Part I: Parts and Meaning of a Chemical Equation:

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1 Chemical Equations Name: Period: Date: Part I: Parts and Meaning of a Chemical Equation: 1. = process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances (atoms are rearranged) a) = original substances(written to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation) b) = resulting substances(written to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation) CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O c) Indications of a chemical reaction (chemical change): evolution of and/or production of a (often seen as bubbles) formation of a when two solutions are mixed (Precipitate = a solid that separates from a solution) d) = a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not permanently consumed in the reaction. Catalysts DO NOT appear as reactants or products! Ex: manganese dioxide is a catalyst in the following reaction: o 2H 2 O 2 MnO 2 O 2 + 2H 2 O 1

2 A. Writing a Chemical Equation: 1) = a representation of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction a) = a chemical equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words Ex: sodium + water sodium hydroxide + hydrogen b) = a chemical equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by chemical symbols or chemical formulas Ex: Na + H 2 O NaOH + H 2 reactants products c) (for a chemical equation) = a bookkeeping technique designed to count the number of each type of atom (ion) represented on each side of a chemical equation d) = whole number that appears to the right and below a chemical symbol in a chemical formula (if no number is written it is assumed to be 1 ) Indicates the number of atoms or ions Ex: H 2 O subscript subscript (assumed to be 1 ) e) = whole number that appears in front of a reactant or product in a balanced chemical equation (if no number is written it is assumed to be 1 ) Indicates the number of molecules or moles 2

3 Ex: 2 CO 2 coefficient Ex: Al 2 S 3 coefficient (assumed to be 1 ) f) = a formula equation where coefficients are added so equal numbers of each type of atom (ion) are represented on each side of the equation Ex: 2 Na (s) + 2 H 2 O (l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g) reactants products molecules of solid sodium reacts with molecules of water to yield molecules of aqueous sodium hydroxide and molecule of hydrogen gas. OR moles of solid sodium reacts with moles of water to yield moles of aqueous sodium hydroxide and mole of hydrogen gas. 2. In the chemical equation below, identify the reactants, products, subscripts, and coefficients 4 Fe + 3 O 2 2 Fe 2 O 3 What are the reactant(s)?= What are the product(s)? = # of moles of O 2 = # of molecules of O 2 = # of atoms of Fe in 2 Fe 2 O 3 = # of atoms of O in 3 O 2 = 3

4 3. Symbols you may see in a chemical equation: Symbol Meaning yields ; indicates result of a reaction Indicates a reversible reaction A reactant or product in the solid state Alternative to (s); used only for a precipitate (solid) falling out of solution A reactant or product in the liquid state A reactant or product in aqueous solution (dissolved in water) A reactant or product in the gaseous state Alternative to (g); used only for a gaseous product Reactants are heated Pressure at which the reaction is carried out, in this case 2 Temperature at which reaction is carried out, in this case O C A catalyst is used to speed up the reaction rate, in this case MnO 2 would be used to speed up the reaction rate. Part II: Requirements for Chemical Equations: 1. The equation must represent the known facts with all reactants and products identified. 2. The equation must contain the correct formulas of the reactants and products. 3. A chemical reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Matter = matter cannot be either created or destroyed in ordinary chemical or physical means. The Law of Conservation of Matter must not be violated! o This means you must balance equations. (Equations are balanced by adding, NOT subscripts.) 4. Why do we balance equations? a. The must not be violated! 4

