2 Dynamic Behaviour of Buildings

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "2 Dynamic Behaviour of Buildings"

Transcription

1 2 Dynamic Behaviour of Buildings Handouts: Building for Energy Conservation by Burberry P (section 3.3) Cibse Guide Section A: Admittance Technique Steady-State Analysis This traditional analysis was undertaken for plant sizing assuming typical indoor and design external conditions. For buildings which have high levels of thermal mass, low solar gains, and constant internal temperatures (e.g. old hospitals), the steady state method can give an indication of energy consumption. For this analysis, fabric heat losses are controlled by conductivity and thickness of the external construction and surface resistances. U= 1/R tot (W/m 2 K) R tot = R si + (t/k) + R so (m 2 K/W) Dynamic Behaviour For calculation of dynamic behaviour, it is necessary to take heat storage (thermal capacity) into account: specific heat capacity: C (J/kgK) density: ρ (kg/m 3 ) volumetric heat capacity = ρc (J/m 3 K) Steady state analysis is often not sufficient because: Thermal properties of newer buildings tend towards a lightweight constructions which have lower thermal capacity, faster response to heat inputs and therefore much greater temperature swings. Even heavyweight buildings will act as lightweight buildings if the walls are lined with some insulation. Improved heating systems have faster response (e.g. gas-fired boilers) and better controllers, which enable heat to be input when required. Intermittent occupancy patterns are more common in the domestic sector: this requires rapid warming up of the building in the morning and again in the evening.

2 Table IV in the handout shows the thermal capacity of different materials having the same U-value. Clearly, surface temperatures of constructions with high thermal mass would take a long time to increase after a period of no heating (e.g. in an office after a weekend) and would contribute to poor thermal comfort conditions in a room until the heating had been on for several hours. Figures 3.11 to 3.13 in the handout show how different wall constructions react to intermittent heating. As can be seen, a wall with high thermal mass can have large differences between internal air temperature and wall surface temperature: this can lead to condensation problems as well as poor thermal comfort. Transient Conduction This is controlled by the Fourier Equation, which for 1 dimensional conduction is: ρ ϑ 2 ϑ C = k t x 2 An important property is the ratio of thermal conductivity to volumetric heat capacity, known as the diffusivity: α = k / ρc This has units of m 2 /s and it indicative of the rate at which a heat pulse will propagate through a solid. The time constant (t c ) is related to the response of a construction to a step change: T Heavyweight constructions have long time constants, lightweight constructions have short time constants. t c t

3 Response of Heavyweight and Lightweight Buildings The building response will differ according to whether the building is lightweight or heavyweight. The following figure illustrates this. Heating curves for heavyweight and lightweight buildings Fabric Performance and Fuel Consumption Figure 3.14 in the handout shows how thermal capacity affects fuel consumption in lightweight and heavyweight buildings. For intermittent heating, lightweight buildings offer significant potential fuel savings, unlike heavyweight buildings. For example, the following table shows the heat required to raise fabric temperature. Material Drop in temperature ( o C) Heat required to return to ambient temperature (kj/m 2 ) 100mm brick mm fibreboard Although a fibreboard-lined room will show a greater drop in temperature when heating is off, less heat is required to get back to temperature. Also less time is required (see Figure above). During the heating off period, the fibreboard-lined room would be colder and in practice it may be necessary to have a lower limit, below which heating is switched on, to prevent condensation risk.

4 Figure 3.15 in the handout shows how the use of steady state analysis and design temperatures instead of more realistic boundary conditions can lead to incorrect conclusions on potential for fuel saving. Summer conditions In hot climates with intermittent active cooling, lightweight buildings offer the same advantages for heating as discussed above. However, for buildings that are not actively cooled, heavyweight constructions are best because they reduce peak daily temperatures. Additional cooling of the thermal mass at night ( night purging ) can assist in reducing peak daytime temperatures. Effect of solar gains on heavyweight and lightweight buildings Prediction Techniques

5 Figure 3.16 shows more realistic variation in internal and external conditions. Three methods of predicting such dynamic variations in temperature are: Analogue method: superseded by numerical techniques. Admittance technique: developed by CIBSE, used in particular for calculating peak summertime temperatures. Solution of Fourier Equation: computer programs based on a variety of numerical methods are used; some examples are covered later in the course. Analogue Method There exist a clear analogy between electrical flow and heat flow. Formerly, this analogy was the basis for constructing electrical analogue devices (sometimes incorporated in analogue computers) which were used in the study of complex heat flow phenomena. Thermal Electrical Resistance Resistance Capacity Capacitance Temperature Voltage Heat flow Current Thermal/electrical analogy The following figure shows the electrical network used to generate Figure 3.16 in the handout.

6 Electrical representation of thermal properties Different heating options and insulation levels can be tested by altering current and resistance values in the analogue model. Figure 3.19 and Tables VI and VII in the handout show how energy consumption varies. Such analyses were very time consuming to set up and only used for research. Admittance Procedure This was developed by CIBSE to give a prediction method for dynamic thermal performance. It takes into account: both air and radiant temperature for achievement of thermal comfort conditions; the modifying effect on temperature fluctuations of the materials used for internal room surfaces; solar heat gain; cyclic variations in ventilation, internal gains and external temperature: steady state and cyclic variations (and any associated time lag) are treated separately and then combined.

