Person prominence and relation prominence

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1 Person prominence and relation prominence Christian Lehmann University of Erfurt 1 Introduction S1. Empathy hierarchy 1 2 human SAP Non-SAP non-human 3 animate inanimate 4 individual object substance 5 object location 6 entity proposition 7 S2. Involvement and control control affectedness actor undergoer central agent force theme patient experiencer recipient/addressee/goal emitter/source beneficiary/place peripheral comitative/ instrument involvement

2 Christian Lehmann 2 S3. Syntactic functions hierarchy object direct indirect adverbal function adjunct syntactic function in matrix clause adnominal function syntactic function in embedded clause E1. a. me ire oportet LAT me:acc go:inf suits b. mihi ire opus est me:dat go:inf necessary is c. mihi eundum est me:dat go:gerund is E2. Tengo que ir. S4. Continuum of person-foregrounding and person-backgrounding constructions \ less animate participant more animate participant \ indirect object other verbal dependent attribute person-foregrounding constructions in embedded clause indirect object other verbal dep. attribute in embedded clause person-backgrounding constructions 2 Higher predicates 2.1 Modal predicates E3. K'abéet in bèet-ik. necessary SBJ.1.SG make-incmpl `Tengo que hacerlo.' `I have to do it.' E4. K-u béey-tal in bèet-ik. IMPF-SBJ.3 possible-proc SBJ.1.SG make-incmpl `Puedo hacerlo.' `I can do it.'

3 Person prominence and relation prominence 3 E5. Tàak in bèet-ik. anxious SBJ.1.SG make-incmpl `Quiero hacerlo.' `I want to do it.' 2.2 Phase predicates E6. K-u chúun-ul in bèet-ik. IMPF-SBJ.3 start-incmpl SBJ.1.SG make-incmpl `Empiezo a hacerlo.' `I start to do it.' E7. k-u ts'o'k -ol in bèet-ik IMPF-SBJ.3 end-incmpl SBJ.1.SG make-incmpl `Termino de hacerlo.' `I finish doing it.' 3 Possessive predications 3.1 `have' vs. `be' E8. a. yàan tèen tàak'in EXIST me money b. yàan in tàak'in EXIST POSS.1.SG money `Tengo dinero.' `I have money.' 3.2 Ascription of property to body part E9. Chowak-tak u múuk' yòok le x-ch'úuppal -e'. long-adj.pl POSS.3 strength foot DEF F-girl-D3 `La muchacha tiene las piernas largas.' The girl has long legs. 3.3 Part-whole relations E10. a. u bòox-el in chi' POSS.3 lip-rel POSS.1.SG mouth `mis labios' - my lip(s) b. u chùuch in lùuch POSS.3 stalk POSS.1.SG squash-d2 `mi pie de calabazo' - my squash stalk c. u y-òokom in nah-il POSS.3 0-pillar POSS.1.SG house-rel `mi horcón de casa' - my (house-)pillar

4 Christian Lehmann 4 d. u k'ab-il in nòok' POSS.3 hand-rel POSS.1.SG dress `mi manga' - my sleeve 3.4 Indirect involvement of possessor Possessor raising and possessum demotion E11. Yah in nak'. sore POSS.1.SG belly `Me duele la barriga.' My belly hurts. E12. P'o' a wich! wash POSS.2 face ` Lávate la cara!' Wash your face! E13. t-in k'op-ah u ho'l le máak-o' PAST-SBJ.1.SG hit-cmpl POSS.3 head DEF person-d2 `Le golpeé al hombre en la cabeza.' I hit that man on the head Benefactive E14. Máantats' táan u t'ab-ik u kib kili'ch Anton. constantly PROG SBJ.3 lighten-incmpl [POSS.3 candle saint Anton] `Constantemente le prende velas a San Antonio.' Regularly he lightens candles for St. Anthony. (CM 13) Affections of mind and senses E15. Toh in wóol. straight POSS.1.SG mind `Estoy alegre.' `I am glad.' E16. Uts t-in t'àan. good LOC-POSS.1.SG speech `Me gusta.' `I like it.'

5 4 Conclusion T1. Person vs. relation prominence parameter language GER ENG TAM KOR MAO LEZ SAM YM feature ascription of property to possessor of modified body part is body part (+) vs. attribute (-) +/- +/ :8- predication of belonging possessor is oblique (+) vs. attribute to dummy possessum (-) +/- +/- +/ :8- affection of possessor possessor is verbal dependent (+) vs. attribute (-) + +/- +/ :7- ascription of possession possessor is (+) vs. oblique (incl. attribute) (-) / :6- relation between animate possessor is primary (+) vs. peripheral part and whole secondary attribute (-) :1- modal predicates modal operator takes individual (+) vs. propositional (-) + + +/- +/- + +/- +/- - 7+:5- phase predicates phase predicate takes individual (+) vs. propositional (-) /- - +/- 7+:3- beneficiary beneficiary is verbal dependent (+) vs. attribute (-) / /- +/- 8+:3- experiencer is (+) vs. affects oblique (-) or +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- +/- 8+:8- possessive attribute (-) total 9+:3-9+:4-7+:6-6+:7-5+:5-5+:7-4+:8-3+:9-132 Fehler! Verweisquel le konnte nicht gefunden werden.. Fehler! Verweisquel le konnte nicht gefunden werden.

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