5 5. Atomic theory can be used to explain why chemical reactions obey the Law of Conservation of Matter. atoms present at the start of a chemical reaction are present at the end of that chemical reaction (atoms are simply rearranged during a chemical reaction). Since no atoms are created or destroyed in a chemical reaction no matter is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction. Since no matter is created or destroyed in the chemical reaction the mass of the reactants must equal the mass of the products in a chemical reaction. 6. A balanced chemical equation details how a chemical reaction obeys the Law of Conservation of Matter. Part III: Information a Chemical Equation Does NOT Supply: 1. Whether the reaction will actually. Chemical equations can be written for reactions that do not necessarily take place. 2. The of a reaction. 3. The atoms or ions take in moving from reactants to products. Part IV: Balancing Equations 1. Write a word equation 2. Write a formula equation a) remember naturally occurring molecules: b) unless otherwise noted, other elements are represented by the element symbol; ex: magnesium = Mg c) remember the formulas for acids: HCl = Hydrochloric Acid HNO 3 = Nitric Acid H 3 PO 4 = Phosphoric Acid CH 3 COOH = Acetic Acid (NOTE: the positive ion (H + ) is at the end) H 2 CO 3 = Carbonic Acid H 2 SO 4 = Sulfuric Acid d) remember the rules for writing formulas for ionic compounds ( ) Metals and Nonmetals! 5

6 e) remember the rules for writing formulas for molecular compounds ( ) Only NONMETALS! f) remember the formula for water, HOH = hydrogen hydroxide 3. Write a balanced chemical equation by adding, NOT subscripts (this will require trial and error, the following guidelines may be helpful) a) balance the different types of atoms b) first, balance the atoms of elements that are combined and that appear only on each side of the equation c) balance that appear on both sides of the equation as single units d) balance H atoms and O atoms after atoms of all other elements have been balanced 4. Conduct an atom inventory throughout the process. Be sure to conduct an atom inventory at the end of the process to be certain you have the correct answer. 5. Be certain that the coefficients represent the SMALLEST possible whole number ratio of reactants and products. 6. Common problems when balancing equations: a) You must write correct formulas! b) Once a correct formula is written, CANNOT be changed! 7. For each of the following, write a formula equation and a balanced chemical equation. a) Hydrogen reacts with oxygen to produce water. b) Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a solution of zinc chloride and hydrogen gas. 6

7 c) Aluminum sulfate reacts with calcium hydroxide to form aluminum hydroxide and calcium sulfate. Part V: Reaction Rates 1) = the rate (speed) of disappearance of a reactant or the rate of appearance of a product in a chemical reaction a) A chemical reaction that takes a long time to happen has a slow reaction rate. b) A chemical reaction that takes a short time to happen has a fast reaction rate. A. Factors Affecting Reaction Rate 1) a) Reactions occur at different rates depending on the reactants. b) Some reactions occur almost instantaneously (such as double-replacement reactions). c) Other reactions occur slower. 2) = a measure of the number of particles of matter per unit volume a) An increase in the concentration of the reactants generally increases reaction rate. b) A decrease in the concentration of the reactants generally decreases reaction rate. 3) = a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter a) An increase in temperature increases reaction rate. b) A decrease in temperature decreases reaction rate. 4) Presence of a = a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being permanently changed 7

8 a) A catalyst will increase reaction rate. b) A catalyst is permanently changed in a chemical reaction. B. Collision Theory 1) Assumptions of collision theory: a) Reacting molecules must with each other. b) Reacting molecules must collide with sufficient. c) Reacting molecules must collide in an orientation that can lead to of the atoms. 2) Use collision theory to explain why an increase in CONCENTRATION increases reaction rate: a) At a concentration reactant molecules are present. b) When more reactant molecules are present more frequent occur. c) When more frequent collisions occur there are more chances for molecules to react (so reactions happen ). 3) Use collision theory to explain why an increase in TEMPERATURE increases reaction rate: a) Molecules with a higher kinetic energy move faster, collide more often, and have more energetic collisions. b) A higher temperature means that the average kinetic energy of the reacting molecules is ; at a higher temperature there are more molecules with a higher kinetic energy. c) At a higher temperature there are giving molecules more chances to react (so reactions happen faster). d) At a higher temperature, more molecules possess enough kinetic energy to react so a higher percentage of collisions result in molecules reacting (so reactions happen faster). 8