7 Temperatures Inside air temperature (t ai ): this is the volume averaged air temperature in the room. Mean surface temperature (t m ): The mean surface temperature is the area-weighted average temperature of the internal surfaces of the room. t m = ( At ) s ( A) Mean radiant temperature (t r ) This is a function of areas, shapes and surface temperatures as viewed from a specific point in the room; it varies according to view factors between the object and room surfaces. It is equal to the mean surface temperature at the centre of a cubical room in which all surfaces have the same emissivity. It is often used as a good approximation for other room shapes. Inside environmental temperature (t ei ) This is used to calculate the heat exchange between a surface and an enclosed space. It is a combination of the mean surface temperature and air temperature. The combination will depend on the relative magnitudes of the radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients, but typically the following equation is used: t ei = 1/3 t ai + 2/3 t m Dry resultant temperature (t c ) In cases where air movement is low, the dry resultant temperature is used as an index of thermal comfort. In such cases: t c = 1/2 t ai + 1/2 t m where t m is used as an approximation for t r at the centre of the room.

8 Outside air temperature (t ao ) This is the bulk air temperature of the air surrounding the building Sol-air temperature (t eo ) and sol-air excess temperature difference Sol-air temperature is that temperature which, in the absence of solar radiation, would give the same rate of heat transfer through the wall or roof as exists with the actual outdoor air temperature and incident solar radiation. It is effectively the outside environmental temperature. It is given by: t eo = t ao + R so (α I t + ε I l ) where I t is the total intensity of solar radiation on the outside surface and I l is the net longwave radiation exchange between a black body at outside air temperature and the outside environment. The sol-air temperature is approximately equal to the external air temperature under overcast conditions. The sol-air excess temperature difference is the quantity that must be added to or subtracted from the outside air temperature in order to calculate the heat transfer through opaque external surfaces resulting from the radiation exchange between those surfaces and the sun and the sky. t eo = R so (α I t + ε I l ) Non-Steady State Thermal Characteristics The admittance, decrement factor and surface factor are functions of the thickness, thermal conductivity, density and specific heat capacity of each of the materials used within a construction, as well as the relative positions of those materials. Energy inputs are assumed to be cyclic, usually with a 24 hour period. Admittance

9 The admittance of a construction is the rate of heat flow between its internal surface and the space temperature, for each degree swing in space temperature about its mean value. It determines the storage of energy in the room surfaces following fluctuations in internal temperature. It is related to the diffusivity and thickness of materials. It has the same units as U-value (W/m 2 K) and can be considered as a cyclic U- value. Q ~ y θ ~ = (AY)( t ) (AY)(tei tei) ϑ+ω = where the tilde indicates the cyclic component and the bar indicates the mean value. Y is the admittance. For thin constructions, the admittance equals the U-value. Admittance is greater for higher thermal mass. Examples are given in Table A3.16 in the handout (from the CIBSE guide). ei ϑ+ω Decrement Factor Decrement Factor is the ratio of the rate of heat flow through the structure to the internal space temperature for each degree of swing in external temperature about its mean value, to the steady state rate of heat flow or U-value. It is the attenuation of a wave travelling through an element of the building structure. For thin structures of low thermal capacity, the decrement factor =1; it decreases with increasing thickness and capacity. For fabric transfer due to external fluctuations: ~ Q ~ f θ = (fau)(teo teo) ϑ ϕ = (fau)( teo) where f is the decrement factor and ϕ is the time lag. Surface Factor Surface Factor is the ratio of the variation of heat flow about its mean value readmitted to a space from the surface, to the variation of heat flow about its mean value absorbed in the surface. The surface factor decreases and its time lag increases with increasing thermal capacity and they are almost constant with thickness. It is used when allowing for solar radiation and the radiative component of internal gains on internal surfaces. ϑ ϕ

10 Calculation of Peak Summertime Temperatures Application of the admittance technique requires the following calculations: (a) Mean heat gains from all sources. (b) Mean internal environmental temperature. (c) Swing (deviation), from mean-to-peak, in heat gains from all sources. (d) Swing (deviation), from mean-to-peak, in internal environmental temperature. (e) From (b) and (d), the peak internal environmental temperature. Intermittent Heating For intermittent heating, additional plant capacity (above steady state requirements) is required to bring the building up to temperature after overnight or weekend cooling. In such cases it is recommended by CIBSE that the total output under boosted intermittent operating conditions, Q pb, is calculated by Q pb = F 3 Q p where Q p is the design load for continuous heating and F 3 is the plant size ratio (the factor for intermittent heating). F 3 can be calculated from F 3 = Hf r 24f r + (24 H) where H is the total hours of heating including pre-heat, and f r is the thermal response factor (the thermal weight of the building). The thermal response factor is given by f r = (AY) + 1 3NV (AU) + 1 3NV The thermal response factor is less than 4 for a lightweight (fast-response) building, and greater than 4 for a heavyweight (slow-response) building. If the calculated value of F 3 is <1.2, a value of 1.2 is taken (to give a safety margin of 20%).

11 Example: 15m 7.5m Small factory building Height=5m 12 windows, each 4m 2 Doors 6m 2 Volume = 562.5m 3 Air infiltration = 0.5 ac/h Surface Area (m 2 ) U-value (W/m 2 K A x U (W/K) Y-value (W/m 2 K A x Y (W/K) ) ) Ext wall Doors Floor Roof Windows Sum Σ(AU) is calculated over surfaces through which heat flow occurs. Assume the heating plant operates for 8 hours with a pre-heat time of 3 hours, and that the total heat loss = 8.72kW for continuous heating (for an internal dry bulb temperature of 19 C and an external design temperature of -1 C). Calculate the plant capacity for intermittent operation. Ventilation conductance = 1/3 N V = (0.5 x 562.5)/3 = W/K. The thermal response factor f r = ( ) / ( ) = 3.49 Therefore the correction factor for intermittent heating F 3 = (24 x 3.49) / ((11 x 3.49) + (24 11)) = 1.63 Therefore the calculated plant capacity for intermittent operation is Q pb = 8.72 x 1.63 = kw

Analytical Computation of Thermal Response Characteristics of Homogeneous and Composite Walls of Building and Insulating Materials Used In India

