# MIT Manufacturing Processes and Systems. Homework 1 Solutions. Manufacturing Basics. September 16, 2015 (Problem 2(e) revised October 18, 2015)

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1 MIT Manufacturing Processes and Systems Manufacturing Basics September 16, 2015 (Problem 2(e) revised October 18, 2015) Problem 1. Understanding Engineering Drawings a) This feature control frame defines the tolerance on the position of the axis of the hole. The datum B is the axis of the rod. The nominal location of the hole is defined in the right hand side view ( inches from one end). The first row of the feature control frame defines the tolerance on the position. It means that the axis should lie in a cylindrical zone of diameter less than 1

2 0.002 inches. In addition to the tolerance on the position, the second row defines the tolerance on the orientation of the axis. The second row states that the axis should be parallel to the datum plane A within inches. This feature control frame defines the acceptable flatness for the flat surface of the rod. The surface has to lie between two parallel planes inches apart. The datum plane A is also defined here. This feature frame demands the axis of the hole lie between parallel planes inches apart, and themselves parallel to datum plane A. This feature control frame defines a circular runout tolerance with respect to datum axis B. It means that all points of a circular element of the inner diameter should fall within inches when the part is rotated 360º about the datum axis. b) Isometric sketch: Figure 1: Isometric sketch of the connecting link c) Heat treatment to obtain the hardness requirement, and possibly grinding and honing of the center hole or possibly reaming of that hole while the part is solid to meet the tolerances required. d) The raw stock is a steel rod (high speed steel). After machining, the part needs to be heat treated to obtain Rockwell hardness 48-52C. (Read Section 4.8 in Kalpakjian and Schmid.) e) The basic steps would be: 1. Preparing the materials 2. Fixturing or locating the bread 3. Applying the peanut butter and the jelly 2

3 4. Closing the sandwich If you have to do a lot of sandwiches there are lots of options. For example: 1. The simplest and most costly is to simply add more capacity without changing the process. 2. One could automate the application of PB&J using a tube, roller application, doctor blade etc. perhaps applying both, PB&J one after the other on the same size of the bread. This will simplify handling. 3. The application could also be simplified by mixing the PB & J, but some people may not like the taste. Also, it may be less flexible if you plan to use different jelly flavors. 4. Redesign the bread to be long slices, cover the whole thing and then cutting to size. Problem 2. Relating Processes Behavior to Engineering Fundamentals a) Solids True Stress-Strain Curve σ max σ 2 σ 1 Engineering Stress-Strain Curve ε 1 ε p ε 2 Permanent elastic Figure 2: Stress-strain diagram 1. Stiffness/Young s Modulus: E = σ 1/ε Yield Strength: σ 1. Not clear from the diagram; by convention it is usually obtained by construction of a line parallel to the linear elastic region but off-set, starting at σ = 0, ε 1 = Ultimate Strength: σ max 4. Permanent Extension: ε p = ε 2 σ 2/E. 5. True Stress-Stress Curve (see diagram) 3

4 6. In general, sand-cast aluminum parts have a larger grain structure compared to parts machined from wrought stock. This leads to a more brittle behavior with a lower strain to failure in the cast part. The stiffness of the two materials, however, would be identical. Forging causes metal flow and grain structure development, which usually leads to improved strength and toughness. Again, the stiffness of a forged and machined part of the same basic material (aluminum) would be the same. b) Fluids 1. F/A = µ V/h, hence µ = Fh/VA. 2. In general, viscosity follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence of the type µ = Ae E/RT. 3. Hence, the viscosity changes at rate faster than a linear rate with change in temperature. 4. Consider the free body diagram of a chunk of fluid in a tube: Figure 3: Free body diagram of an element of fluid πd 2 L In steady state, viscous behavior, a force balance gives: Δ P = τπdl. Hence, Δ P= 4τ. 4 D F V V From part 1 above, we know that A = µ h for a thin gap, this translates to τ ~ µ for D our case. Substitution above yields VL Δ p ~ µ D 2 Hence, for a similar flow condition (average velocity V is constant, µ is constant and L is a constant), the pressure drop is inversely proportional to the square of D. 4

5 c) Heat 1. Conceptual Temperature vs. Heat Impact Diagram for a simple metal. Temperature T melt Phase change c p =. 2 cont c p 1 = cont. Figure 4: Temperature vs. Heat for metals Heat 2. Volume vs. Temperature Diagram for a simple metal. Volume Phase change T Temperature melt Figure 5: Volume vs. Temperature for metals d) Process Classification (see paper by David Hardt) Process Type Energy Source Serial or Parallel (a) extrusion deformation mechanical serial (b) sintering addition thermal parallel (c) stereo lithography addition chemical serial (d) swaging deformation mechanical parallel (e) arc welding solidification electrical serial (f) die casting solidification thermal parallel 5