9 Practice Balancing Equations For each of the following, write a formula equation and balance the equation. If no additional coefficients are needed, write balanced. Don t forget about the diatomic elements! 1. zinc + silver nitrate zinc nitrate + silver 2. barium chloride + sodium sulfate barium sulfate + sodium chloride 3. copper + nitrogen copper (II) nitride 4. magnesium + sulfuric acid magnesium sulfate + hydrogen 5. barium nitrate + ammonium chloride barium chloride + ammonium nitrate 6. potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen 7. fluorine + aluminum oxide aluminum fluoride + oxygen 8. lithium + phosphoric acid lithium phosphate + hydrogen 9

10 9. aluminum + hydrochloric acid aluminum chloride + hydrogen 10. nickel + nitric acid nickel(ii) nitrate + hydrogen 11. sodium chloride + lead(ii) nitrate lead(ii) chloride + sodium nitrate 12. magnesium + chlorine magnesium chloride 13. iron + oxygen iron(iii) oxide 14. water + magnesium nitrate magnesium oxide + nitric acid 15. sodium oxide + water sodium hydroxide 16. iron + copper(ii) nitrate iron(ii) nitrate + copper 17. calcium + water calcium hydroxide + hydrogen 10

11 18. chlorine + lithium iodide lithium chloride + iodine 19. aluminum oxide aluminum + oxygen 20. carbon + iron(iii) oxide iron + carbon dioxide 21. aluminum + zinc chloride aluminum chloride + zinc 22. mercury(ii) sulfide + calcium oxide calcium sulfide + mercury(ii) oxide 23. bromine + water + sulfur dioxide hydrogen bromide + sulfuric acid 24. diphosphorus pentaoxide + barium oxide barium phosphate 25. silver acetate + sodium phosphate silver phosphate + sodium acetate 26. tin + potassium hydroxide potassium tin(ii) oxide (K 2 SnO 2 ) + hydrogen 11

12 Part VI: Types of Reactions & Predicting Products: 1. : (S) 2 or more substances combine to form one new substance General format: A + B AB Ex: NH 3 + HCl NH 4 Cl 2 Na + C1 2 2 NaCl Synthesis Practice: For each of the following, predict the products and write a word equation. Next, write a formula equation and a balanced chemical equation. Finally, write the type of reaction represented by each chemical equation. a) magnesium + oxygen b) sodium + fluorine c) magnesium + fluorine d) lithium + chlorine 12

13 e) barium + oxygen f) potassium + oxygen 2. : (D) the opposite of synthesis Substances break up or decompose into simpler substances General format: AB A + B Ex: H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 2 Al 2 O 3 4 Al + 3 O 2 Decomposition Practice: For each of the following, predict the products and write a word equation. Next, write a formula equation and a balanced chemical equation. Finally, write the type of reaction represented by each chemical equation. a) water b) mercury(ii) oxide 13

14 c) magnesium chloride d) silver oxide 3. : (SD) One element replaces another in a compound General format: A + BC AC + B Ex: Cl KBr 2 KCl + Br 2 2 Na + 2 H 2 O 2 NaOH + H 2 Single Displacement Practice: For each of the following, predict the products and write a word equation. Next, write a formula equation and a balanced chemical equation. Finally, write the type of reaction represented by each chemical equation. a) aluminum + lead(ii) nitrate b) lithium + water 14

15 c) aluminum + sulfuric acid d) chlorine + potassium bromide e) fluorine + sodium chloride f) aluminum + silver nitrate g) barium + water h) lithium + hydrochloric acid 15

16 4. : (DD) Positive and negative ions are exchanged General format: AB + CD CB + AD Ex: Ba(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 4 BaSO H 2 O AgNO 3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO 3 Double Displacement Practice: For each of the following, predict the products and write a word equation. Next, write a formula equation and a balanced chemical equation. Finally, write the type of reaction represented by each chemical equation. a) potassium iodide + lead(ii) nitrate b) sulfuric acid + sodium hydroxide c) silver nitrate + sodium phosphate 16