Analytical Computation of Thermal Response Characteristics of Homogeneous and Composite Walls of Building and Insulating Materials Used In India Analytical Computation of Thermal Response Characteristics of Homogeneous and Composite Walls of Building and Insulating Materials Used In India ABSTRACT Saboor S, Research scholar [NITK, Surathkal, India]

More information

VENTILATION PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR CHIMNEY WITH BUILT-IN LATENT HEAT STORAGE

VENTILATION PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR CHIMNEY WITH BUILT-IN LATENT HEAT STORAGE VENTILATION PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR CHIMNEY WITH BUILT-IN LATENT HEAT STORAGE Y. Kaneko, K. Sagara, T. Yamanaka, H. Kotani Department of Architectural Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University

More information

Module 2.3. Fabric and ventilation heat loss from buildings

Module 2.3. Fabric and ventilation heat loss from buildings Module 2.3 Fabric and ventilation heat loss from buildings Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe how heat is lost from of a building. - Describe

More information

THE ADVANTAGES OF BUILDING SIMULATION FOR BUILDING DESIGN ENGINEERS. K.H. Beattie * and I.C. Ward # Dublin, Ireland. Sheffield S10 2TN, UK

THE ADVANTAGES OF BUILDING SIMULATION FOR BUILDING DESIGN ENGINEERS. K.H. Beattie * and I.C. Ward # Dublin, Ireland. Sheffield S10 2TN, UK THE ADVANTAGES OF BUILDING SIMULATION FOR BUILDING DESIGN ENGINEERS K.H. Beattie * and I.C. Ward # * Dublin Institute of Technology Dublin, Ireland # The University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TN, UK ABSTRACT

More information

FREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL 2 CONVECTION AND RADIATION

FREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL 2 CONVECTION AND RADIATION FREESTUDY HEAT TRANSFER TUTORIAL CONVECTION AND RADIATION This is the second tutorial in the series on basic heat transfer theory plus some elements of advanced theory. The tutorials are designed to bring

More information

Monitored Thermal Performance of ICF Walls in MURBs

Monitored Thermal Performance of ICF Walls in MURBs research highlight December 2007 Technical Series 07-119 introduction Insulating concrete forms (ICF) are generally stackable, hollow, polystyrene blocks into which concrete is poured to form walls in

More information

Heat transfer lecture 2

Heat transfer lecture 2 Heat transfer lecture 2 Fourier s Law The basic equation for the analysis of heat conduction is Fourier s law, which is based on experimental observations and is: where the heat flux q n (W/m 2 ) is the

More information

Contents. Index... 19

Contents. Index... 19 Contents Data Assembly........................................................ 1 Building Data Object Type............................................... 1 Weather Data...................................................

More information

CAE 331/513 Building Science Fall 2015

CAE 331/513 Building Science Fall 2015 CAE 331/513 Building Science Fall 2015 Week 3: September 10, 2015 Heat transfer in buildings: Solar radiation and heat transfer through windows Advancing energy, environmental, and sustainability research

More information

and substituting numerical values with Gr L = Ra L /Pr, find The appropriate empirical correlation for estimating h is given by Eq. 9.

and substituting numerical values with Gr L = Ra L /Pr, find The appropriate empirical correlation for estimating h is given by Eq. 9. 1. (Problem 9.13 in the Book) A square aluminum plate 5 mm thick and 200 mm on a side is heated while vertically suspended in quiescent air at 40 C. Determine the average heat transfer coefficient for

More information

Technical Notes 43 - Passive Solar Heating with Brick Masonry - Part 1 Introduction June 1981

Technical Notes 43 - Passive Solar Heating with Brick Masonry - Part 1 Introduction June 1981 Technical Notes 43 - Passive Solar Heating with Brick Masonry - Part 1 Introduction June 1981 Abstract: Brick masonry passive solar energy systems can be used to significantly reduce the use of fossil

More information

The Study of Thermal Mass as a Passive Design Technique for Building Comfort and Energy Efficiency

The Study of Thermal Mass as a Passive Design Technique for Building Comfort and Energy Efficiency Jan. 2011, Volume 5, No.1 (Serial No. 38), pp. 84-88 Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA The Study of Thermal Mass as a Passive Design Technique for Building Comfort and

More information

the benefits of an energy efficient home GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY TERMS Helping you understand the jargon.

the benefits of an energy efficient home GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY TERMS Helping you understand the jargon. the benefits of an energy efficient home GUIDE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY TERMS Helping you understand the jargon. ECONOMIC TERMS Sometimes terms used in energy efficiency can be confusing. This is a guide to

More information

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2004 Building Thermal Envelope and Fabric Load Tests

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2004 Building Thermal Envelope and Fabric Load Tests ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2004 Building Thermal Envelope and Fabric Load Tests DesignBuilder Version 1.2.0 (incorporating EnergyPlus version 1.3.0) - June 2006 1.0 Purpose The ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140-2004

More information

ECOBUILD RESEARCH: FULL-SCALE TESTING OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSES

ECOBUILD RESEARCH: FULL-SCALE TESTING OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSES January 2004 ECN-RX--04-005 ECOBUILD RESEARCH: FULL-SCALE TESTING OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSES E.J. Bakker This paper has been presented at the DAME-BC conference, November 13-14,

More information

Energy Efficiency of Timber Frame Housing Bill Quigley 1

Energy Efficiency of Timber Frame Housing Bill Quigley 1 Wood Processing and Product Development No. 3 Energy Efficiency of Timber Frame Housing Bill Quigley 1 Kyoto Protocol 1997 It is widely accepted by the scientific community that the emission of the so-called

More information

Adaptive strategies for office spaces in the UK climate

Adaptive strategies for office spaces in the UK climate International Conference Passive and Low Energy Cooling 631 Adaptive strategies for office spaces in the UK climate I. Gallou Environment & Energy Studies Programme, Architectural Association Graduate

