring Systems A variety of CBM computer- or Web-based management programs are available. Each program provides its own versions of probes. Systems create graphs and aid teachers with performance goals and instructional decisions: individual raw scores graphs of the low-, middle-, and high-performing students class averages list of students who may need additional intervention skill mastery information Various types of programs are available for varying fees. 82

83 In Summary, Curriculum-Based Measurement: Provides an easy and quick method for gathering student progress information. Allows teachers to analyze student progress and adjust student goals and instructional programs. Allows for comparison of individual student data with peers in the classroom, with school/district data, or with national norms. 83

84 NCSPM Tools Chart Interested in learning about Progress Monitoring tools that will work for you? Visit and click on the Tools tab. All of the tools on the chart have been reviewed by the Technical Review Committee and have been evaluated against rigorous criteria. Click on each tool s name for vendor-provided information about features and pricing. 84

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