17 d) nitric acid + potassium hydroxide e) sulfuric acid + potassium hydroxide f) calcium phosphate + acetic acid 5. Identify the following types of chemical reactions: 1) 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O +O 2 2) 4 Fe Fe 2 O 3 3) Cl NaBr 2 NaCl + Br 2 4) Zn + H 2 SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H 2 5) Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 CrO 4 PbCrO 4 + KNO 3 17

18 Practice Predicting Products, Balancing Equations, and Types of Reactions For each of the following, predict the products and write a word equation. Next, write a formula equation and a balanced chemical equation. Finally, write the type of reaction represented by each chemical equation on the line next to the number. 1. zinc + sulfur 2. potassium + water 3. calcium + nitric acid 4. silver oxide 5. hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide 6. sodium sulfate + calcium nitrate 7. zinc chloride + ammonium oxide 18

19 8. zinc + copper(ii) acetate 9. sodium + sulfuric acid 10. calcium + water 11. sulfuric acid + potassium hydroxide 12. chlorine + potassium bromide 13. zinc + hydrochloric acid 14. aluminum + iron(iii) oxide 19

20 15. copper (II) acetate + potassium permanganate 16. calcium peroxide 17. copper (II) sulfide + barium iodide 18. iron (III) nitrate + sodium hydroxide 19. nitric acid + aluminum hydroxide 20. sodium + oxygen 21. lithium + hydrochloric acid 22. potassium nitrate + zinc peroxide 20

21 Review Worksheet: Answer the questions 1-8, using this equation: 2 Na (s) + 2 H 2 O (l) 2 NaOH (aq) + H 2 1. What are the reactant(s)? 2. What are the product(s)? 3. How many molecules of H 2 are present as a product? 4. How many moles of NaOH are present? 5. How many atoms of H are present in 2 H 2 O? 6. What molecule or compound is a gas? 7. What element or compound was dissolved in water? 8. What element or compound is a solid? 9. Why do we balance equations? 10. How do you correctly notate that heat is needed in the following equation, in order to produce the product? 2 Cu + O 2 2 CuO 11. List the diatomic molecules. 12. What is a catalyst? 13. Write the formulas for the following acids: a) Carbonic Acid = b) Nitric Acid = c) Sulfuric Acid = d) Phosphoric Acid = e) Hydrochloric Acid = f) Acetic Acid = 21

22 14. List the 4 indicators that a chemical reaction occurred. 15. What is a reaction rate? 16. What are four factors that affect the reaction rate? 17. Using collision theory, EXPLAIN why increasing the concentration, increases the reaction rate? 18. Using collision theory, EXPLAIN why increasing the temperature, increases the reaction rate? 19. chlorine + potassium iodide 20. magnesium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid 21. zinc + potassium dichromate 22. potassium + chlorine 23. mercury(ii) oxide 24. copper(ii) sulfate + zinc 22

23 Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions SUMMARY TYPE OF REACTION REACTANTS PRODUCTS GENERIC EQUATION Synthesis (S) 2 or more substances ONE compound A + B AB Decomposition (D) ONE compound 2 or more elements and/or compounds AB A + B Single Displacement (SD) Element + Compound New compound & new element A + BC AC + B Double Displacement (DD) Compound + Compound 2 new compounds AB + CD AD + CB Identify the following types of reactions & explain why for the first 4 questions. MnO 2 1) 2 H 2 O 2 a) Why? 2 H 2 O + O 2 2) Cu + 2 AgNO 3 2 Ag + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 a) Why? 3) 4 Al + 3 S 2 Al 2 S 3 a) Why? 4) Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 CrO 4 ZnCrO NaNO 3 a) Why? 5) F LiBr 2 LiF + Br 2 6) NH 4 NO 3 N 2 O + 2 H 2 O 7) 2 SO 2 + O 2 2 SO 3 8) BaO + H 2 O Ba(OH) 2 9) Mg + H 2 SO 3 MgSO 3 + H 2 10) 3 CuBr 2 + Al 2 O 3 3 CuO + 2 AlBr 3 23