More information

CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION

CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION 3.1 Purpose of Thermal Load Estimation 3.2 Heating Load versus Cooling Load 3.3 Critical Conditions for Design 3.4 Manual versus Computer Calculations 3.5 Heating

More information

TEK 6-3: SHIFTING PEAK ENERGY LOADS WITH CONCRETE MASONRY CONSTRUCTION

TEK 6-3: SHIFTING PEAK ENERGY LOADS WITH CONCRETE MASONRY CONSTRUCTION TEK 6-3: SHIFTING PEAK ENERGY LOADS WITH CONCRETE MASONRY CONSTRUCTION Keywords: Demand-side management, energy, HVAC, insulation, off peak period, peak load, thermal mass, thermal storage, time lag, utilities

More information

Comparison between ceiling radiant panels and floor heating in industrial buildings

Comparison between ceiling radiant panels and floor heating in industrial buildings Comparison between ceiling radiant panels and floor heating in industrial buildings Study carried out by HLK Laboratory University of Stuttgart (Germany) INTRODUCTION The installation of floor radiant

More information

IT1 IEA. Retrofit of a university building in Rome, Italy. Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems, Annex 36 Case studies overview

IT1 IEA. Retrofit of a university building in Rome, Italy. Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems, Annex 36 Case studies overview IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems, Annex 36 Case studies overview Retrofit of a university building in Rome, Italy 1 Photo IT1 Figure 1: Left: View of the University building from

More information

Construction simulations with inside and outside insulation of temperature and vapor

Construction simulations with inside and outside insulation of temperature and vapor Construction simulations with inside and outside insulation of temperature and vapor 1 Research goal To separate the controlled indoor climate from the fluctuating outdoor temperature and reduce energy

More information

Proceedings of BS2013: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Chambéry, France, August 26-28

Proceedings of BS2013: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Chambéry, France, August 26-28 Proceedings of BS13: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Chambéry, France, August -8 OPTIMIZING INSULATION-THERMAL MASS WALL LAYER DISTRIBUTION FROM MAXIMUM TIME

More information

3.1 Introduction to the First Law of Thermodynamics. 3.2 Heat Transfer

3.1 Introduction to the First Law of Thermodynamics. 3.2 Heat Transfer 3.1 Introduction to the First Law of Thermodynamics Simply stated, the First Law of Thermodynamics is a conservation of energy principle. In a thermodynamic sense, the energy gained by a system is exactly

More information

Technical Notes 43C - Passive Solar Cooling with Brick Masonry - Part 1 - Introduction [March 1980] (Reissued Feb. 2001)

Technical Notes 43C - Passive Solar Cooling with Brick Masonry - Part 1 - Introduction [March 1980] (Reissued Feb. 2001) Technical Notes 43C - Passive Solar Cooling with Brick Masonry - Part 1 - Introduction [March 1980] (Reissued Feb. 2001) Abstract: Brick masonry passive solar energy systems can be used to significantly

More information

Building codes are presently moving towards new

Building codes are presently moving towards new Heating and cooling challenge in nzeb Experiences from built houses and detailed building simulations calls for a careful and integrated approach when designing heating and cooling systems for nearly zero

More information

Evaluation of Double Skin Glass Facades in terms of Cost Efficiency with respect to Energy Consumption

Evaluation of Double Skin Glass Facades in terms of Cost Efficiency with respect to Energy Consumption Evaluation of Double Skin Glass Facades in terms of Cost Efficiency with respect to Energy Consumption Ikbal Cetiner, MSc., Research Assistant 1 Murat Aygun, PhD., Assoc. Prof. 2 1 Istanbul Technical University.

More information

University of Waterloo Department of Civil Engineering. CE507 Building Science and Technology

University of Waterloo Department of Civil Engineering. CE507 Building Science and Technology University of Waterloo Department of Civil Engineering CE507 Building Science and Technology PHYSICS QUIZ # SOLUTIONS Question : Buildings [0] i) Provide a short but completely general definition of the

More information

HEAT LOAD AND SOLAR GAIN PREDICTION FOR SOLID WALL DWELLINGS RETROFITTED WITH TRIPLE VACUUM GLAZING FOR SELECTED WINDOW TO WALL AREA RATIOS

HEAT LOAD AND SOLAR GAIN PREDICTION FOR SOLID WALL DWELLINGS RETROFITTED WITH TRIPLE VACUUM GLAZING FOR SELECTED WINDOW TO WALL AREA RATIOS HEAT LOAD AND SOLAR GAIN PREDICTION FOR SOLID WALL DWELLINGS RETROFITTED WITH TRIPLE VACUUM GLAZING FOR SELECTED WINDOW TO WALL AREA RATIOS Saim Memon Philip C. Eames Centre for Renewable Energy Systems

More information

Approximations to the Heat Balance Method

Approximations to the Heat Balance Method Approximations to the Heat Balance Method Transfer Function Method (TFM) CLTD/SCL/CLF * TETD/TA * Radiant Time Series Method Admittance Method * Both of these methods use data that are derived from TFM

More information

Passive Design Strategies. GIFT City 6 th August, 2015

Passive Design Strategies. GIFT City 6 th August, 2015 Passive Design Strategies GIFT City 6 th August, 2015 Building Energy Use LIGHTING PLUG LOADS HVAC Building envelope THERMAL LOADS PEOPLE INTERNAL EXTERNAL HVAC system design Equipment Building envelope

More information

Heat Transfer. Revision Examples

Heat Transfer. Revision Examples Heat Transfer Revision Examples Heat transfer: energy transport because of a temperature difference. Thermal energy is transferred from one region to another. Heat transport is the same phenomena lie mass

More information

Chapter 1. Introduction 1. Chapter 1. Introduction. Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition. Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition

