1 Computers and Society Evaluating the Impact of Technology Chris Brooks Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco
2 Evaluating Technological Impact It can be useful to think about the ways in which technology impacts the way we live our lives. Most computer scientists have a pretty positive view of technology. Is that view justified? How do we defend that view to other, more skeptical points of view? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.1/?
3 Research and scholarship on the Web Having so much information available on the Web is a double-edged sword. What are some advantages to having the Web as a research tool? What are some disadvantages? What can be done to help address these disadvantages? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.2/?
4 Research and scholarship on the Web Research challenges: Google ranks pages by popularity, not correctness There is no external editorial control or means to challenge incorrect information. Authors may have a hidden agenda or motives. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.3/?
5 Wikipedia Wikipedia is the best example of the challenges these issues present. Wikipedia has over 15 times as many words as Encyclopedia Brittanica. Vast coverage of a wide variety of issues. Worldwide group of contributors and editors providing expertise. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.4/?
6 Advantages of Wikipedia What advantages does the Wikipedia approach provide? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.5/?
7 Advantages of Wikipedia What advantages does the Wikipedia approach provide? Wisdom of crowds Able to solicit articles on a much wider array of topics. Fast editing and updating Democratizes choice of topic and content. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.6/?
8 Disadvantages of Wikipedia What disadvantages does the Wikipedia approach provide? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.7/?
9 Disadvantages of Wikipedia What disadvantages does the Wikipedia approach provide? Uneven coverage, emphasis on pop culture Inaccuracy, poor writing Hidden agendas Vandalism Neutral Point of View Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.8/?
10 Technology as a crutch Computers encourage certain behaviors by making them easier Spell checking Calculators Garbage collection cut-and-paste Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.9/?
11 Changes in thinking What skills are less useful due to the advent of computers? What ways of thinking are made easier? What sorts of dialogue/discussion are more common? What sorts are less common? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.10/?
12 Exercise The ubiquity of calculators has changed the way that math is taught in school. Some would argue that it s made it more difficult for people do perform and understand arithmetic. Give some advantages to incorporating calculators into an elementary school curriculum. Give some disadvantages to incorporating calculators into an elementary school curriculum. Should calculators be banned from elementary schools? Why? Should calculators be a mandatory part of the curriculum? why? What about laptops? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.11/?
13 Technology and Education The past generation has seen a huge push on integrating technology into education, both at the K-12 level and in college. Recognition that computer skills are essential to getting good jobs Desire to use technology to improve the educational experience. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.12/?
14 Issues There are really two separate issues here: Making sure that students are tech-literate Incorporating computers into the teaching of other subjects Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.13/?
15 Tech Literacy Let s assume that it s a good idea for all graduating high-school students to be tech-literate. What does this really mean? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.14/?
16 Tech Literacy Let s assume that it s a good idea for all graduating high-school students to be tech-literate. What does this really mean? Are there specific courses in school on computer or application usage? Is there an exit exam that tests students knowledge? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.15/?
17 Tech Literacy What was your computer experience like in school? What did you learn about? Did all students do this, or just those who were interested? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.16/?
18 Tech Literacy What topics should all students know about? Basic usage? (turning it on, using a mouse/keyboard, etc) Standard applications? (Word, Web browser, Excel?) Hardware/component repair? Internet skills? Programming? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.17/?
19 Improving Education Many educators would like to figure out how to use technology to improve the educational experience. Save money Move beyond traditional classroom settings Provide new ways to explain/discuss What are some examples of ways in which technology can potentially enhance the traditional educational experience? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.18/?
20 Improving Education Online courses/modules Websites with supplementary material Forums/bulletin boards Simulations Interactive software Multimedia Clickers - instant feedback - improved access to teachers Online ratings Web sites as a resource Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.19/?
21 Potential challenges What are some potential challenges to integrating technology into a class? What are things you ve seen go wrong? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.20/?
22 Potential challenges Extra workload for teacher Becomes a crutch - reinforces bad habits Unequal access Fetishisation of technology. Student isolation Time must be devoted to learning the tools, rather than the subject matter. Increased plagiarism. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.21/?
23 Exercise Let s suppose that USF was considering whether to implement an online CS major. Students would be able to take some or all of their classes over the web. For each of the following participants, give: Reasons why they would be in favor of this Potential concerns or stumbling blocks Workarounds or methods for addressing these concerns Groups USF administrators USF faculty USF students Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.22/?
24 The Neo-Luddite view Luddites were a group of people opposed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain Used as a shorthand to refer to people opposed to technology neo-luddites are modern critics of computerization, the Internet, and modern technology. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.23/?
25 Neo-Luddite criticisms Computers (and automation) cause massive unemployment as jobs are replaced. Computers manufacture needs - we use them because they are there, not because they make our lives fundamentally easier. Computers exacerbate social inequity. Computers weaken communities and lead to social isolation. Computers separate humans from nature and destroy the environment. Computers strengthen government, big business, and a capitalist point of view. Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.24/?
26 Neo-Luddite criticisms neo-luddites tend to see technology as a harmful, dehumanizing force. Computers are a particularly egregious form of technology due to their speed and flexibility. The core issue: what is an appropriate way of life? Does technology interfere with that? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.25/?
27 Computers and Work Luddites typically oppose the modern emphasis on markets, business, consumer products, and work as a dominating force in people s lives. They object to the idea that the central part of people s lives is what they buy, sell, or produce. This is seen as dehumanizing. Issue - do you believe that business and corporations are primarily harmful, beneficial, or neither? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.26/?
28 Need for technology? Neo-Luddites often argue that technology does not satisfy existing needs, but instead creates new needs and then satisfies them. Do we, as a society (not as an individual), need cell phones or PDAs, or are we just pressured into buying them by advertising, work pressures, etc? Put another way, does the presence of this technology encourage us to be materialistic and put too much emphasis of stuff? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.27/?
29 Humans and Nature Neo-Luddites often argue that technology serves to separate us from nature and the world around us. The ethical question here is in deciding what sort of action is the right one to take. One that benefits or enhances man s relationship with nature One that eases someone s life, but with an environmental cost. (think about cars here) Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.28/?
30 Unequal Benefits of Technology Neo-Luddites also argue that, since there is a digital divide, making society more dependent upon technology is inherently undemocratic (or elitist). Large businesses have more access to computing resources, and so they have a competitive advantage. Does technology widen the gap, or does a rising tide lift all boats? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.29/?
31 Evaluating and Predicting We may not agree with the Neo-Luddite point of view, but we still need to be able to accurately judge the impact of a new technology. Because we can build something, does that mean we should? Decisions about the development of technology are typically made by: Research funding agencies (government-driven) Companies (market-driven) Is there a role for everyday people? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.30/?
32 Example: Telemedicine It s now possible to practice medicine remotely, and even conduct routine examinations or procedures from far away. Several states have passed laws prohibiting telemedicine. What objections might they have? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.31/?
33 Example: Telemedicine It s now possible to practice medicine remotely, and even conduct routine examinations or procedures from far away. Several states have passed laws prohibiting telemedicine. What objections might they have? Privacy/security issues Licensing - monitoring out-of-state quacks Places additional power in the hands of large hospitals - lead to the Wal-martization of medicine? Turf protection? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.32/?
34 Predictions How do we decide when to deploy or release a technology? As soon as it is available? Not until all of its potential uses and misuses are understood? Once it s deemed acceptably safe? Once there s a public demand for it? Who should make these decisions? Government? Industry? The marketplace? Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.33/?
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