ASSESSMENT, BENCHMARKING AND IMPROVEMENT OF BUILDINGS IN USE

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1 ASSESSMENT, BENCHMARKING AND IMPROVEMENT OF BUILDINGS IN USE Bill Bordass WILLIAM BORDASS ASSOCIATES & the EPLabel team

2 THE BACKGROUND WHAT SHOULD CO2 WE BE SAVING? Virtual (predicted) or Real (actual in use)?

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4 THE CREDIBILITY GAP

5 In theory, theory and practice are the same; in practice, they aren t...santa FE INSTITUTE

6 Annual carbon dioxide emissions from operational energy use in an environmental award-winning head office building complex in England BREEAM estimate Gas Electricity Design estimate ECON 19 "Good Practice" benchmark >> Actual emissions two years after completion ECON 19 "Typical" benchmark >> Annual carbon dioxide emissions (kg/m 2 treated floor area)

7 Annual carbon dioxide emissions from operational energy use in an environmental award-winning head office building complex in England BREEAM estimate Gas Electricity Design estimate << WHAT THE DESIGN PREDICTED ECON 19 "Good Practice" benchmark >> << GOOD BENCHMARK Actual emissions two years after completion <<SURVEY FINDINGS ECON 19 "Typical" benchmark >> Annual carbon dioxide emissions (kg/m 2 treated floor area)

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9 eel..

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12 DEFAULT TO ON A major problem

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15 # tom Week - kw bad profile 23 week October Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 0 00:00 01:30 03:00 04:30 06:00 07:30 09:00 10:30 12:00 13:30 15:00 16:30 18:00 19:30 21:00 22:30

16 LANDLORD/TENANT/ MANAGER SPLITS Often widen the gap Lessen the incentives to invest up front (the owner doesn't benefit) Reduce incentive to manage (service before economy. Costs passed on to tenants anyway) Reduce incentives to upgrade (and fitouts are often wasteful too) Outsourcing can reduce to the lowest common denominator (with a few notable exceptions) We need to make performance visible!

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18 CLOSING THE GAP

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20 L 1/65 Official Journal of the European Communities EN DIRECTIVE 2002/91/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION, Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community, and in particular Article 175(1) thereof, Having regard to the proposal from the Commission ( 1 ), Having regard to the opinion of the Economic and Social Committee ( 2 ), Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions ( 3 ), Acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty ( 4 ), Whereas: (1) Article 6 of the Treaty requires environmental protection requirements to be integrated into the definition and implementation of Community policies and actions. (7) Council Directive 93/76/EEC of 13 September 1993 to limit carbon dioxide emissions by improving energy efficiency (SAVE) ( 5 ), which requires Member States to develop, implement and report on programmes in the field of energy efficiency in the building sector, is now starting to show some important benefits. However, a complementary legal instrument is needed to lay down more concrete actions with a view to achieving the great unrealised potential for energy savings and reducing the large differences between Member States' results in this sector. (8) Council Directive 89/106/EEC of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to construction products ( 6 ) requires construction works and their heating, cooling and ventilation installations to be designed and built in such a way that the amount of energy required in use will be low, having regard to the climatic conditions of the location and the occupants.

21 TWO TYPES OF RATING: ASSET RATING Based on theoretical calculations For market transparency - construction, sale or rental OPERATIONAL RATING Based on actual annual energy use For public display, starting in certain public buildings

22 y Certificate Building Energy Performance > As built: In use: Certificate type Building Type Whole or part of building Very energy efficient A B C Not energy efficient FULL D E Office Whole building F G Asset rating method: UK National Standard 2004 Calculated Actual Operational rating method: UK Office Tailored Benchmarks 2002 Units used: kg CO2 per sq m of net area per annum > Asset Rating B Operational Rating D 48 83

23 IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OR JUST ADDING FEATURES?

24

25 Annual CO2 emissions from university buildings (kg/m Treated Floor Area) at UK CO2 factors of 0.19 for gas and 0.46 for electricity Visby Library improvement target ECON 19 Type 2 Good Practice NV >> UEA Elizabeth Fry Building MM APU Queens Building ANV OU Business School design prediction MM Visby Library Portland Building ANV+ de Montfort Queens Building ANV ECON 54 Library target value >> OU Business School Actual 2002 MM Heating+hot water gas (normalised) Gas for catering Heating and hot water - electricity Refrigeration and heat rejection Fans, pumps and controls Lighting Office equipment Catering and vending Other electricity PV ECON 19 Type 3 Good Practice Office AC >> Oxford M anor Road Phase MM Gloucester LRC 2004 MM Orchard LRC, Selly Oak ANV ECON 19 Type 3 Typical Office AC >>

26 ASSESSMENT, BENCHMARKING AND IMPROVEMENT What have we got? What does it mean? What can we do?

27 GETTING OPERATIONAL RATINGS TO WORK What have we got? Improve data availability, Energy Statements What does it mean? A Graduated Response to benchmarking What can we do? Make energy and CO2 efficiency a market driver Making performance visible and actionable... without too much difficulty or bureaucracy.