Chapter 1. Introduction 1. Chapter 1. Introduction. Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition. Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition Chapter 1. Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1. Introduction Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by a temperature difference (or gradient) Modes of heat transfer Conduction

More information

11 PASSIVE COOLING. iek. University of Stuttgart. Institute of Design and Construction. Prof. J. L. Moro

11 PASSIVE COOLING. iek. University of Stuttgart. Institute of Design and Construction. Prof. J. L. Moro 11 PASSIVE COOLING 1. fundamentals 1. FUNDAMENTALS PASSIVE COOLING 1. fundamentals higher temperature lower temperature heat flows from high temperature areas to low temperature areas reverse flow can

More information

Openings Name Type-Name Location Orient. Width Height 1 Doors Walls (1) n/a Windows (1) Walls (1) East

Openings Name Type-Name Location Orient. Width Height 1 Doors Walls (1) n/a Windows (1) Walls (1) East SAP 2009 INPUT DATA Page 1 of 40 SAP 2009 input data (new dwelling as built) Filename: EW-1a-detached 1a-detached BD8 7LL Country: England & Wales Region: East Pennines Postcode: BD8 7LL UPRN: 0000000000

More information

Methods of Heat Transfer

Methods of Heat Transfer Methods of Heat Transfer Thermodynamics often makes reference to the heat transfer betwen systems. Often these laws do not adequately describe heat transfer processes, so we must introduce more accurate

More information

Innovative Use of Aerogel in Passive and Active Solar Storage Walls Mark Dowson - CIBSE Building Simulation Group 2nd June 2011

Innovative Use of Aerogel in Passive and Active Solar Storage Walls Mark Dowson - CIBSE Building Simulation Group 2nd June 2011 Mark Dowson - CIBSE Building Simulation Group 2nd June 2011 a Presentation outline: My background Research focus Two modelling case studies Passive solar storage wall (i.e. a Trombe wall) Active solar

More information

ERT 216 INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER MISS HANNA ILYANI ZULHAIMI

ERT 216 INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER MISS HANNA ILYANI ZULHAIMI ERT 216 INTRODUCTION TO HEAT TRANSFER MISS HANNA ILYANI ZULHAIMI S WHAT IS HEAT TRANSFER? Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by a temperature difference (or gradient) Mode of heat

More information

Chapter 1: Overview of Heat Transfer

Chapter 1: Overview of Heat Transfer Chapter 1: Overview of Heat Transfer 1. Solution: a. Radiation from the sun is absorbed by the upholstery. b. Heat from the electronics is transferred to the air by forced convection. c. Potatoes are heated

More information

LOW EXERGY CEILING HEATING/COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FUTURE BUILDINGS

LOW EXERGY CEILING HEATING/COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FUTURE BUILDINGS 1 LOW EXERGY CEILING HEATING/COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FUTURE BUILDINGS Per Gundersen, M.Sc. Peter G. Schild, Dr.Ing. Norwegian Building Research Institute (NBI) P:O: 123 Blindern, NO-314, Norway e-mail: Per.Gundersen@byggforsk.no

More information

CASE STUDIES - VILLA WÅHLIN STOCKSUND, SWEDEN

CASE STUDIES - VILLA WÅHLIN STOCKSUND, SWEDEN CASE STUDIES - VILLA WÅHLIN STOCKSUND, SWEDEN The Villa Wåhlin is a demonstration project for a new light structure building system. The exterior walls consist of big polystyrene block elements that are

More information

Heat transfer lecture 4 THERMAL RADIATION

Heat transfer lecture 4 THERMAL RADIATION Heat transfer lecture 4 THERMAL RADIATION Thermal radiation differs from heat conduction and convective heat transfer in its fundamental laws. Heat transfer by radiation does not require the presence of

More information

Development of a roof mounted PV system to a PV/T air system

Development of a roof mounted PV system to a PV/T air system Development of a roof mounted PV system to a PV/T air system M. Farshchimonfared 1, A.B. Sproul 1 1 School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering University of New South Wales Kensington NSW

More information

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces

Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt ) In this lecture. Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Lecture 10. Surface Energy Balance (Garratt 5.1-5.2) In this lecture Diurnal cycle of surface energy flux components over different surfaces Radiative and material properties of different surfaces Conductive

More information

Calculating equation coefficients

Calculating equation coefficients Solar Energy 1 Calculating equation coefficients Construction Conservation Equation Surface Conservation Equation Fluid Conservation Equation needs flow estimation needs radiation and convection estimation

More information

The ground source heat pump project at Lakeshore, Bristol (UK) an example of a commercial turn-key heat pump project. case studies.

The ground source heat pump project at Lakeshore, Bristol (UK) an example of a commercial turn-key heat pump project. case studies. The ground source heat pump project at Lakeshore, Bristol (UK) an example of a commercial turn-key heat pump project Dr Henk JL Witte Groenholland Geo-Engineering Valschermkade 26 1059CD Amsterdam the

More information

4. SOLAR & TERRESTRIAL RADIATION

4. SOLAR & TERRESTRIAL RADIATION G109: 4. Solar and Terrestrial Radiation 1 4. SOLAR & TERRESTRIAL RADIATION PART I: RADIATION Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 2 (p. 43-53) LM: Lab. 5 1. Introduction Radiation = Mode of Energy transfer by

More information

Influence of External Environmental Conditions in the occupants thermal comfort level in University Building in the South of Portugal

Influence of External Environmental Conditions in the occupants thermal comfort level in University Building in the South of Portugal Issue 1, Volume 7, 213 9 Influence of External Environmental Conditions in the occupants thermal comfort level in University Building in the South of Portugal EUSÉBIO Z. E. CONCEIÇÃO, JOÃO M. M. GOMES,