6 (g) forging deformation mechanical parallel (h) thermoforming deformation thermal/mech. parallel (i) injection molding solidification thermal parallel (j) reaming removal mechanical serial e) Energy Calculation Order of magnitude estimates of the energy per unit volume required to remove material: 1. Plastic deformation (e.g., turning, but ignoring friction): Assuming pure, constant shear, plastic deformation requires plastic work on the order of τ γ dvol Y. At yielding, τ and γ can be of order 3 to 6 for turning. Hence, a rough 2 estimate (using the larger value) of the work per unit volume in machining is (Y/2)*6 = 3Y, which, it turns out, is approximately equal to the material hardness expressed in the units of stress. This derivation is reviewed later when we discuss machining (see slide from Machining lecture reproduced below). In order to get specific energy in terms of J/mm 3, we need to express Pascals with Joules: 1 Pa = N/m 2 = N m/(m 2 m) = J/m 3. Approximating the specific energy with u s 3Y and using the yield strengths given in the table with material properties, the estimates are: Steel: u s 3(2000 MPa) = 6000 MPa = J/m 3 = 6 J/mm 3 Aluminum: u s 3(330 MPa) = 990 MPa = J/m 3 = 1 J/mm 3 6

7 MIT Fall Local melting: Performing an energy balance on a unit volume: ๐ข = ๐๐ถ ๐๐ + ๐ ๐ป where ๐๐ถ ๐๐ = energy required to raise the temperature from T0 to Tmelt, ΔHm = energy required for phase change (i.e., latent heat of melting). If C constant with temperature, this can be simplified to: ๐ข = ๐ ๐ถ ๐ ๐ + ๐ป Using the values given in the table, the estimates for specific energy due to melting are: Steel: ๐ข = 8000 " 500 Aluminum: ๐ข = 2700 " 900 ". " ๐พ + 270, ๐พ + 400,000 " " = = = 8.1 = Local vaporization: Same as in (b), but with an additional temperature rise from Tmelt to Tvap and an additional change of phase (vaporization): ๐ข = ๐๐ถ ๐๐ + ๐ ๐ป + ๐๐ถ ๐๐ + ๐ ๐ป For simplicity, we assume Csolid = Cliquid = constant and ๐solid = ๐liquid = constant (in order to do an order of magnitude calculation). Then, ๐ข = ๐ ๐ถ ๐ ๐ + ๐ถ ๐ ๐ + ๐ป + ๐ป = ๐ ๐ถ ๐ ๐ + ๐ป + ๐ป Using the values given in the table, the estimates for specific energy due to vaporization are: Steel: ๐๐ ๐ข = 8000 ๐3 500 ๐๐.๐พ ๐พ + 270,000 ๐๐ + 6,259,000 ๐๐ = ๐3 = 63.6 ๐๐3 Aluminum: ๐๐ ๐ข = 2700 ๐3 900 ๐๐.๐พ ๐พ + 400,000 ๐๐ + 10,900,000 ๐๐ = ๐3 = 36.5 ๐๐3 7

8 In summary, the following order of magnitude estimates were obtained for the specific energy of the three processes: Material Specific Energy (J/mm 3 ) Plastic deformation Melting u s u m Vaporization u v Steel Aluminum As expected, the vaporization processes u v are much more energy intensive compared to shearing (plastic work) u s and melting u m. Order of magnitude estimates of the energy cost per unit weight: The energy cost per unit weight can be found using the relation: specific energy C e = density Cost of energy Given that the cost of energy is \$0.10/kWh, and converting from kwh to Joules (1 kwh = 1000 W*h = 1000 W * 3600 s = 1000 J/s * 3600 s = 3,600,000 J = 3.6*10 6 J), we can calculate C e for plastic deformation of aluminum (u s = J/m 3 ): C = 1 10 J m 2700 kg \$ 0.10 kwh 1 kwh J m = \$ kg 1 kg 2.2 lb = \$ lb Repeating this calculation for all the other specific energy values, we get: Energy Cost per Unit Weight (\$/lb) Material Plastic deformation Melting Vaporization Steel Aluminum The costs of mild steel and aluminum are \$0.36/lb and \$2.27/lb, respectively. Note that in all three categories, the material costs far outweigh the energy costs of each of the processes. Comment: Specific energy calculations: The assumption of a constant specific heat, C, is dependent on the material under consideration. For our order of magnitude estimates with steel and aluminum, a constant C should be a reasonable approximation. The values of C for steel used in these calculations varied from kj/kg-k to kj/kg-k (i.e., less than 20% of the mean value) over the range of temperatures from T o to T m. In contrast, equivalent typical data for a ceramic material may vary by 80%. 8