28 MAKING IT EASY Building type(s) Can these be registered? Floor areas Can these be registered? Annual energy supplies Confirming fuel supplies and meter trees Annual Statements (Energy Services Directive) For multi-tenanted buildings Landlord s Statements (BPF Proposal)

29 THE GRADUATED RESPONSE TO BENCHMARKING Level 1 MANDATORY ENTRY LEVEL Standard benchmarks (to suit simple buildings) Level 2 OPTIONAL CORRECTIONS Correct for clear exceptions (e.g. restaurants) Level 3 EXPERT LEVEL Take account of details of building usage

30 LANDLORD/TENANT SPLITS IN RESPONSIBILITY Benchmark the whole building? EU has tended to see it like this. Supply landlord information to tenant? Could form part of the service charge account. Tenant to supply information to landlord? Landlord: more admin. Tenant: less motive. Deal with landlord & tenants separately? Maps onto their different commercial drivers.

31 LANDLORD/TENANT SPLITS IN RESPONSIBILITY Benchmark the whole building? Best where the building is in single occupancy. Supply landlord information to tenant? Develop a format for a landlord s statement. Tenant to supply information to landlord? Difficult. Removes motivation from the tenant. Deal with landlord & tenants separately? ABGR in Australia has found this works well.

32 PREPARED BY USABLE BUILDINGS TRUST 3. Performance indicators and gradings per m 2 NLA BM Ratio benchmarks kg CO2/m2 > CO 2 emissions kgco 2/m 2 A B C D E F G NOTE: Grades are preliminary > kg CO 2/ft BM Ratio benchmarks kwh/m2 > Electrical energy use kwh/m 2 A B C D E F G NOTE: Grades are preliminary > kwh/ft BM Ratio benchmarks kwh/m2 > Fuel / weighted thermal energy use kwh/m 2 A B C D E F G NOTE: Grades are preliminary > kwh/ft BM Ratio benchmarks kwh/m2 > Total weighted energy use kwh/m 2 A B C D E F G NOTE: Grades are preliminary > kwh/ft 2 4. Onsite renewable energy CO 2 saved by active onsite renewables Tonnes CO2 > Percent of Total Energy Use 0.1% notes> Roof PV panel & wind turbine 5. CO 2 Offsets 501 Offsite Renewables 503 Green Electricity Tariff 505 Carbon Offsets CO 2 emissions offset contracts Tonnes CO2 1.7% Tonnes CO2 0.5% Tonnes CO2 2.0% 6. Year on Year performance Landlord's Energy Supplied (kwh/m2) Carbon Dioxide Emissions CO2 (kg CO2) per m2 NLA Weather GRADE Year Statement No. Fuel/Thermal Electricity Fuel/Thermal Electricity Total Degree Days A to G Notes on past performance 2000 sdfglsd E XYZ <Data not available> not available n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a <Data not available> not available n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a <Data not available> not available n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a <Data not available> not available n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 7. Notes < Enter Any Extra Notes to appear on Landlord's Statement Here > PLEASE SEND ANY COMMENTS ON THIS DEVELOPMENT VERSION TO: tel , BPF LOGO? ABI Landlord Statement V1.4 Example.xls VERSION 2.1 4/12/06

33 CO2 NOT THE ONLY DRIVER Energy efficient buildings. Maximising passive measures. Efficient building services and controls. Efficient equipment and appliances. Effective energy management. Responsible personal behaviour. Onsite active renewable systems. Low-carbon offsite supplies. Offsite mitigating investment and offsets. Can we help to motivate all these?

34 GETTING TO THE ROOTS Benchmark the energy efficiency of areas, end uses, systems, sub-systems and components. Consider the influences of: the standards adopted the efficiency with which they are met the time for which they are required the effectiveness of control and management. Get into detail, but only where you need to. Try to use the same conventions throughout

35 Comparison of elements of predicted and actual energy use Lighting annual 14 Key: energy use kwh/m Blue is Predicted Red is Actual Installed load W/m 2 Effective hours/yr 1500 X Light level x100 lux 3.5 X 4.0 Efficiency (W/m 2 )/100lux Occupied hours/yr 3000 X 4000 Ctrl/mgt factor 50% 90% ESD/WBA/TES

36 THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS DIRECTIVE Will it make energy performance visible and encourage people to want to take effective action?

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