More information

Brief Introduction to Heat Transfer Revision 10/25/04

Brief Introduction to Heat Transfer Revision 10/25/04 Brief Introduction to Heat Transfer Revision 10/25/04 Introduction Heat transfer is a science that studies the energy transfer between two bodies due to temperature difference. There are three types or

More information

Analysis of Building Performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Richard Chitty

Analysis of Building Performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Richard Chitty Analysis of Building Performance using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Richard Chitty Content Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Natural Ventilation System Wind Application Fire Safety Application Conclusion

More information

Factors affecting energy consumption of buildings

Factors affecting energy consumption of buildings Factors affecting energy consumption of buildings Ralf Lindberg, Minna Korpi, Juha Vinha ABSTRACT The thermal insulation requirements of the Building Code of Finland have been tightened several times since

More information

Radiation, Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration

Radiation, Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration Radiation, Sensible Heat Flux and Evapotranspiration Climatological and hydrological field work Figure 1: Estimate of the Earth s annual and global mean energy balance. Over the long term, the incoming

More information

Simple Mathematical Models of the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming

Simple Mathematical Models of the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming Simple Mathematical Models of the Greenhouse Effect, and Global Warming Mathematical Models Scientists often use mathematical and computer models to understand complex systems (like Earth s climate) A

More information

EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW

EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW EVERYTHING YOU WANTED TO KNOW (AND DIDN T KNOW) ABOUT In just The 5 minute guide to Herschel far infrared There are 3 ways to transfer heat: Convection = via heating the air Conduction = passing of heat

More information

GROUP 3: BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN

GROUP 3: BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN GROUP 3: BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN DESIGN STRATEGIES THAT REDUCE OR ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, AND HOW THESE STRATEGIES SPECIFICALLY SHAPE THE PLAN, SECTION, AND MASSING MARGARET KRAMER CARLA

More information

St George the Martyr. St George the Martyr, Wash Common. Heating Refurbishment Options Review. Project Ref: 24818/005. Doc Ref: 02.

St George the Martyr. St George the Martyr, Wash Common. Heating Refurbishment Options Review. Project Ref: 24818/005. Doc Ref: 02. , Wash Common St George the Martyr Heating Refurbishment Options Review Project Ref: 24818/005 Doc Ref: 02 October 2012 Peter Brett Associates LLP Caversham Bridge House Waterman Place Reading Berkshire

More information

Internal heat gains 1

Internal heat gains 1 Internal heat gains 1 Internal heat gain is the sensible and latent heat emitted within an internal space from any source that is to be removed by air conditioning or ventilation, and/or results in an

More information

INTERACTIVE SIMULATION BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS REPRODUCING OUTDOOR SPACE DESIGN USING 3D-CAD

INTERACTIVE SIMULATION BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS REPRODUCING OUTDOOR SPACE DESIGN USING 3D-CAD 04-040 The 2005 World Sustainable Building Conference, INTERACTIVE SIMULATION BETWEEN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS REPRODUCING OUTDOOR SPACE DESIGN USING 3D-CAD Takashi ASAWA Ph.D 1 Akira HOYANO

More information

Thermal Performance for AAC Block (*) Residential Application

Thermal Performance for AAC Block (*) Residential Application Thermal Performance for AAC Block (*) Residential Application 1.0 Introduction Building design and material properties influence thermal performance and energy consumption for residential and commercial

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena.

Kinetic Molecular Theory. A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. Kinetic Molecular Theory A theory is a collection of ideas that attempts to explain certain phenomena. A law is a statement of specific relationships or conditions in nature. After centuries of questioning

More information

CH EN 3453 Heat Transfer. Summary of Heat Transfer by Radiation. Chapters 12 and 13. Reminders

CH EN 3453 Heat Transfer. Summary of Heat Transfer by Radiation. Chapters 12 and 13. Reminders CH EN 3453 Heat Transfer Summary of Heat Transfer by Radiation Chapters 12 and 13 Reminders Homework #12 due today (last one!) Turn in by 4:00 PM to ChE main office Scores on web site are updated, so you

More information

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERMAL COMFORT OF DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS IN SANA A

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THERMAL COMFORT OF DIFFERENT BUILDING MATERIALS IN SANA A American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 6 (1): 20-24, 2013 ISSN: 1941-7020 2014 Alhaddad and Jun, This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 3.0

More information

The SunEarth House. A Minimal-Energy-Use Residence HUD Award Winning Earth-Covered/Passive Solar Home. The SunEarth Home... Longmont, Colorado

The SunEarth House. A Minimal-Energy-Use Residence HUD Award Winning Earth-Covered/Passive Solar Home. The SunEarth Home... Longmont, Colorado A Minimal-Energy-Use Residence HUD Award Winning Earth-Covered/Passive Solar Home Designed by Paul Shippee The SunEarth Home... Longmont, Colorado Minimal-Energy-Use in buildings is successfully demonstrated

More information

Annual Energy Consumption in an Actual Low Energy House in the Cold Region of Japan

Annual Energy Consumption in an Actual Low Energy House in the Cold Region of Japan 4 th Experts meeting and Workshop of IEA HPP Annex 32, Kyoto Dec.5 th -7 th, 27 Annual Energy Consumption in an Actual Low Energy House in the Cold Region of Japan Sayaka Takeda-Kindaichi *1 Katsunori

More information

Passive cooling techniques theory and practice

Passive cooling techniques theory and practice Passive cooling techniques theory and practice Thoughtful Cooling TOT Workshop on Cooling Interiors Efficiently and Sustainably Rachana Sansad, Mumbai 9 th January, 2015 Deepa Parekh Environmental Design

More information

Software Development for Cooling Load Estimation by CLTD Method

Software Development for Cooling Load Estimation by CLTD Method IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684Volume 3, Issue 6 (Nov. - Dec. 2012), PP 01-06 Software Development for Cooling Load Estimation by CLTD Method Tousif Ahmed Department