24 Unit Learning Map (10 days): Chemical Reactions/Equations Mrs. Hostetter Class: Chemistry B PA standard: Describe factors that influence the frequency of collisions during chemical reactions that might affect the reaction rates. Unit Essential Question(s): What are chemical reactions and how are they represented? Instructional Tools: Guided Notes Lab Materials: Models of Chemical Reactions Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations Reaction Rates Chemistry Competition Concept: Concept: Concept: Concept: Writing Word Equations, Formula Equations, and Balanced Chemical Equations Balanced Chemical Equations Types of Chemical Reactions and Predicting Products Reaction Rates Lesson Essential Question(s): Lesson Essential Question(s): Lesson Essential Question(s): Lesson Essential Question(s): 1) How is a chemical reaction represented? 2) Given a description of a chemical reaction, how are a word equation and a formula equation written? 3) How is a formula equation balanced by trial and error? Chemical reaction (chemical change) Reactant Product Indications of a chemical reaction Chemical symbol Chemical formula Chemical equation Word equation Formula equation Atom inventory Subscript Coefficient Balanced chemical equation 1) How can atomic theory be used to explain why chemical reactions obey the Law of Conservation of Matter? 2) How are balanced chemical equations translated into sentences? 3) What information is given/not given by a balanced chemical equation? Law of conservation of Matter Atomic theory Atom Molecule Formula unit Catalyst Symbols in a chemical equation 1) How can synthesis, decomposition, singledisplacement, and double-displacement reactions be recognized and described? 2) Given the reactants, how can the products of simple chemical reactions be predicted? Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Vocabulary: Synthesis reaction Decomposition reaction Single-displacement reaction Double-displacement reaction 1) What effect do nature of reactants, concentration, temperature, and presence of a catalyst have on reaction rate? 2) How can collision theory be used to explain why concentration and temperature affect reaction rate as they do? Reaction rate Concentration Temperature Catalyst Collision theory 24

25 Chemical Equations Vocabulary: 1) Chemical reaction = process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances (atoms are rearranged) 2) Reactants = original substances(written to the left of the arrow in a chemical equation) 3) Products = resulting substances(written to the right of the arrow in a chemical equation) 4) Indications of a chemical reaction (chemical change): evolution of heat and/or light; production of a gas (often seen as bubbles); color change; formation of a precipitate when two solutions are mixed 5) Precipitate = a solid that separates from a solution 6) Catalyst = a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not permanently consumed in the reaction 7) Chemical equation = a representation of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction 8) Word equation = a chemical equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by words 9) Formula equation = a chemical equation in which the reactants and products in a chemical reaction are represented by chemical symbols or chemical formulas 10) Atom inventory = a bookkeeping technique designed to count the number of each type of atom (ion) represented on each side of a chemical equation 11) Subscript = whole number that appears to the right and below a chemical symbol in a chemical 12) Coefficient = whole number that appears in front of a reactant or product in a balanced chemical equation (if no number is written it is assumed to be 1 ) 13) Balanced chemical equation = a formula equation where coefficients are added so equal numbers of each type of atom (ion) are represented on each side of the equation 14) The Law of Conservation of Matter = matter cannot be either created or destroyed in ordinary chemical or physical means 15) Synthesis(S) = 2 or more substances combine to form one new substance; General format: A + B AB 16) Decomposition (D) = the opposite of synthesis; Substances break up or decompose into simpler substances; General format: AB A + B 17) Single Displacement(SD) = One element replaces another in a compound; General format: A + BC AC + B 18) Double Displacement(DD) = Positive and negative ions are exchanged; General format: AB + CD CB + AD 19) Reaction rate = the rate (speed) of disappearance of a reactant or the rate of appearance of a product in a chemical reaction 20) Concentration = a measure of the number of particles of matter per unit volume 21) Temperature = a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter 22) Assumptions of collision theory = a) Reacting molecules must collide with each other b) Reacting molecules must collide with sufficient energy c) Reacting molecules must collide in an orientation that can lead to rearrangement of the atoms 25

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