9 Problem 3. Basic Understanding of Time, Rate, Cost, Quality and Flexibility a) Serial vs. Parallel Processes With Little s Law: L = λw; process rate: λ, time in system: W Serial process: W = 2t; L = 2 => λ = 1/t Parallel process: W = t; L = 2 => λ = 2/t b) Parallel Process w/n Die Cavities W = t; L = n => λ = n/t c) Little s law suggests that to increase λ f we can a) decrease the lead time W f by making operations more efficient, or b) increase the inventory L f e.g. by adding multiple identical production units, each with W = W f. d) Takt Time Calculation Def: Takt Time = Avail. Time / Required Units Takt Time = (3 months * 22 days * 8 hrs./day * 60min/hr.)/5000 units Takt Time = 6.4 units / minute e) Little s Law: fluid flow analogy For example: average mass flow through a system = volume of the system residence time in the system. f) Unsteady conditions lead to an accumulation or depletion of units in the system. g) Costs Total costs: C = F + V * N Here: C steel = (\$1E6/N) + (2 * \$25/hr. * 1/360 hrs.) + (\$0.35/lb. * 7lbs.) C comp. = (\$0.5E6/N) + (1 * \$25/hr. * 1/60 hrs.) + (\$1/lb. * 7 lbs.) For N = 50,000, we get, C steel = \$22.58, C comp. = \$ And, for N = 300,000, we get, C steel = \$5.92, C comp. = \$9.08. Thus, we see that for larger volumes, stamped steel is the more economical choice. h) Quality Assurance Calculation: Part 1 9

10 For a centered specification band Cp is defined as: Cp = (USL LSL) / 6σ. Hence for Cp = 0.5, we get, USL - LSL = 3σ. For a mean-centered process, USL µ = µ LSL. Therefore, we get, USL µ = µ LSL = 1.5σ. The process is depicted in Figure 6. To determine the percentage of parts out-of-spec, we convert this process into a standard normal curve (i.e., a normal curve with µ = 0 and σ = 1) by defining a variable z as z = (x µ)/σ. Thus, for the LSL and USL, we get, z LSL = (µ - 1.5σ µ)/σ = -1.5, z USL = (µ + 1.5σ µ)/σ = 1.5. Figure 6: A mean-centered process with specification limits at ±1.5σ The standard normal curve is shown in Figure 7 below. 10

11 Figure 7: Standard normal curve The curve extends from - to. The area under the curve from - to a certain z is the cumulative distribution function of Z, written as Φ(z). It is the probability that the random variable Z takes on a value less than or equal to z. The area under the curve is equal to one, since it is a probability of a dimension having a certain value. Because of the symmetry of the standard normal curve, Φ(-z) = 1- Φ(z). That is, the shaded areas are equal. The probability of parts being in the interval [-1.5, 1.5] is P [-z, +z] = 2 * Φ (z) 1 For parts which are out of spec: P out [-z, +z] = 1 P [-z, +z] = 2 2 * Φ(z) Hence for P outcp0.5 = 2 2 * = 13.36%, P outcp0.9 = 2 2 * = 0.7%. i) Quality Assurance Calculation: Part 2 For non-centered specific bands Cpk is defined as: Cpk = min (USL σ, σ LSL) / 3 σ. Hence, Cpk = 1/3 The lower spec limit is at 1σ from the mean and the USL is at 3σ from the mean. For a normal distribution, the area beyond the 3σ from the mean is negligible. In order to obtain the desired value we need to find Φ(1). => P OUT = 1 - Φ(Z) = 15.9%. The selection of Cp does not make any sense since the process is not mean-centered. Cp would give an inflated value of percentage of parts in spec. Cp represents the potential 11

12 process capability that could be achieved if the process was mean-centered. The term Cpk represents the actual process capability. Note: the standard normal curve areas given in the table are for the area Φ. The cumulative area Φ = Φ j) Machining Costs Cost 1 = C su + N * V + (N * T *I)/2 Cost 2 = 2 * C su + 2 * (N * V)/2 + 2 * ((N/2 * T/2 * I) / 2) = 2 * C su + N * V + (N * T * I) / 4 In general, where n = number of batches, Cost n = n C su + N * V + (N * T * I) / 2n Find minimum: dc n/dn = C su - (N * T * I) / 2n 2 = 0 n = square root (N * T * I) / 2 C su ) and with batch size B = N/n => B best = square root ((2 * C su * N) / (T * I) Problem 4. Process Control a) Control Regimes as defined by David Hardt: Regime 1 Sensitivity and Parameter Optimization: minimize Y / Δα Regime 2 Minimum of Disturbances: minimize Δα Regime 3 Feedback Control of Processes b) Classification of Control Events 1) inspection of incoming material Regime 2 2) monitoring for tool breakage Regime 2 3) controlling the ambient temperature in the machine shop Regime 2 4) warranty repair Regime 2 5) poke-yoke inspection Regime 2 6) SPC Regime 2 7) process simulation Regime 1 8) design of experiments parameter optimization Regime 1 12

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