More information

Eng Heat Transfer I: Sample Final Exam Questions 1

Eng Heat Transfer I: Sample Final Exam Questions 1 Eng6901 - Heat Transfer I: Sample Final Exam Questions 1 The final exam in Eng6901 - Heat Transfer I consists of four questions involving steady-state heat transfer. The questions could involve: (a) an

More information

Energy Efficient Building Design College of Architecture Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago

Energy Efficient Building Design College of Architecture Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Heat Transfer Three modes of heat transfer are; 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation When two solids at different temperature are placed in thermal contact with each other, there is a flow of heat

More information

A numerical study of vertical solar chimney for enhancing stack ventilation in buildings

A numerical study of vertical solar chimney for enhancing stack ventilation in buildings Plea24 - The 21 th Conference on Passive and Low Energy rchitecture. Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 19-22 September 24 Page 1 of 5 numerical study of vertical solar chimney for enhancing stack ventilation

More information

For one dimensional heat transfer by conduction in the x-direction only, the heat transfer rate is given by

For one dimensional heat transfer by conduction in the x-direction only, the heat transfer rate is given by Chapter.3-1 Modes of Heat Transfer Conduction For one dimensional heat transfer by conduction in the -direction only, the heat transfer rate is given by Q ka d (.3-4) In this epression, k is a property

More information

COMSOL Modeling of Temperature Changes in Building Materials Incorporating Phase Change Materials

COMSOL Modeling of Temperature Changes in Building Materials Incorporating Phase Change Materials COMSOL Modeling of Temperature Changes in Building Materials Incorporating Phase Change Materials Naser P. Sharifi *1, Ahsan Aadil Nizam Shaikh 1, Aaron R. Sakulich 1 1 Department of Civil and Environmental

More information

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.

More information

The Influence Of Window Type And Orientation On Energy-Saving In Buildings Application To A Single Family Dwelling

The Influence Of Window Type And Orientation On Energy-Saving In Buildings Application To A Single Family Dwelling The Influence Of Window Type And Orientation On Energy-Saving In Buildings Application To A Single Family Dwelling Urbikain M. K., Mvuama M. C., García Gáfaro C. and Sala Lizarraga J. M. The University

More information

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center. Flat Plate Collectors - Domestic Heating

Sustainable Energy Science and Engineering Center. Flat Plate Collectors - Domestic Heating Flat Plate Collectors - Domestic Heating Simplified Collector Performance Model Prediction of the thermal output of various solar collectors: The quantity of thermal energy produced by any solar collector

More information

FIND: Characteristic length and Biot number. Validity of lumped capacitance approximation.

FIND: Characteristic length and Biot number. Validity of lumped capacitance approximation. Mech 302 Heat Transfer HW5 Solution 1. (Problem 5.5 in the Book except for part (e)) For each of the following cases, determine an appropriate characteristic length Lc and the corresponding Biot number

More information

PDHonline Course E507 (3 PDH) Passive Solar Heating Project Analysis Veelimir Lackovic, MScEE, P.E PDH Online PDH Center

PDHonline Course E507 (3 PDH) Passive Solar Heating Project Analysis Veelimir Lackovic, MScEE, P.E PDH Online PDH Center PDHonline Course E507 (3 PDH) Passive Solar Heating Project Analysis Velimir Lackovic, MScEE, P.E. 2016 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

More information

V o l u m e 9 - N u m b e r N o v e m b e r ( )

V o l u m e 9 - N u m b e r N o v e m b e r ( ) ISESCO JOURNAL of Science and Technology V o l u m e 9 - N u m b e r 1 6 - N o v e m b e r 2 0 1 3 ( 5 3-5 9 ) Abstract The development of a computer program based on the implicit finite difference method

More information

Areas. Net heated area

Areas. Net heated area NB: Unofficial translation, legally binding only in Finnish and Swedish Annex to the explanatory memorandum for the Ministry of the Environment Decree on improving the energy performance of buildings undergoing

More information

EFA PSBP. Natural Ventilation Strategy. Introduction. 1.1 Relevant legislation. 1.1.1 The Building Regulations 2010

EFA PSBP. Natural Ventilation Strategy. Introduction. 1.1 Relevant legislation. 1.1.1 The Building Regulations 2010 EFA PSBP Natural Ventilation Strategy Introduction The Baseline Designs Project will provide scheme design details for a number of Primary and Secondary School Exemplars. For the purposes of setting a

More information

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling David R. Mears, Ph.D. Bioresource Engineering Department of Plant Biology and Pathology Rutgers University 20 Ag Extension

More information

Combining the radiative, conductive and convective heat flows in and around a skylight

Combining the radiative, conductive and convective heat flows in and around a skylight Combining the radiative, conductive and convective heat flows in and around a skylight Martin Fält *, Ron Zevenhoven Thermal and Flow Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University,

More information

Energy Saving Potential of Passive Chilled Beam System as a Retrofit Option in Commercial Buildings with Different Climates

Energy Saving Potential of Passive Chilled Beam System as a Retrofit Option in Commercial Buildings with Different Climates Energy Saving Potential of Passive Chilled Beam System as a Retrofit Option in Commercial Buildings with Different Climates Janghyun Kim, Graduate Research Assistant Dr. James E. Braun Dr. Athanasios Tzempelikos

More information

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance

Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Greenhouse Effect and the Global Energy Balance Energy transmission ( a a refresher) There are three modes of energy transmission to consider. Conduction: the transfer of energy in a substance by means

More information

CIBSE Loads User Guide

CIBSE Loads User Guide CIBSE Loads User Guide IES Virtual Environment Apache Contents CIBSE Loads User Guide... 1 1 Introduction... 3 1.1 Results file (for both.htg and.clg files)... 3 2 Heating Loads... 4 2.1 Interface for

