Chapter 3 Reading Guide Industrialization ( )

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1 Name Period Chapter 3 Reading Guide Industrialization ( ) Lesson 1, pp The Rise of Industry 1. gross national product 2. laissez-faire 3. entrepreneur Locate each heading below in your textbook and use the information under the correct heading and subheading to answer the following questions: I. The United States Industrializes A. Why was petroleum in high demand, even before its use as fuel for automobiles? B. After the Civil War, what happened to the United States Gross National Product? C. How did railroads help the nation develop? D. How did a growing population help the nation s industrialists? II. New Inventions A. What inventions did Thomas Alva Edison s laboratory produce? B. Edwin Drake and Alexander Graham Bell were responsible for two revolutionary breakthroughs. List them below: a. b. C. Explain the effect of mass production on shoemaking. III. Free Enterprise A. What did laissez-faire supporters believe about the role of government in economic affairs? 1

2 B. Explain how the United States was different from Europe in regard to tariffs. C. What do laissez-faire supporters believe about tariffs? D. How did high tariffs hurt many Americans? Summarize the main ideas of this lesson by answering the following question: Explain how new technologies affected all Americans. Lesson 2, pp The Railroads 1. Define land grant Read each main idea below and use your textbook to supply the details that support or explain each one. A. Main Idea: The railroads played a major part in linking and uniting the nation. Details: 1. The railroad boom began in the year with the Act. 2. One railroad line, the pushed westward from Omaha, Nebraska, in the year. 3. The Central Pacific employed about 10,000 workers from. 4. Both railway lines met at in the year In order to make rail service safer and more reliable, the country was divided into. B. Main Idea: The U.S. government gave land grants to railroad companies, and this led to bribery and corruption. Details: 1. Land grants helped railroad entrepreneurs such as and become extremely wealthy. 2. This wealth led to accusations of swindling and bribery, resulting in many of the railroad owners being called. 3. To get more land grants, investors began bribing. 4. The scandal involved several members of Congress who had bought shares in a construction company. 5. The most successful transcontinental railroad was the, which did not accept any federal grants. built and operated this railroad. 6. This railroad was the only one not eventually forced into. 2

3 Summarize the main ideas of this lesson by writing 2 or 3 well-constructed sentences to answer the following question: How did the creation of transcontinental railroads benefit the United States? Lesson 3, pp Big Business 1. corporation 2. economies of scale 3. monopoly 4. holding company 5. trust Locate each heading below in your textbook and use the information under the correct heading and subheading to answer the questions below: I. The Rise of Big Business A. Why do corporations issue stock? B. What are fixed costs in business? C. How were large corporations able to operate in poor economic times? D. How did large corporations achieve economies of scale? 3

4 II. Consolidating Industry A. Who was Andrew Carnegie? B. What is vertical integration of a company? C. How is horizontal integration different from vertical integration? D. Who was John D. Rockefeller? E. How did Standard Oil find a way around laws against monopolies in 1882? F. What encouraged the growth of the advertising industry? G. What new developments in retail sales occurred in the late nineteenth century? Lesson 4 pp Unions 1. deflation 2. industrial union 3. lockout 4. arbitration 5. injunction 6. closed shop Refer to your textbook to complete the outline below by filling in the blanks: I. Working in the United States A. Between 1860 and 1890, the average worker s wages by 50 percent. However, working conditions were often. B. The uneven division of between the wealthy and the working class led to a feeling of resentment among. C. In the 1800s, the two types of industrial workers in the United States were and. 4

5 D. Business leaders opposed workers of a particular industry forming. E. Companies used to break up unions by refusing to allow employees into their facilities to work. II. Struggling to Organize A. The Knights of Labor opposed, preferring to use more peaceful means such as and to achieve goals such as an workday. B. The Strike against a steel mill involved the use of replacement workers called. C. In 1894 railway workers organized a strike against the when their wages were reduced. A federal court issued an to stop the strike. III. New Unions Emerge A. The most powerful union in the 1800s was the, known as the. It represented the interests of workers. B. This union s goals included an 8-hour workday, shops, and for companies to unions. C. A more radical group called the wanted to organize all kinds of workers into one union. D. One of the most famous female labor organizers was (also called ). E. In 1900 and immigrants started the International Ladies Garment Workers Union to fight for better and. 5

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