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1 FOREWORD NOUNS AND NUMBER Basics of plural formation Countable and uncountable nouns Special endings Nouns ending in -f / -fe Plural by vowel change Nouns ending in -o Greek and Latin plurals The plural of compound nouns Special plurals Plural the same as the singular (zero plurals) Nouns with two plurals Nouns that are used in the singular and the plural with a different meaning Nouns with two meanings in the plural Nouns with two meanings in the singular Making the verb agree with its subject Special instances of plural usage NOUNS AND THE GENITIVE Form Usage of - possessive Constructions with the - genitive The local genitive The group genitive The double genitive Omission of the apostrophe NOUNS AND GENDER Gender overview Personifications Differences in form between masculine and feminine nouns ARTICLES Articles and countable and uncountable nouns Special uses of uncountable nouns with indefinite article The definite article The indefinite article Position of the indefinite article

2 4.4 The zero article ADJECTIVES Kinds of adjectives Attributive and predicative adjectives Modifying adjectives Determining adjectives Adjective building Adjectives used as nouns The comparison of adjectives Irregular comparison The comparison of disyllabic adjectives Constructions with the comparative Notes on the superlative Prepositions after superlatives The with superlatives Intensifying comparatives and superlatives Order of multiple adjectives Position of certain adjectives PRONOUNS Kinds of pronouns Remarks on personal pronouns Remarks on reflexive pronouns Remarks on emphasizing pronouns Remark on reciprocal pronouns Remarks on interrogative pronouns Remarks on relative pronouns and relative clauses Idiomatic expressions Remarks on indefinite pronouns and adjectives ADVERBS Kinds of adverbs Adverbial particles Formation of adverbs Position of adverbs in the sentence Front-position Mid-position End-position Variable position Comparison of adverbs Irregular comparisons Constructions with comparatives Adjectives vs. adverbs

3 8 VERBS, TENSE AND ASPECT Overview Time relations denoted by the English verbal forms Time content of present, past, and future tenses (absolute tenses) Aspect relations denoted by the English verbal forms The perfective aspect: time content of anterior tenses The progressive aspect: practical considerations Classes of lexical verbs in relation to the progressive aspect THE PRESENT TENSES Overview Usage of the static / simple present tense Adverbials of time used with the present static The present progressive tense Adverbs and adverbials phrases of time combined with the present progressive Verbs used in the present progressive THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSES Overview The present perfect static / simple tense Words or phrases usually associated with the present perfect The present perfect progressive tense Difference between the two tense forms THE PAST TENSES The past tense static The difference between the past and present perfect tenses Past time expressions used with past tense The past progressive tense Adverbs and adverbial phrases of time combined with the past progressive Roundup: Comparison between the use of the present perfect and past tenses THE PAST PERFECT TENSES The past perfect static tense Conjunctions associated with the past perfect tense The past perfect progressive tense MEANS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE TIME Periphrastic constructions Present tenses Future tenses The future tense

4 The future progressive tense The future perfect tense Future time in the past THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE EQUIVALENTS The present subjunctive Meaning Use The past subjunctive Meaning Use The past perfect subjunctive Roundup Subjunctive equivalents MODAL AUXILIARIES: MEANINGS AND USAGE Overview can could may might Notes on the use of may / might shall should will would must need ought to used to dare Roundup THE INFINITIVE Forms and use Constructions with the infinitive The accusative with the infinitive The nominative with the infinitive For to + infinitive THE GERUND Forms and use Verb characteristics of the gerund Noun characteristics of the gerund Subject of the gerund Constructions with the gerund

5 17.4 Gerund form with a passive meaning Remarks on gerunds and infinitives THE PARTICIPLE Forms and use Verb characteristics Adjective characteristics of the participle Constructions with the participles Participle phrases The accusative with the present participle The accusative with the past participle The nominative with the present participle Remarks on participles and gerunds Compounds with gerunds and participles as modifiers THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES Basic rules for tense usage Usage of the sequence of tenses Tenses used in adverbial clauses of time Tenses used in adverbial clauses of condition (If-clauses) THE PASSIVE AND THE PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION Overview Usage of the passive The passive auxiliary Verbs and the passive REPORTED SPEECH Changes from direct speech into indirect speech Tenses Modal verbs The usage of should when reporting Lexical changes CLAUSES Nominal clauses Adjective clauses Adjective clauses introduced by relative pronouns Adjective clauses introduced by indefinite relative pronouns Adjective clauses introduced by relative adverbs Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses Remarks on the prepositional adjective clauses Agreement of the verb of the relative clause Adverb clauses Adverb clauses of time Adverb clauses of condition Adverb clauses of purpose

6 Adverbial clauses of result Adverbial clauses of manner Adverbial clauses of concession Adverb clauses of reason Adverb clauses of place BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX: BASIC FORMS OF IRREGULAR VERBS INDEX

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