2 What are nouns? Nouns are people, places, things, or ideas Nouns can be common or proper Proper nouns MUST be capitalized. Examples: Common: girl, boy, school, town Proper: Sally, Tom, MCMS, Tomkinsville
3 Concrete and Abstract Nouns Concrete nouns names something you can see or touch. Ex. book, house, person Abstract nouns names ideas, qualities, or characteristics. Ex. love, idea, time, culture
4 Compound Nouns Nouns made up of two or more words. These can be combined (as in compound word), hyphenated, or more than one word side-by-side. Ex: birdhouse (compound word), sister-in-law (hyphenated), or dining room (more than one) Use the rules for making words plural Hint: compound words, or two words side-byside, add an s to the last word, three words: add an s to the first word.
5 Possessive Nouns A possessive noun shows ownership. They can be singular or plural. For most singular nouns Make them possessive by adding an apostrophe and s ( s). Example: Karen s new skis are purple. Sarah s coat is too small.
6 Possessive Nouns Singular nouns that end in s: you must add an s Example: Chris s shoes are untied. Thomas s shoes are tied. Plural nouns ending in s: Just add an apostrophe ( ) Example: The skiers goggles are sturdy. The students books are at home today.
7 Singular & Plural Nouns Singular nouns- names one person, place, thing, or idea Examples: girl, boy, school, Tompkinsville, Lexington Plural nouns-two or more people, places, things, or ideas Examples: cars, buildings, shoes, clothes, shirts, books
8 Singular & Plural Nouns For most plural nouns, you simply add an s. Examples: stores, cats, dogs, folders, pens, pencils Other ways to form plural nouns: Words that end in s, ss, zz, ch, sh, or x Add an es at the end of the word. Examples: buzz=buzzes, box=boxes, or bus=buses
9 Singular & Plural Nouns If the word ends in o and has a vowel before it you add an s. Examples: studio = studios, stereo=stereos If the word ends in o and has a consonant before it, you add es, usually. Examples: hero = heroes, potato = potatoes, echo = echoes Sometimes you only add an s. Examples: zero = zeros, photo = photos, piano =pianos.
10 Singular & Plural Nouns Words that end in y and have a vowel before it, add s. Examples: day = days, turkey = turkeys Words that end in y and have a consonant before it, change the y to i, and add es, usually. Examples: family = families, city = cities, penny = pennies
11 Singular & Plural Nouns When a word ends in f or fe, change the f or fe to v, and add es, usually. Examples: leaf = leaves, wife = wives, life = lives, wolf = wolves Sometimes you only add an s. Examples: roof=roofs, chief=chiefs, belief=beliefs.
12 Singular & Plural Nouns Collective nouns: Names a group of people, places, things Examples: team, family, class, group, school
13 Possessive Nouns Plural nouns not ending in s: add s The women s restroom is out of order. The men s sweaters are warm
14 Collective Nouns Names a group of that is made up of individuals. Ex: team class crowd swarm
15 Appositives A noun placed next to another noun to identify or clarify it or to add information about it. Ex: My dog, Spot, is a golden retriever. An appositive phrase is a group of words that includes an appositive and other words that describe the appositive. Ex: An expert on food, John worried about food spoilage.
17 Personal Pronouns A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or nouns. Those words that refer to people or things are called personal pronouns. Examples: her, he, she, we, they, it, his, hers -they refer to the person speaking (1 st person), the one spoken to (2 nd person) OR the one spoken about (3 rd person) -these pronouns can be either singular or plural
18 Personal Pronouns Person Singular Plural First Person I, me, my, mine we, us, our, ours Second Person you, your, yours you, your, yours Third Person he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its they, them, their, theirs
19 Subject and Object Pronouns A subject pronoun is in the nominative case. It is the subject of the sentence. Example: I went to the store. We will go to town. An object pronoun is in the objective case, meaning it is the direct or indirect object of the verb. It will come after the verb. Example: Sarah read me the story.
20 Pronouns and Antecedents The word or group of words a pronoun refers to is known as the antecedent. The antecedent may or may not be in the same sentence as the pronoun. A sentence can have more than one pronoun and more than one antecedent Example: Tom said his mom had a new car. *his=pronoun & Tom=antecedent Kara and Mike will go to their aunts house today. *their=pronoun & Kara, Mike=antecedent Bobby is a middle school student. Next year he will be in high school. *he=pronoun & Bobby=antecedent
21 Possessive Pronouns Same as a possessive nouns, a possessive pronoun shows ownership. Example: The book is hers. However, possessive pronouns do NOT have an apostrophe. (it s is not a pronoun) Sometimes pronouns are before the noun and sometimes they are used alone. Ex: A fable is a tale. Its characters are often animals. Aesop s Fables are a favorite of mine.
22 Possessive Pronouns This table shows the possessive pronouns that are used alone and before nouns. Singular Plural Used Before Nouns Used Alone my, your, her, his its mine, yours, hers, his, its our, your, their ours, yours theirs
23 Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun does not refer to a particular person, place, thing, or idea. They too can be used alone or with nouns. They can be singular or plural. Indefinite pronouns that change their number are all, any, most, none, & some. Possessive pronouns sometimes have indefinite pronouns as their antecedents. In that case, the pronouns must agree in number.
24 Indefinite Pronouns Always SINGULAR Always PLURAL Another Everybody No one Both Anybody Everyone Nothing Few Anyone Anything Each either Everything Much Neither Nobody One Somebody Someone something Many Others several **Pronouns are not capitalized unless they are the beginning word in a sentence.**