More information

Eco Pelmet Modelling and Assessment. CFD Based Study. Report Number 610.14351-R1D1. 13 January 2015

Eco Pelmet Modelling and Assessment. CFD Based Study. Report Number 610.14351-R1D1. 13 January 2015 EcoPelmet Pty Ltd c/- Geoff Hesford Engineering 45 Market Street FREMANTLE WA 6160 Version: Page 2 PREPARED BY: ABN 29 001 584 612 2 Lincoln Street Lane Cove NSW 2066 Australia (PO Box 176 Lane Cove NSW

More information

V. Thermal Efficiency

V. Thermal Efficiency V. Thermal Efficiency Winter: Coldness remains outdoor Summer: The rooms are protected against the heat from outside Heat remains indoor A comfortably cool climate against the heat from the outside The

More information

Thermal properties of contemporary lightweight cavity bricks: a semi-scale experimental study

Thermal properties of contemporary lightweight cavity bricks: a semi-scale experimental study CTU Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry Thermal properties of contemporary lightweight cavity bricks: a semi-scale experimental study Z. Pavlík, J. Fořt,

More information

SELECTIVE GLAZING FOR SUN CONTROL

SELECTIVE GLAZING FOR SUN CONTROL SUN CONTROL GLAZING SELECTIVE GLAZING FOR SUN CONTROL Sun Factor 1st level performance for direct solar energy Solar energy control Solar control coating Only if the glass is exposed to sun rays! 2nd level

More information

Comments on How Exterior Paints and Interior Paints Can Play Roles in Conserving Energy. For Tech Traders Inc. By H. F. Poppendiek

Comments on How Exterior Paints and Interior Paints Can Play Roles in Conserving Energy. For Tech Traders Inc. By H. F. Poppendiek Comments on How Exterior Paints and Interior Paints Can Play Roles in Conserving Energy For Tech Traders Inc. By H. F. Poppendiek June 2002 GEOSCIENCE LTD 620 Marindustry Drive San Diego, California 92121

More information

Numerical analysis of heat transfer in a double glass window

Numerical analysis of heat transfer in a double glass window Numerical analysis of heat transfer in a double glass window MEHRAN AHMADI, TOORAJ YOUSEFI Mechanical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran Mechanical Engineering Department,

More information

Simulation and experimental study of thermal performance of a building roof with a phase change material (PCM)

Simulation and experimental study of thermal performance of a building roof with a phase change material (PCM) Sādhanā Vol. 40, Part 8, December 2015, pp. 2381 2388. c Indian Academy of Sciences Simulation and experimental study of thermal performance of a building roof with a phase change material (PCM) A MANNIVANNAN

More information

location. The following boundary conditions of each region must especially be considered: Temperature Month

location. The following boundary conditions of each region must especially be considered: Temperature Month First Steps: What Can be a Passive House in Your Region with Your Climate? by Dr. Wolfgang Feist, Passive House Institute Rheinstraße 44/46; D-64283 Darmstadt mail@passiv.de 1. The Passive House: A Method

More information

Advanced Ventilation Technologies

Advanced Ventilation Technologies Building Advanced Ventilation Technological examples to demonstrate materialised energy savings for acceptable indoor air quality and thermal comfort in different European climatic regions. Advanced Ventilation

More information

Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015. David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer

Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015. David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer Residential HVAC Load Sizing Training October 14, 2015 David Kaiser Green Code Plan Reviewer DCRA - Green Building Division Regulations of green codes including: Green Building Act Green Construction Code

More information

IMPACT OF INSULATION ON BUILDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION. Jong-Jin Kim and Jin Woo Moon TCAUP, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA

IMPACT OF INSULATION ON BUILDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION. Jong-Jin Kim and Jin Woo Moon TCAUP, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA Eleventh International IBPSA Conference Glasgow, Scotland July 27-3, 29 IMPACT OF INSULATION ON BUILDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION Jong-Jin Kim and Jin Woo Moon TCAUP, University of, Ann Arbor, USA ABSTRACT The

More information

FUTURE OF HVAC INDUSTRY WITH EMERGENCE OF GREEN BUILDING IN INDIA

FUTURE OF HVAC INDUSTRY WITH EMERGENCE OF GREEN BUILDING IN INDIA FUTURE OF HVAC INDUSTRY WITH EMERGENCE OF GREEN BUILDING IN INDIA It seems the era of Green Building has brought with it a trend in HVAC design, where the new technologies and strategies are adopted to

More information

PROBLEM 1.5. ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) Constant properties.

PROBLEM 1.5. ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, (2) Steady-state conditions, (3) Constant properties. PROBLEM 1.5 KNOWN: Inner and outer surface temperatures of a glass window of prescribed dimensions. FIND: Heat loss through window. ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in the x-direction, () Steady-state

More information

SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE SOLAR STRUCTURES USING HEAT TRANSFER EQUATIONS

SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE SOLAR STRUCTURES USING HEAT TRANSFER EQUATIONS SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE SOLAR STRUCTURES USING HEAT TRANSFER EQUATIONS M. Faruqi and P. Ghavami Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Texas A and M University, Kingsville, Texas, USA

More information

Physics of Buildings. David Hafemeister

Physics of Buildings. David Hafemeister Physics of Buildings David Hafemeister Cal Poly University Adapted from Chapters 11 and 12: Physics of Societal Issues: Calculations on National Security, Environment and Energy (Springer, 2007) 1 Energy

More information

Indoor Thermal Performance of Green Roof in a Tropical Climate

Indoor Thermal Performance of Green Roof in a Tropical Climate Indoor Thermal Performance of Green Roof in a Tropical Climate Biyanvilage Sampath Sri Sameera Dareeju Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. E-mail: dareeju@uom.lk;

More information